GNU Public Licence

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The GNU Public Licence is a licence agreement fo what is termed as FREE SOFTWARE.
This software is produced under the GNU agreement which the software must conform to.
A copy of the agreement is listed below.
The main points are that:

1.     The software "source code" must be made available, not only to read but also to change.
2.     The software must be free.
3.     The software comes with no warranty.

Sale of the software media is acceptable, but only to vover the costs incurred in producing and delivering that media. For instance most distributers of Linux Operating systems charge around £14.00 to £20.00 to produce and distribute Dvd copies of the Linux system.

Here is a copy of the full GNU licence agreement.
Appendix F. GNU General Public License
Version 2, June 1991
Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
F.1. Preamble

The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to share and change it. By
contrast, the gnu General Public License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change
free software—to make sure the software is free for all its users. This General Public License applies
to most of the Free Software Foundation’s software and to any other program whose authors commit
to using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by the gnu Library General
Public License instead.) You can apply it to your programs, too.

When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price.
Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to deny you these rights or to
ask you to surrender the rights. These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or for a fee, you must give the
recipients all the rights that you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source
code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

We protect your rights with two steps:
(1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy, distribute and/or modify the software.

Also, for each author’s protection and ours, we want to make certain that everyone understands that
there is no warranty for this free software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on,
we want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so that any problems introduced
by others will not reflect on the original authors’ reputations.

Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents. We wish to avoid the danger
that redistributors of a free program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent must be licensed for
everyone’s free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and modification follow.

F.2. GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
128
Appendix F. GNU General Public License
0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice placed by the copyright
holder saying it may be distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program" means either the Program
or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion
of it, either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another language. (Hereinafter,
translation is included without limitation in the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as
"you".

Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not covered by this License; they are
outside its scope. The act of running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the Program (independent of having been
made by running the Program). Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program’s source code as you receive it, in
any medium, provided that you conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this License and
to the absence of any warranty; and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.
You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you may at your option offer
warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of it, thus forming a work
based on the Program, and copy and distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section
1 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
a. You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that you changed the files
and the date of any change.
b. You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in whole or in part contains or is
derived from the Program or any part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
parties under the terms of this License.
c. If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when run, you must cause it,
when started running for such interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice that there is no warranty
(or else, saying that you provide a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this License. (Exception: if the
Program itself is interactive but does not normally print such an announcement, your work based
on the Program is not required to print an announcement.)

These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If identifiable sections of that work are
not derived from the Program, and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those sections when you distribute them
as separate works. But when you distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of this License, whose permissions
for other licensees extend to the entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote
it.

Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest your rights to work written entirely
by you; rather, the intent is to exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or collective
works based on the Program.

In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program with the Program (or with a
work based on the Program) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other
work under the scope of this License.
129
Appendix F. GNU General Public License

3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it, under Section 2) in object code
or executable form under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the
following:
a. Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable source code, which must be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software
interchange; or,
b. Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three years, to give any third party, for a
charge no more than your cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete machinereadable
copy of the corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of Sections 1
and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
c. Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer to distribute corresponding source
code. (This alternative is allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you received
the program in object code or executable form with such an offer, in accord with Subsection b
above.)
The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making modifications to it. For
an executable work, complete source code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus
any associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to control compilation and installation of
the executable. However, as a special exception, the source code distributed need not include anything
that is normally distributed (in either source or binary form) with the major components (compiler,
kernel, and so on) of the operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component itself
accompanies the executable.
If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering access to copy from a designated place,
then offering equivalent access to copy the source code from the same place counts as distribution of
the source code, even though third parties are not compelled to copy the source along with the object
code.

4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program except as expressly provided
under this License. Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License. However, parties who have
received copies, or rights, from you under this License will not have their licenses terminated so long
as such parties remain in full compliance.

5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not signed it. However, nothing else
grants you permission to modify or distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions
are prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by modifying or distributing the
Program (or any work based on the Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so,
and all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying the Program or works based on
it.

6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the Program), the recipient automatically
receives a license from the original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject
to these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the recipients’ exercise
of the rights granted herein. You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to this
License.

7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent infringement or for any other reason
(not limited to patent issues), conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not excuse you from the conditions
of this License. If you cannot distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may not distribute the Program
at all. For example, if a patent license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
130

Appendix F. GNU General Public License
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then the only way you could satisfy
both it and this License would be to refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under any particular circumstance, the
balance of the section is intended to apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.

It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any patents or other property right claims
or to contest validity of any such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the integrity of
the free software distribution system, which is implemented by public license practices. Many people
have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in
reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is
willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to be a consequence of the rest of
this License.

8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in certain countries either by patents or by
copyrighted interfaces, the original copyright holder who places the Program under this License may
add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding those countries, so that distribution is
permitted only in or among countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates the
limitation as if written in the body of this License.

9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of the General Public
License from time to time. Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
differ in detail to address new problems or concerns. Each version is given a distinguishing version
number. If the Program specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any later
version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions either of that version or of any
later version published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version
number of this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free programs whose distribution conditions
are different, write to the author to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by
the Free Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes make exceptions
for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals of preserving the free status of all derivatives of
our free software and of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

NO WARRANTY
11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO
WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE
LAW. EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS
AND/OR OTHER PARTIES PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE
PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME
THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAWOR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL AND COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
ARISING OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING
BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR
LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO
131

Appendix F. GNU General Public License
OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY
HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

F.3. How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest possible use to the public, the
best way to achieve this is to make it free software which everyone can redistribute and change under
these terms.
To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to attach them to the start of each
source file to most effectively convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
"copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
one line to give the program’s name and a brief idea of what it does.
Copyright (C) year name of author

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this when it starts in an interactive
mode:

Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
Gnomovision comes with absolutely no warranty; for details
type ‘show w’. This is free software, and you are welcome
to redistribute it under certain conditions; type ‘show c’
for details.

The hypothetical commands ‘show w’ and ‘show c’ should show the appropriate parts of the General
Public License. Of course, the commands you use may be called something other than ‘show w’ and
‘show c’; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items— whatever suits your program.
You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your school, if any, to sign a
"copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the
program ‘Gnomovision’ (which makes passes at compilers) written
by James Hacker.
132

Appendix F. GNU General Public License
signature of Ty Coon, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice

This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into proprietary programs.
If your program is a subroutine library, you may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary
applications with the library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General Public
License instead of this License.

This article is to help you clear up any doubts you may have about selling free software.
Ken at Bitsinabox
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