Best jewellery guide jewelry key words encyclopedia F-O

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Faience: Glazed earthenware, also used for marking beads, scarabs, etc. from the egyptian period onwards

Fancy-Coloured: Any colour in a stone other than its expected normal colour e.g sapphires other than blue dia's other than white

Fancy-cuts: Any cut of a stone other than the normal expected cut

Fede: Ring formed with two clasped hands: probably a betrothal ring since roman times when this symbol represented a contract

Feldspar: Gem family, best know in jewellery as moonstones, sunstones, labrodite and amazonite

Filigree: Metal work formed of fine wires twisted in ornate patterns

Flat-Cut: Form of cutting a tablet of stone with a large flat top surface

Florentine Work: Form of inlay in jewellery using sections of differently coloured hardstone and ivory to creat designs

Foiling: Jewellery which is set with stones in 'cups' of metal so that the reverse of the stone is not visible

Fossilised: Objects which have been turned to stone, sometimes used in jewellery e.g petrified wood

French Jet: Black glass jewellery imitating jet

Gallery:  Strip of pierced metal used to make setting for rings

Girandole: A popular 18th century design of jewellery with swinging pear-shaped drops on pendants, brooches and earrings

Girdle: Widest part of cut stone, between the crown and the pavilion, usually partly hidden when the stone is set

Goldstone: Gold-spangled glass imitatind adventurine quartz

Grisaille: See Limoges Enamel

Grossular Garnet: Type of garnet, the green variety of which is used to simulate jade know as 'Transvaal jade'

Gutta Percha: Glutinous resin from trees, used by indian craftsmen in the manufacture of jewellery

Gypsy-set: Stones set deeply into the metal mount

Halley's Comet: Comet which appears every 76 years, named after Halley in 1759 following its appearance in 1758. It was recorded in 1834, 1910 and 1986 and jewellery in the form of a comet was made, particularly in 1834, in commemoration

Hardness: Hardness in gemstones is defined by a scale know as Mohs scale, calculated in 1822 by Friedrich Mohs. He chose ten representative stones and minerals to form the scale, beginning with the hardest substance 10. Diamond 9. Corundum 8. Topaz 7.Quartz 6. Feldspar 5. Apatite 4. Flourspar 3.Calcite 2. Gypsum 1. Talc

Hardstone: Normally applied to decorative opaque stones used for inlay work or cameos, e.g lapis lazuli, agates, jades

Heat Treatment: Some stones when heated change colouror deepen heir existing colour which makes them more attractive, and more saleable

Heliodor: Golden-coloured beryl

Holbeinesque: 19th century jewellery in the renaissance style, after helbein

Imitation: One material imitating another of a differnt substance

Imperial Jade: Highly prized jadeite of translucent green

Inclusions: Faults in the natural crystal which may take the form of gas bubbles, liquid filled cavities or small crystals, which help to idetify the type and source of stone

Intaglio: Cutting into stone the reverse of cameo cutting

Iridescence: Shimmering effect of rainbow-like colours which change with light: opals, labradorite, butterflies' wings and oil all show iridescence

Ivorine: Plastic or bakelite simulating ivory

Jacinths: Yellow red and orange zircons, sometimes also called hyacinths

Jadeite: Greenish opaque stone varying from a brilliant translucent green to white, usually know as 'jade' and confused with nephrite, which is generally less valuable and varies in colour

Jardiniere: In the form of a floral arrangement (from the italian word giardinetoo - little garden)

Jargoon: Name for white sapphires and white zircons in indian jewellery, a term sometimes incorrectly applied to rose cut diamonds

Jasper: A form of agate. an opaque rusty red colour

Labradorite: Type of feldspar first found in Labrador, exhibiting bluis-green iridescence on a grey background popular in art nouveau jewellery

Lava: Light porous volcanic material carved and set in 19th century jewellery

Lignum Vitae: A particularly hard wood

Limonges Enamel: enamels painted in grisaille (baqlck white and greyish tints)

Mabe Pearls: The cultured pearl version of blister pearls. The hollow semi-circular pearl is filled with wax and backed with mother-of-pearl. Mabe means half in japanese

Madeira Citrine: Deep brownish-orange citrine

Matrix: Parent rock in which the gemstone is found, occasionally incorporated in pieces of jewellery

Memento Mori: Literally 'memory of the dead' applied to medieval and renaissance memorial jewellery

Metamorphosis: The changing of one substance into another, associated wih volcanic activity on pre-existing rocks or materials

Milled: Type of setting popular in Edwardian jewellery also known as millegrain

Millegrain: Form of setting where detailed edging is applied

Mixed-cut: Brilliant-cut crown and step-cut pavilion of a stone, commonly used for semi-precious coloured stones

Morganite: Pink coloured beryl

Mutton-fat jade: Whitish coloured nephrite

Nacre: The fine surface layers of a pearl, or mother-of-pearl the inside layer of the shell

Native-cut: Stones cut at source, particularly in india and sri lanka

Nephrite: Opaque stone varying from dark green to white to brown, sometimes confused with jadeite as both are termed jade

Niello: Engraved design filled with black metal alloy

Non-nucleated:  Freshwater cultured pearls which apparently have no core, the small piece of mantle originally inserted to star the nacreous process having dissolved before the pearl is formed completely

Old-cut: Diamond cut with a higher crown, a smaller table and a bigger culet than the modern brilliant cut

Olivine: Mineral: Mineral name for peridot

Onyx: Brown and black chalcedony (agate)

Opalescence:  Flashes of rainbow colours seen against the milky white background of opals

Opaque: Impervious to light

Open-Backed: Form of setting jewellery where the stones can be seen from the reverse

Open-work: Form of setting jewellery where the stones are set in an open design determined by the metal: the opposite to pave setting.

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