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About SUN TZU and the ART OF WAR

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About SUN TZU
Sun Tzu (Chinese: 孫子; pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) ("Master Sun") is an honorific title bestowed upon Sūn Wǔ (孫武; c. 544—496 BC), the author of The Art of War, an immensely influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy. He is also one of the earliest realists in international relations theory.
In the author's name, Sūn Wǔ, the character wu, meaning "military", is the same as the character in wu shu, or martial art. Sun Wu also has a courtesy name, Chang Qing (長卿; Cháng Qīng)
Sun Wu's father, was a famous militarist, which gave him a predominant circumstance to read and study military works. Finally, he finished his greatest works " Sun Tzu Art of War" which influenced thousands of years. Today it was also widely used all kinds of aspects such as business, economy, military affairs.
 

The story of Sun Tzu
Sun Tzu Wu was a native of the Ch`i State. His ART OF WAR brought him to the notice of Ho Lu, [2] King of Wu. Ho Lu said to him: "I have carefully perused your 13 chapters. May I submit your theory of managing soldiers to a slight test?"
Sun Tzu replied: "You may."
Ho Lu asked: "May the test be applied to women?"
The answer was again in the affirmative, so arrangements were made to bring 180 ladies out of the Palace. Sun Tzu divided them into two companies, and placed one of the King's favorite concubines at the head of each. He then bade them all take spears in their hands, and addressed them thus: "I presume you know the difference between front and back, right hand and left hand?"
The girls replied: Yes.
Sun Tzu went on: "When I say "Eyes front," you must look straight ahead. When I say "Left turn," you must face towards your left hand. When I say "Right turn," you must face towards your right hand. When I say "About turn," you must face right round towards your back."
Again the girls assented. The words of command having been thus explained, he set up the halberds and battle-axes in order to begin the drill. Then, to the sound of drums, he gave the order "Right turn." But the girls only burst out laughing. Sun Tzu said: "If words of command are not clear and distinct, if orders are not thoroughly understood, then the general is to blame."
So he started drilling them again, and this time gave the order "Left turn," whereupon the girls once more burst into fits of laughter. Sun Tzu: "If words of command are not clear and distinct, if orders are not thoroughly understood, the general is to blame. But if his orders ARE clear, and the soldiers nevertheless disobey, then it is the fault of their officers."
So saying, he ordered the leaders of the two companies to be beheaded. Now the king of Wu was watching the scene from the top of a raised pavilion; and when he saw that his favorite concubines were about to be executed, he was greatly alarmed and hurriedly sent down the following message: "We are now quite satisfied as to our general's ability to handle troops. If We are bereft of these two concubines, our meat and drink will lose their savor. It is our wish that they shall not be beheaded."
Sun Tzu replied: "Having once received His Majesty's commission to be the general of his forces, there are certain commands of His Majesty which, acting in that capacity, I am unable to accept."
Accordingly, he had the two leaders beheaded, and straightway installed the pair next in order as leaders in their place. When this had been done, the drum was sounded for the drill once more; and the girls went through all the evolutions, turning to the right or to the left, marching ahead or wheeling back, kneeling or standing, with perfect accuracy and precision, not venturing to utter a sound. Then Sun Tzu sent a messenger to the King saying: "Your soldiers, Sire, are now properly drilled and disciplined, and ready for your majesty's inspection. They can be put to any use that their sovereign may desire; bid them go through fire and water, and they will not disobey."
But the King replied: "Let our general cease drilling and return to camp. As for us, We have no wish to come down and inspect the troops."
Thereupon Sun Tzu said: "The King is only fond of words, and cannot translate them into deeds." After that, Ho Lu saw that Sun Tzu was one who knew how to handle an army, and finally appointed him general. In the west, he defeated the Ch`u State and forced his way into Ying, the capital; to the north he put fear into the States of Ch`i and Chin, and spread his fame abroad amongst the feudal princes. And Sun Tzu shared in the might of the King.
About ART OF WAR
Sun Tzu’s Art of War is a masterpiece that profoundly reveals the Chinese ancient civilization of war. Composed of 13 chapters, each of which is devoted to one aspect of warfare, it has long been praised as the definitive work on military strategies and tactics of its time.Air and space military theory, is a  doctrine that reveals the space military struggle rules. China's space military theory is produced in a strong atmosphere of Chinese traditional culture, which the impact of Sun Tzu’s Art of War is obvious. Sun Tzu’s view of war, such as“ war is a matter of vital importance to the state”, “the highest reaches of heaven”, “the depth of the earth”, “dominating the enemy instead of being dominated by them” have important and direct influences on the military theory of China’s Air Force, especially in the China’s military doctrine such as integration of air and space battlefield, domination of air and space. At present, the role of Sun Tzu’s thought of “war is a matter of vital importance to the state” is more highlighted. Undoubtedly, it has a practical significance for the development of our air and space military theory and practice while we are implementing the new concept of military forces mission and scientific development. 

The 13 Chapters
The Art of War is divided into 13 chapters (or P'ien), and the collection is referred to as being one Ch'üan ("whole" or alternatively "chronicle"). As different translations have used differing titles for each chapter, a selection appears below. Lionel Giles' 1910 translation is considered the standard reference, but the other titles are, given the nature of translation, equally valid.

