CARBOHYDRATES.Daily Goal Should Contribute 55 to 60% of total calories.
Carbohydrates are the primary energy source that fuels the body. There are two categories of carbohydrates.-SIMPLE and COMPLEX.
SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES are sugars that provide the body with energy(calories) but little nutrition.White and brown sugar, honey, sugar found in in fruit, and high fructose corn syrup(widely used as a sweetener) are some examples. Simple sugars should be limited because they increase the risk of developing dental problems, type 2 diabetes, and obesity.
COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES are the body's primary source of energy.They are also packed with a rich variety of vitamins, minerals,fibers, and phytochemicals(plant nutrients). Fruits;vegetables; whole grain; bread, cereals; and pasta; dried beans; nuts; and seeds are excellent examples of complex carbohydrates.
PROTEIN.Protein Intakes Should Be 15 to 20 % of total calories.Protein is the basic structural material of all cells. In the body , biologically active proteins include enzymes, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Twenty AMINO ACIDS,the building blocks of dietary protein, are found in both plant and animal foods.. Nine of these amino acids are considered "essential" because they cannot be made in the body and must be acquired from food.
Eating a combination of heart -healthy plant protein sources such as nuts, legumes, and whole grains can meet the body's requirerment for essential amino acids. Meat, poultry and dairy products are also complete protein sources,but many animal protein foods are rich in saturated fat and dietary cholesterol, which can negatively impact heart health. These substances may also tax the kidneys by promoting kidney stones to form and increasing urinary calcium losses, a risk factor for osteoporosis.
FIBER.Fiber intake should be 25 to 30 grams per day.
Fiber key health benefit of a diet rich in whole grains,fruits,vegetables, legumes, nuts and seeds. A high fiber diet is associated with reduced cancer, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and obesity.
SOLUBLE FIBER helps lower blood cholesterol and glucose(sugar) levels. Fiber is categorized by its solubility ability to dissolve in water. Food sources rich in soluble fiber include oatmeal, barley, pectin-rich fruit(apples, pears, plums, strawberries), dried beans, and some vegetables(artichokes, peas, carrots, and brussel sprouts).
INSOLUBLE FIBER is a component of plant foods that cannot be broken down by the digestive system. Whole grain cereal, bread, rice, and pasta are the best sources of insoluble fiber in the diet. These foods may help in weight loss because it creates a feeling of fullness for long periods of time, which may make overeating less likely
DIETARY FATS.Dietary fat should contribute 25 to 35% of total caloric intake.(BUT with no more than 10% of these calories from saturated fat.
Monounsaturated fat:- Lowers LDL.raises HDL, decreases risk of heart disease. Sources:Peanuts, nuts,olives, olive oil, canola oil, avocados.
Polyunsaturated fat:-Lowers LDL,may decrease risk of heart disease. Sources: Corn soybean,safflower, and cottonseed oils.
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fat:-Lowers LDL and triglycerides, reduces the risk of blood clotting, lowers blood pressure.Sources;Salmon, mackerel, flaxseed, canola oil, walnuts.
Saturated Fat:Raises LDL, increases risk of heart disease. Sources:Red meat, sausages, processed meats, cheese, whole milk, ice cream, baked goods, chocolate candy.
Trans Fat; Raises LDL, lowers HDL, increases risk of heart disease. Sources:Fried chicken, french fries, doughnuts, and other deep-fried food; movie popcorn; partially hydrogenated stick margarine; shortenings; some commercial baked goods.