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Details about  1723 Soild Silver Shilling Coin Old British English Middle Ages England Britian

1723 Soild Silver Shilling Coin Old British English Middle Ages England Britian See original listing
1723-Soild-Silver-Shilling-Coin-Old-British-English-Middle-Ages-England-Britian
Item Ended
Item condition:
--not specified

In Very Good Condition for its age

Ended:
27 Jul, 2014 21:07:00 BST
Winning bid:
£67.00
28 bids ]
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Item location:
Look at my other Items, United Kingdom

Description

eBay item number:
281387531038
Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing.
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Item specifics

Seller notes: In Very Good Condition for its age
Era:

Early Milled (c.1662-1816)

Collections/ Bulk Lots:

1723 Shilling

Denomination:

Shilling

Year of Issue:

1723

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1723 Shilling

Two Hundred and Ninety One year old Engllish Crown Coin from 1723

It is 24mm in diameter

Summary:
    Silver coin; Denomination: Crown
    Tower Mint, London
       Milled coinage

0.925 Solid Silver 

In Good Condition given it is over 200 years old.

Starting at its monetary value one Penny...With No Reserve..If your the only bidder you win it for 1p....Grab a Bargain!!!!

Would make an Excellent Lucky Charm or Collectible Keepsake Souvenir

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The British crown, the successor to the English Crown and the Scottish Dollar, came into being with the Union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland in 1707. As with the English coin, its value was five shillings.

Always a heavy silver coin weighing about one ounce, during the 19th and 20th centuries the Crown declined from being a real means of exchange to being a coin rarely spent and minted for commemorative purposes only. In that format it has continued to be minted, even following decimalization of the British currency in 1971. However, as the result of inflation the value of the coin was revised upwards to five pounds.

The coin's origins lay in the English silver crown, one of many silver coins that appeared in various countries from the 16th century onwards, the most famous example perhaps being pieces of eight, all of which were of a similar size and weight (approx 38mm diameter and containing approx 25 grams of fine silver) and thus interchangeable in international trade.[1] The kingdom of England also minted gold Crowns in the 16th and 17th centuries.

The dies for all gold and silver coins of Queen Anne and King George I were engraved by John Croker, a migrant originally from Dresden in the Duchy of Saxony.[2]

The British crown was always a large coin, and from the 19th century it did not circulate well. However, crowns were usually struck in a new monarch's coronation year, true of each monarch since King George IV up until the present monarch in 1953, with the single exception of King George V.

The Queen Victoria "Gothic" crown of 1847 (mintage just 8,000 and produced to celebrate the Gothic revival) is considered by many to be the most beautiful British coin ever minted.

The King George V "wreath" crowns struck from 1927 to 1936 (excluding 1935 when the more common "rocking horse" crown was minted to commemorate the King's Silver Jubilee) depict a wreath on the reverse of the coin and were struck in very low numbers. Generally struck late in the year and intended to be purchased as Christmas gifts, they did not circulate well with the rarest of all dates, 1934, (mintage just 932) now fetching several thousand pounds each. The 1927 'wreath' crowns were struck as proofs only (15,030 minted).

With its large size, many of the later coins were primarily commemoratives. The 1951 issue was for the Festival of Britain, and was only struck in proof condition. The 1965 issue carried the image of Winston Churchill on the reverse, the first time a non-monarch or commoner was ever placed on a British coin, and marked his death. According to the Standard Catalogue of coins, 9,640,000 of this coin were minted, a very high number at the time, making them of little value today except as a mark of respect for the national war leader. Production of the Churchill Crown began on the 11th of October 1965, and stopped in the summer of 1966.

The crown was worth five shillings (or 60 pre-decimal pence) until decimalisation in February 1971, and was also the basis of other denominations such as the half crown and double crown.

The last five shilling piece was minted in 1965.

The crown coin was nicknamed the dollar, but is not to be confused with the British trade dollar that circulated in the Orient.

After Decimalisation[edit]

After decimalisation on 15 February 1971 a new coin known as a 25p (25 pence) piece was introduced. Whilst being legal tender [3] and having the same decimal value as a crown, the 25p pieces were issued to commemorate events, e.g. 1972 was for the Silver Wedding anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. The 1977 issue was to celebrate Queen Elizabeth II's Silver Jubilee, the 1980 issue for the 80th birthday of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother and, in 1981, the coin was issued to celebrate the marriage of Charles, Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer.

