# = PRECIOUS METAL WEIGHT TABLES =

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An explanation of weight measures and their history and weight conversion tables.

# Weight Table

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1 oz avoirdupois =            437.500 grains
(Imperial)                 28.3495 grams
0.91146 ounces troy
0.06250 pounds avoirdupois
0.02835 kilograms

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1 pound avoirdupois =       453.592 grams
(Imperial)            16 ounces avoirdupois
14.5833 ounces troy
0.4536 kilograms
1.21528 pounds troy

1 oz troy =                       480 grains
31.1035 grams
1.0971 ounces avoirdupois
20 pennyweights
0.08333 pounds troy
0.06857 pounds avoirdupois

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1 pound troy =                  373.242 grams
5760 grains
12 ounces troy
0.37324 kilograms
0.82286 pounds avoirdupois

1 milligram =                     0.1 centigrams
0.01543 grains
0.001 grams

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1 gram =                          1000 milligrams
0.001 kilograms
15.4324 grains
0.03527 ounces avoirdupois
0.03215 ounces troy

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1 kilogram =                      1000 grams
35.27 ounces avoirdupois
32.15 ounces troy
2.2046 pounds avoirdupois
2.6792 pounds troy

# Gram

A gram or gramme is a standard metric unit of weight. There are 1000 grams per kilogram.
In 1960, the ISO confirmed the IS unit system which was based upon the existing MKS (Metres, Kilograms, and Seconds) system.
The kilogram was defined as the weight of the International Prototype made of platinum and iridium which is held at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in Sèvres France.

# Grain

An ancient unit, which was originally based on the weight of a grain of wheat. The grain is the smallest unit of weight in the avoirdupois, troy, and apothecaries systems. Surprisingly it is identical in all three systems.

4 grains = 1 carat
24 grains =1 pennyweight
480 grains = 1 troy ounce
5760 grains = 1 troy pound
437.5 grains = 1 ounce avoirdupois
7000 grains = 1 pound avoirdupois
1 grain = 0.0648 grams (0.06479891)
15.432 grains = 1 gram

Although I have stated above that the grain weighted the same in both of the above systems, there were at least two different grains. The troy system used the supposed weight of the barley grain, whereas the wheat grain was also used as a standard of weight. There were three barley grains to four wheat grains.

# Momme

A unit of weight previously used in Japan to weigh pearls.

75 grains = momme
18.75 carats = 1 momme
3.75 grams = 1 momme

# Dram or Drachm

An ancient unit of weight, also a Greek coin. It is believed to have originally meant the amount, which one could hold in one's hand.

16 drams = 1 ounce avoirdupois
8 drams = 1 ounce apothecaries
1 dram (avoirdupois) = 27.34375 grains
1 dram (avoirdupois)= 1.772 grams
1 dram (apothecaries) = 60 grains
Therefore:-
1 dram apothecaries = 2.194286 drams avoirdupois

# Imperial System

A British system developed and refined from the earlier Roman systems used in Britain during the middle ages.
In 1824 the troy pound was defined or confirmed.
In 1863 the Imperial or avoirdupois pound was redefined as 0.45359237 kilograms.

20 cwt avoirdupois = 1 ton avoirdupois
8 stones avoirdupois = 1 hundredweight (cwt)
14 pounds avoirdupois = 1 stone avoirdupois
16 ounces avoirdupois = 1 pound avoirdupois
1 ounce avoirdupois = 28.349523 grams approx
1 pound avoirdupois = 453.59237 grams
1 ton avoirdupois = 2240 pounds avoirdupois

# Troy

A system historically used for measuring the weight of drugs, precious metals and gemstones. The name comes from the French city of Troyes.

480 grains = 1 ounce troy
31.1035 grams = 1 ounce troy
12 troy ounces = 1 troy pound
20 pennyweights (dwt) = 1 ounce troy
1 pound = 373.242 grams
1 pound = 5760 grains

# Pennyweight

The pennyweight was the weight of a silver penny in medieval England. When pennies were introduced in England in the 8th century, their original weight is believed to have been 24 grains. This was gradually reduced, in at least thirteen stages until it reached 7.27 grains by 1816.

24 grains = 1 pennyweight
20 pennyweights = 1 ounce troy
240 pennyweights = 1 pound troy

It is no coincidence that there were 240 pennies to the English pound , and 240 silver pennies were equivalent to a pound of silver, or that the word sterling applies both to the English pound and to a standard purity of silver.

# Tolas

The tola is an old Indian unit of weight. It was the equivalent of the silver rupee issued by the British East India Company, at 180 grains, which equate to 11.6638038 grams, so:-

180 grains = 1 tola
11.66 grams = 1 tola
0.375 troy ounces = 1 tola

# Tower Pound

The tower pound was also used for weighing coins, and possibly precious metals, until 1527. The tower pound weighed 5400 grains, equal to 225 pennyweights, making 11.25 troy ounces per tower pound. One source believes that the tower pound was named after Tower Hill, the site of the Royal Mint, another believes it is from the Tower of London, from which Tower Hill also got its name.
From about the tenth century, English silver pennies weighed 22.5 grains, and there were therefore 240 pennies per Tower pound. The Tower pound appears to have been the same as the previous Saxon pound, and simply underwent a change of name at some stage.

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