Lionel Giles (1910)
• I. Laying Plans
• II. Waging War
• III. Attack by Stratagem
• IV. Tactical Dispositions
• V. Energy
• VI. Weak Points and Strong
• VII. Manoeuvring
• VIII. Variation of Tactics
• IX. The Army on the March
• X. Terrain
• XI. The Nine Situations
• XII. The Attack by Fire
• XIII. The Use of Spies    Chow-Hou Wee (2003)
• I. Detail Assessment and Planning (Chinese: 始計,始计)
• II. Waging War (Chinese: 作戰,作战)
• III. Strategic Attack (Chinese: 謀攻,谋攻)
• IV. Disposition of the Army (Chinese: 軍行,军行)
• V. Forces (Chinese: 兵勢,兵势)
• VI. Weaknesses and Strengths (Chinese: 虛實,虚实)
• VII. Military Maneuvers (Chinese: 軍爭,军争)
• VIII. Variations and Adaptability (Chinese: 九變,九变)
• IX. Movement and Development of Troops (Chinese: 行軍,行军)
• X. Terrain (Chinese: 地形)
• XI. The Nine Battlegrounds (Chinese: 九地)
• XII. Attacking with Fire (Chinese: 火攻)
• XIII. Intelligence and Espionage (Chinese: 用間,用间)    R.L. Wing (1988)
• I. The Calculations
• II. The Challenge
• III. The Plan of Attack
• IV. Positioning
• V. Directing
• VI. Illusion and Reality
• VII. Engaging The Force
• VIII. The Nine Variations
• IX. Moving The Force
• X. Situational Positioning
• XI. The Nine Situations
• XII. The Fiery Attack
• XIII. The Use of Intelligence
Chapter Summary
1. Laying Plans OCS explores the five key elements that define competitive position (mission, climate, ground, leadership, and methods) and how to evaluate your competitive strengths against your competition.
2. Waging War explains how to understand the economic nature of competition and how success requires making the winning play, which in turn, requires limiting the cost of competition and conflict.
3. Attack by Stratagem defines the source of strength as unity, not size, and the five ingredients that you need to succeed in any competitive situation.
4. Tactical Dispositions explains the importance of defending existing positions until you can advance them and how you must recognize opportunities, not try to create them.
5. Energy explains the use of creativity and timing in building your competitive momentum.
6. Weak Points & Strong explains how your opportunities come from the openings in the environment caused by the relative weakness of your competitors in a given area.
7. Maneuvering explains the dangers of direct conflict and how to win those confrontations when they are forced upon you.
8. Variation in Tactics focuses on the need for flexibility in your responses. It explains how to respond to shifting circumstances successfully.
9. The Army on the March describes the different situations in which you find yourselves as you move into new competitive arenas and how to respond to them. Much of it focuses on evaluating the intentions of others.
10. Terrain looks at the three general areas of resistance (distance, dangers, and barriers) and the six types of ground positions that arise from them. Each of these six field positions offer certain advantages and disadvantages.
11. The Nine Situations describe nine common situations (or stages) in a competitive campaign, from scattering to deadly, and the specific focus you need to successfully navigate each of them.
12. The Attack by Fire explains the use of weapons generally and the use of the environment as a weapon specifically. It examines the five targets for attack, the five types of environmental attack, and the appropriate responses to such attack.
13. The Use of Spies focuses on the importance of developing good information sources, specifically the five types of sources and how to manage them
Annotations
Before the bamboo scroll version was discovered by archaeologists in April 1972, the most cited version of The Art of War was the Annotation of Sun Tzu's Strategies by Cao Cao, the founder of the Kingdom of Wei. In the preface, he wrote that previous annotations were not focused on the essential ideas. Other annotations cited in official history books include Shen You (176-204)'s Sun Tzu's Military Strategy, Jia Xu's Copy of Sun Tzu's Military Strategy, Cao Cao and Wang Ling's Sun Tzu's Military Strategy.
The Book of Sui documented seven books named after Sun Tzu. An annotation by Du Mu also includes Cao Cao's annotation. Li Jing's The Art of War is said to be a revision of Sun Tzu's strategies. Annotations by Cao Cao, Du Mu and Li Quan were translated into the Tangut language before 1040 AD.
After the movable type printer was invented, The Art of War (with Cao Cao's annotations) was published as a military text book, known as Seven Military Classics with six other strategy books. A book named Ten Schools of The Art of War Annotations was published before 1161 AD.[citation needed]
As a required reading military textbook since the Song Dynasty, Seven Military Classics (武經七書,武经七书) has many annotations. More than 30 differently annotated versions of this book exist today.
Vernacular Chinese became increasingly popular in the late 1920s. Annotations in Vernacular Chinese began to appear after this time. Some of these works were translated from other languages, such as Japanese.[citation needed]
The two most common traditional Chinese versions of the Art of War, (the Complete Specialist Focus and Military Bible versions) were the sources for early translation into English and other languages. It was not until the 1970s that these works were compiled with more recent archeological discoveries into a single more complete version in Taipei. The resulting work is known as the Complete Version of Sun Tzu's Art of War for the National Defense Research Investigation Office has been the source for more recent and complete translations.

 
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