Further issues continue to be minted to the present day, initially with a value of twenty-five pence, and then, from 1990, with a value of five pounds.

Changing values[edit]

The face or denominational value of the crown remained as five shillings from 1544 to 1965. For most of this period there was no mark of value on the coin. From 1927 to 1939 the word "CROWN" appears, and from 1951 to 1960 this was changed to "FIVE SHILLINGS". After decimalisation in 1971, the face value kept its five shillings equivalent at 25 new pence, later simply 25 pence, although the face value is not shown on any of these issues.

From 1990, the crown was re-tariffed at five pounds (£5), probably in view of its relatively large size compared with its face value, and taking into consideration its production costs, and the Royal Mint's profits on sales of commemorative coins. While this change was understandable, it has brought with it a slight confusion, and the popular misbelief that all crowns have a five pound face value, including the pre-1990 ones.

Although all "normal" issues since 1951 have been composed of cupro-nickel, special proof versions have been produced for sale to collectors, and as gift items, in silver, gold, and occasionally platinum.

The fact that gold £5 crowns are now produced means that there are two different strains of five pound gold coins, namely crowns and what are now termed "quintuple sovereigns" for want of a more concise term.

Numismatically, the term "crown-sized" is used generically to describe large silver or cupro-nickel coins of about 40 mm in diameter. Most Commonwealth countries still issue crown-sized coins for sale to collectors.

New Zealand's original and present fifty-cent pieces, and Australia's previously round but now dodecagonal fifty-cent piece, although valued at five shillings in predecimal accounting, are all smaller than the standard silver crown pieces issued by those countries (and the UK).

Composition[edit]

For silver crowns, the grade of silver adhered to the long-standing standard (established in the 12th century by Henry II) – the Sterling Silver standard of 92.5% silver and 7.5% copper. This was a harder-wearing alloy, yet it was still a rather high grade of silver. It went some way towards discouraging the practice of "clipping", though this practice was further discouraged and largely eliminated with the introduction of the milled edge seen on coins today.

In a debasement process which took effect in 1920, the silver content of all British coins was reduced from 92.5% to 50%, with a portion of the remainder consisting of manganese, which caused the coins to tarnish to a very dark colour after they had been in circulation for a significant period. Silver was eliminated altogether in 1947, with the move to a composition of cupro-nickel – except for proof issues, which returned to the pre-1920 92.5% silver composition.

Since standardisation of the UK's silver coinage in 1816 (UK Coinage Reform 1816), a crown has, as a general rule, had a diameter of 38.61 mm, and weighed 28.276g.[4]

Modern mintages[edit]

 


Monarch

Year

Number Minted

Detail

Composition*

Edward VII 1902 256,020 Coronation Ster. Silv.
George V 1927 15,030 (proof only) 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver
 1928 9,034 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver
 1929 4,994 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver
 1930 4,847 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver
 1931 4,056 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver
 1932 2,395 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver
 1933 7,132 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver
 1934 932 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver
 1935 714,769 George V and Queen Mary Silver Jubilee 0.500 silver
 1936 2,473 'Wreath' Crown 0.500 silver
George VI 1937 418,699 Coronation 0.500 silver
 1951 1,983,540 Festival of Britain Cu/Ni
Elizabeth II 1953 5,962,621 Coronation Cu/Ni
 1960 1,024,038 British Exhibition in New York Cu/Ni
 1965 19,640,000 Death of Sir Winston Churchill Cu/Ni
 1972  Queen Elizabeth II 25th Wedding Anniversary 25p Cu/Ni
 1977  Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee 25p Cu/Ni
 1980  Queen Mother 80th Birthday 25p Cu/Ni
 1981  Charles & Diana Wedding 25p Cu/Ni

Silver is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Ag (Greek: άργυρος árguros, Latin: argentum, both from the Indo-European root *arg- for "grey" or "shining") and atomic number 47. A soft, white, lustrous transition metal, it possesses the highest electrical conductivity of any element and the highest thermal conductivity of any metal. The metal occurs naturally in its pure, free form (native silver), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.

Silver has long been valued as a precious metal, used in currency coins, to make ornaments, jewelry, high-value tableware and utensils (hence the term silverware) and as an investment in the forms of coins and bullion. Silver metal is used industrially in electrical contacts and conductors, in mirrors and in catalysis of chemical reactions. Its compounds are used in photographic film and dilute silver nitrate solutions and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides (oligodynamic effect). While many medical antimicrobial uses of silver have been supplanted by antibiotics, further research into clinical potential continues

 

British coinage
Current circulation   
One penny Two pence Five pence Ten pence Twenty pence Fifty pence One pound Two pounds
Commemorative and bullion   
Twenty-five pence Five pounds Maundy money Quarter sovereign Half sovereign Sovereign Britannia
Withdrawn (decimal)   
Half penny
Withdrawn (pre-decimal,
selected coins)   
Quarter-farthing Third-farthing Half-farthing Farthing Halfpenny Penny Threepence Groat Sixpence One shilling Two shillings (florin) Half crown Double florin (four shillings) Crown Half guinea Guinea
See also   
Pound sterling Coins of the pound sterling List of British banknotes and coins Scottish coinage Coins of Ireland List of people on coins of the United Kingdom

George I (George Louis; German: Georg Ludwig; 28 May 1660 – 11 June 1727[1]) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 1 August 1714 until his death, and ruler of the Duchy and Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) in the Holy Roman Empire from 1698.

George was born in Hanover, in what is now Germany, and inherited the titles and lands of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg from his father and uncles. A succession of European wars expanded his German domains during his lifetime, and in 1708 he was ratified as prince-elector of Hanover. At the age of 54, after the death of Queen Anne of Great Britain, George ascended the British throne as the first monarch of the House of Hanover. Although over fifty Roman Catholics bore closer blood relationships to Anne, the Act of Settlement 1701 prohibited Catholics from inheriting the British throne; George was Anne's closest living Protestant relative. In reaction, Jacobites attempted to depose George and replace him with Anne's Catholic half-brother, James Francis Edward Stuart, but their attempts failed.

During George's reign, the powers of the monarchy diminished and Britain began a transition to the modern system of cabinet government led by a prime minister. Towards the end of his reign, actual power was held by Sir Robert Walpole, now recognised as Britain's first de facto prime minister. George died on a trip to his native Hanover, where he was buried.

Reign     1 August 1714 – 11 June 1727[1]
Coronation     20 October 1714
Predecessor     Anne
Successor     George II
Prime Ministers     Robert Walpole
Elector of Hanover
Reign     23 January 1698 – 11 June 1727[1]
Predecessor     Ernest Augustus
Successor     George II
Spouse     Sophia Dorothea of Celle
more...
Issue
George II
Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia
Full name
George Louis
German: Georg Ludwig
House     House of Hanover
Father     Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover
Mother     Sophia of the Palatinate
Born     28 May 1660
7 June 1660 (N.S.)
Hanover, Germany
Died     11 June 1727 (aged 67)
22 June 1727 (N.S.)
Schloss Osnabrück, Osnabrück
Burial     4 August 1727
Leineschloss, Hanover; later Herrenhausen, Hanover

English, Scottish and British monarchs
Monarchs of England before 1603     Monarchs of Scotland before 1603

    Alfred the Great
    Edward the Elder
    Ælfweard
    Æthelstan
    Edmund I
    Eadred
    Eadwig
    Edgar the Peaceful
    Edward the Martyr
    Æthelred the Unready
    Sweyn Forkbeard
    Edmund Ironside
    Cnut the Great
    Harold Harefoot
    Harthacnut
    Edward the Confessor
    Harold Godwinson
    Edgar the Ætheling
    William I
    William II
    Henry I
    Stephen
    Matilda
    Henry II
    Henry the Young King
    Richard I
    John
    Henry III
    Edward I
    Edward II
    Edward III
    Richard II
    Henry IV
    Henry V
    Henry VI
    Edward IV
    Edward V
    Richard III
    Henry VII
    Henry VIII
    Edward VI
    Jane
    Mary I and Philip
    Elizabeth I

   

    Kenneth I MacAlpin
    Donald I
    Constantine I
    Áed
    Giric
    Eochaid
    Donald II
    Constantine II
    Malcolm I
    Indulf
    Dub
    Cuilén
    Amlaíb
    Kenneth II
    Constantine III
    Kenneth III
    Malcolm II
    Duncan I
    Macbeth
    Lulach
    Malcolm III Canmore
    Donald III
    Duncan II
    Donald III
    Edgar
    Alexander I
    David I
    Malcolm IV
    William I
    Alexander II
    Alexander III
    Margaret
    First Interregnum
    John
    Second Interregnum
    Robert I
    David II
    Edward
    Robert II
    Robert III
    James I
    James II
    James III
    James IV
    James V
    Mary I
    James VI

    Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns in 1603

    James I & VI
    Charles I
    Commonwealth
    Charles II
    James II & VII
    Mary II and William III & II
    Anne

    British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707

    Anne
    George I
    George II
    George III
    George IV
    William IV
    Victoria
    Edward VII
    George V
    Edward VIII
    George VI
    Elizabeth II

    Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics.

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Rulers of Hanover
Electors of Hanover    

    Ernest Augustus (Elector-designate)
    George I Louis*
    George II*
    George III*

   

Kings of Hanover    

    George III*
    George IV*
    William IV*
    Ernest Augustus I
    George V

* Also monarch of Great Britain or the United Kingdom.
[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Kingdom of Great Britain
History    

    Union of 1707
    Great Britain in the Seven Years' War
    Jacobitism
    Jacobite risings
    War of Jenkins' Ear
    French and Indian War
    Boston Massacre
    American Revolutionary War
    Anglo-Dutch War (1780–1784)
    French Revolutionary Wars
    Union of 1801

   
Floral Badge of Great Britain
Royal Houses    

    Stuart
        Anne
    Hanover
        George I
        George II
        George III

Politics    

    Parliament
        House of Lords
        House of Commons
    List of Parliaments
    Acts of Parliament:
        1707–1719
        1720–1739
        1740–1759
        1760–1779
        1780–1800
    Elections:
        1707
        1708
        1710
        1713
        1715
        1722
        1727
        1734
        1741
        1747
        1754
        1761
        1768
        1774
        1780
        1784
        1790
        1796
    Monarchy
    Peers
    Privy Council
    Prime Minister
        List
    Whigs
    Tories
    Whig Junto
    Patriot Whigs
    Kit-Cat Club

Geography    

    Great Britain

Architecture    

    Queen Anne
    Georgian

Other    

    East India Company
    British Empire
    Longitude prize
    Window tax
    Proclamation of Rebellion
    South Sea Company
    Speenhamland system

Symbols    

    Flag


1723

Millennium:     2nd millennium
Centuries:     17th century – 18th century – 19th century
Decades:     1690s  1700s  1710s  – 1720s –  1730s  1740s  1750s
Years:     1720 1721 1722 – 1723 – 1724 1725 1726
1723 by topic:
Arts and Sciences
Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature (Poetry) – Music – Science
Countries
Canada – Great Britain –
Lists of leaders
Colonial governors – State leaders
Birth and death categories
Births – Deaths
Establishments and disestablishments categories
Establishments – Disestablishments
Works category
Works

    v
    t
    e

1723 in other calendars Gregorian calendar     1723
MDCCXXIII
Ab urbe condita     2476
Armenian calendar     1172
ԹՎ ՌՃՀԲ
Assyrian calendar     6473
Bahá'í calendar     −121 – −120
Bengali calendar     1130
Berber calendar     2673
British Regnal year     9 Geo. 1 – 10 Geo. 1
Buddhist calendar     2267
Burmese calendar     1085
Byzantine calendar     7231–7232
Chinese calendar     壬寅年 (Water Tiger)
4419 or 4359
    — to —
癸卯年 (Water Rabbit)
4420 or 4360
Coptic calendar     1439–1440
Discordian calendar     2889
Ethiopian calendar     1715–1716
Hebrew calendar     5483–5484
Hindu calendars    
 - Vikram Samvat     1779–1780
 - Shaka Samvat     1645–1646
 - Kali Yuga     4824–4825
Holocene calendar     11723
Igbo calendar     723–724
Iranian calendar     1101–1102
Islamic calendar     1135–1136
Japanese calendar     Kyōhō 8
(享保8年)
Juche calendar     N/A
Julian calendar     Gregorian minus 11 days
Korean calendar     4056
Minguo calendar     189 before ROC
民前189年
Thai solar calendar     2266


Year 1723 (MDCCXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar.
Events
January–June

    February 16 – Louis XV of France attains his majority.
    March 9 – Mapuche Uprising of 1723 begins in Chile.

July–December

    July – The Russian army, under Matyushkin, captures Baku.
    July 12 - Christian von Wolff Wolff held a lecture for students and the magistrates at the end of his term as a rector,[1] as a result of which he is banned from Prussia on a charge of atheism.
    August – The Peterhof Palace opens just outside Saint Petersburg.
    September 1 – The Treaty of St. Petersburg is signed.
    November 23 – The Province of Carolina incorporates New Bern as Newbern (the town later becomes the capital of North Carolina).
    December 26 – Darzu ist erschienen der Sohn Gottes, BWV 40 by Johann Sebastian Bach is first performed in Leipzig.

Date unknown

    The Province of Carolina incorporates Beaufort, North Carolina, as the "Port of Beaufort", making it the third incorporated town in the province.
    The Four Seasons, a set of violin concertos by Antonio Vivaldi, was composed.


Births

    January 12 – Samuel Langdon, American President of Harvard University (d. 1797)
    February 15 – John Witherspoon, American signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1794)
    February 17 – Tobias Mayer, German astronomer (d. 1761)
    February 21 – Louis-Pierre Anquetil, French historian (d. 1808)
    February 23 – Richard Price, Welsh philosopher (d. 1791)
    February 24 – John Burgoyne, British general (d. 1792)
    March 22 – Charles Carroll, American lawyer and Continental Congressman (d. 1783)
    March 23 – Agha Mohammad Khan Ghajar, Iranian king (d. 1778)
    March 31 – King Frederick V of Denmark (d. 1766)
    April 20 – Cornelius Harnett, American Continental Congressman (d. 1781)
    April 30 – Mathurin Jacques Brisson, French naturalist (d. 1806)
    June 3 – Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, Italian-born physician and naturalist (d. 1788)
    June 5 – (baptised) Adam Smith, Scottish economist and philosopher (d. 1790)
    June 11 – Johann Georg Palitzsch, German astronomer (d. 1788)
    June 20
        Adam Ferguson, Scottish philosopher and historian (d. 1816)
        Theophilus Lindsey, English theologian (died 1808)
    July 1 – Pedro Rodríguez, Conde de Campomanes, Spanish statesman and writer (died 1802)
    July 10 – William Blackstone, English jurist (d. 1780)
    July 11 – Jean-François Marmontel, French historian and writer (d. 1799)
    July 16 – Sir Joshua Reynolds, English painter (d. 1792)
    September 11 – Johann Bernhard Basedow, German educational reformer (d. 1790)
    October 4 – Nikolaus Poda von Neuhaus, German entomologist (d. 1798)
    November 8 – John Byron, English admiral (d. 1786)
    November 30 – William Livingston, American politician and journalist (d. 1790)
    December 22 – Carl Friedrich Abel, German composer (d. 1787)
    December 26 – Friedrich Melchior, baron von Grimm, German writer (d. 1807)

    Date unknown – Carl Albert von Lespilliez, German draftsman, architect and printmaker (d. 1796)

Deaths

    February 25 – Sir Christopher Wren, English architect, astronomer, and mathematician (b. 1632)
    February 26 – Thomas d'Urfey, English writer (b. 1653)
    March 15 – Johann Christian Günther, German poet (b. 1695)
    March 31 – Edward Hyde, 3rd Earl of Clarendon, British Governor of New York and New Jersey (b. 1661)
    April 11 – John Robinson, English diplomat (b. 1650)
    May 11 – Jean Galbert de Campistron, French dramatist (b. 1656)
    July 14 – Claude Fleury, French historian (b. 1640)
    July 26 – Robert Bertie, 1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, English statesman (b. 1660)
    August 10 – Guillaume Dubois, French cardinal and statesman (b. 1656)
    August 17 – Joseph Bingham, English scholar (b. 1668)
    August 23 – Increase Mather, American Puritan minister (b. 1639)
    August 26 – Anton van Leeuwenhoek, Dutch scientist (b. 1632)
    October 10 – William Cowper, 1st Earl Cowper, Lord Chancellor of England (b. c. 1665)
    October 19 – Godfrey Kneller, German-born artist (b. 1646)
    October 31 – Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b. 1642)
    November 19 – Antoine Nompar de Caumont, French courtier and statesman (b. 1632)
    December 1 – Susanna Centlivre, English dramatist and actress (b. 1669)
    December 2 – Philip II, Duke of Orléans, regent of France (b. 1674)
    December 7 – Jan Santini Aichel, Czech architect (b. 1677)
    December 20 – Augustus Quirinus Rivinus, German physician and botanist (b. 1652)





    Coat of arms


1675

Millennium:     2nd millennium
Centuries:     16th century – 17th century – 18th century
Decades:     1640s  1650s  1660s  – 1670s –  1680s  1690s  1700s
Years:     1672 1673 1674 – 1675 – 1676 1677 1678
1675 by topic:
Arts and Science
Architecture - Art - Literature - Music - Science
Lists of leaders
Colonial governors - State leaders
Birth and death categories
Births - Deaths
Establishments and disestablishments categories
Establishments - Disestablishments
Works category
Works

    v
    t
    e

1675 in other calendars Gregorian calendar     1675
MDCLXXV
Ab urbe condita     2428
Armenian calendar     1124
ԹՎ ՌՃԻԴ
Assyrian calendar     6425
Bahá'í calendar     −169 – −168
Bengali calendar     1082
Berber calendar     2625
English Regnal year     26 Cha. 2 – 27 Cha. 2
Buddhist calendar     2219
Burmese calendar     1037
Byzantine calendar     7183–7184
Chinese calendar     甲寅年 (Wood Tiger)
4371 or 4311
    — to —
乙卯年 (Wood Rabbit)
4372 or 4312
Coptic calendar     1391–1392
Discordian calendar     2841
Ethiopian calendar     1667–1668
Hebrew calendar     5435–5436
Hindu calendars    
 - Vikram Samvat     1731–1732
 - Shaka Samvat     1597–1598
 - Kali Yuga     4776–4777
Holocene calendar     11675
Igbo calendar     675–676
Iranian calendar     1053–1054
Islamic calendar     1085–1086
Japanese calendar     Enpō 3
(延宝3年)
Juche calendar     N/A
Julian calendar     Gregorian minus 10 days
Korean calendar     4008
Minguo calendar     237 before ROC
民前237年
Thai solar calendar     2218



Year 1675 (MDCLXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar.
Events
January–June

    January 5 – Franco-Dutch War – Battle of Turckheim: In Turckheim, Alsace, France, the French defeat Austria and Brandenburg.
    January 29 – John Sassamon, an English-educated Native American Christian, dies at Assawampsett Pond, an event which will trigger a year-long war between English American colonists of New England and Algonquian Native American tribes.
    April– – English merchant Anthony de la Roché, blown off course having rounded Cape Horn eastabout, makes the first discovery of land south of the Antarctic Convergence, landing on South Georgia and (probably) Gough Island.[1][2][3]
    June 8 – John Sassamon's alleged murderers are executed at Plymouth.
    June 11 – Armed Wampanoags are reported traveling around Swansea, Massachusetts.
    June 14–June 25 – Colonial authorities of Rhode Island, Plymouth, and Massachusetts attempt a negotiation with Metacomet (King Philip), leader of the Wampanoags, and seek guarantees of fidelity from the Nipmuck and Narragansett tribes.
    June 24 – King Philip's War breaks out as the Wampanoags attack Swansea.
    June 26 – Massachusetts troops march to Swansea to join the Plymouth troops.
    June 26–June 29 – Wampanoags assault Rehoboth and Taunton; the natives elude colonial troops and leave Mount Hope for Pocasset, Massachusetts. The Mohegan tribe travels to Boston in order to side with the English colonists against the Wampanoags.
    June 28 – Battle of Fehrbellin: Brandenburg defeats the Swedes.

July–December

    July 15 – The Narragansett tribe signs a peace treaty with Connecticut.
    July 16–24 – An envoy from Massachusetts attempts to negotiate with the Nipmuck tribe.
    August 2–4 – The Nipmucks attack Massachusetts troops and besiege Brookfield, Massachusetts.
    August 10 – King Charles II of England places the foundation stone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in London; construction begins.
    August 13 – The Massachusetts Council orders that Christian Indians are to be confined to designated praying towns.
    September 1–2 – While Wampanoags and Nipmucks attack Deerfield, Massachusetts, Captain Samuel Moseley commands Massachusetts troops in an attack on the Pennacook tribe.
    September 12 – English colonists abandon Deerfield, Squakeag, and Brookfield due to a coalition of Indian attacks.
    September 15 – The Bremen-Verden Campaign of the Northern Wars begins with the invasion of Amt Wildeshausen by the Munster army and their advance on Verden via the city of Bremen.
    September 18 – The Narragansetts sign a treaty with the English in Boston; meanwhile, Massachusetts troops are ambushed near Northampton, Massachusetts.
    October 5 – The Pocomtuc tribe attacks and destroys Springfield, Massachusetts.
    October 13 – The Massachusetts Council convenes and agrees that all Christian Indians should be ordered to move to Deer Island.
    November 2–12 – Commissioners of the Thirteen Colonies organize a united force to attack the Narragansett tribe.
    November 11
        Guru Teg Bahadur, ninth of the Sikh gurus, is executed by Mughal rulers, He prefers execution to defend the right of Hindus to practice their own religion. He is succeeded by Guru Gobind Singh as tenth Guru.
        Gottfried Leibniz uses infinitesimal calculus on a function.
    December 19 – United colonial forces attack the Narragansetts at the Great Swamp Fight.

Date unknown

    Cassini discovers Saturn's Cassini Division.
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek begins to use a microscope for observing human tissues and liquids.

Births

    January 16 – Louis de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, French writer (d. 1755)
    January 27 – Erik Benzelius the younger, Swedish priest (d. 1743)
    February 21 – Franz Xaver Josef von Unertl, Bavarian politician (d. 1750)
    February 28 – Guillaume Delisle, French cartographer (d. 1726)
    March 31 – Pope Benedict XIV (d. 1758)
    May 29 – Humphry Ditton, English mathematician (d. 1715)
    June 1 – Francesco Scipione, marchese di Maffei, Italian archaeologist (d. 1755)
    July 5 – Mary Walcott, American accuser at the Salem witch trials
    July 12 – Evaristo Abaco, Italian composer (d. 1742)
    July 14 – Claude Alexandre de Bonneval, French soldier (d. 1747)
    September 2 – William Somervile, English poet (d. 1742)
    September 3 – Paul Dudley, Attorney-General of Massachusetts (d. 1751)
    October 11 – Samuel Clarke, English philosopher (d. 1729)
    October 21 – Emperor Higashiyama of Japan (d. 1710)
    October 24 – Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham, English soldier and politician (d. 1749)

Deaths

    February 9 – Gerhard Douw, Dutch painter (b. 1613)
    March 18 – Arthur Chichester, 1st Earl of Donegall, Irish soldier (b. 1606)
    April 12 – Richard Bennett, British Colonial Governor of Virginia (b. 1609)
    May 18 – Stanisław Lubieniecki, Polish Socinian theologist (b. 1623)
    May 18 – Father Jacques Marquette, French missionary and explorer (b. 1636)
    May 27 – Gaspard Dughet, French painter (b. 1613)
    June 12 – Charles Emmanuel II of Savoy (b. 1634)
    July 27 – Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, Marshal of France (b. 1611)
    July 28 – Bulstrode Whitelocke, English lawyer (b. 1605)
    September 18 – Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine (b. 1604)
    September 23 – Valentin Conrart, founder of the Académie française (b. 1603)
    October 26 – William Sprague, English co-founder of Charlestown, Massachusetts (b. 1609)
    October 27 – Gilles de Roberval, French mathematician (b. 1602)
    November 1 – Guru Tegh Bahadur, 9th Sikh Guru (b. 1621)
    November 28 – Basil Feilding, 2nd Earl of Denbigh, English Civil War soldier
    November 28 – Leonard Hoar, American President of Harvard University (b. 1630)
    November 30 – Cæcilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, colonial Governor of Maryland (b. 1605)
    December 6 – John Lightfoot, English church goer (b. 1602)
    December 15 – Johannes Vermeer, Dutch painter (b. 1632)
    December 23 – Caesar, duc de Choiseul, French marshal and diplomat (b. 1602)


The European Cup Winners are :


Year Champions Cup Cup Winners Cup UEFA Cup

2011 FC Barcelona   FC Porto

2010 FC Internazionale Milano   Club Atlético de Madrid

2009 FC Barcelona   FK Shakhtar Donets'k

2008 Manchester United   FK Zenit Sankt-Peterburg

2007 AC Milan 1899   Sevilla FC

2006 FC Barcelona   Sevilla FC

2005 Liverpool FC   PFK CSKA Moskva

2004 FC Porto   Valencia CF

2003 AC Milan 1899   FC Porto

2002 Real Madrid CF   Feyenoord

2001 FC Bayern München   Liverpool FC

2000 Real Madrid CF   Galatasaray SK Istanbul

1999 Manchester United SS Lazio Parma FC

1998 Real Madrid CF Chelsea FC FC Internazionale Milano

1997 BV 09 Borussia Dortmund FC Barcelona FC Schalke 04

1996 Juventus FC Paris Saint-Germain FC FC Bayern München

1995 Ajax Amsterdam Real Zaragoza CD Parma FC

1994 AC Milan 1899 Arsenal FC FC Internazionale Milano

1993 Olympique de Marseille Parma FC Juventus FC

1992 FC Barcelona SV Werder Bremen Ajax Amsterdam

1991 FK Crvena Zvezda Beograd Manchester United FC Internazionale Milano

1990 AC Milan 1899 UC Sampdoria Juventus FC

1989 AC Milan 1899 FC Barcelona SSC Napoli

1988 PSV KV Mechelen Bayer 04 Leverkusen

1987 FC Porto Ajax Amsterdam IFK Göteborg

1986 FC Steaua Bucuresti FK Dynamo Kyiv Real Madrid CF

1985 Juventus FC Everton FC Real Madrid CF

1984 Liverpool FC Juventus FC Tottenham Hotspur FC

1983 Hamburger SV Aberdeen FC RSC Anderlecht

1982 Aston Villa FC FC Barcelona IFK Göteborg

1981 Liverpool FC FC Dinamo Tbilisi Ipswich Town FC

1980 Nottingham Forest FC Valencia CF SG Eintracht Frankfurt

1979 Nottingham Forest FC FC Barcelona VfL Borussia Mönchengladb.

1978 Liverpool FC RSC Anderlecht PSV

1977 Liverpool FC Hamburger SV Juventus FC

1976 FC Bayern München RSC Anderlecht Liverpool FC

1975 FC Bayern München FK Dynamo Kyiv VfL Borussia Mönchengladb.

1974 FC Bayern München 1. FC Magdeburg Feyenoord

1973 Ajax Amsterdam AC Milan 1899 Liverpool FC

1972 Ajax Amsterdam Rangers FC Tottenham Hotspur FC

1971 Ajax Amsterdam Chelsea FC Leeds United FC

1970 Feyenoord Manchester City FC Arsenal FC

1969 AC Milan 1899 SK Slovan Bratislava Newcastle United FC

1968 Manchester United AC Milan 1899 Leeds United FC

1967 Celtic FC FC Bayern München NK Dinamo Zagreb

1966 Real Madrid CF BV 09 Borussia Dortmund FC Barcelona

1965 FC Internazionale Milano West Ham United FC Ferencvárosi TC

1964 FC Internazionale Milano Sporting CP Real Zaragoza CD

1963 AC Milan 1899 Tottenham Hotspur FC Valencia CF

1962 SL Benfica Club Atlético de Madrid Valencia CF

1961 SL Benfica ACF Fiorentina AS Roma

1960 Real Madrid CF   FC Barcelona

1959 Real Madrid CF  

1958 Real Madrid CF   FC Barcelona

1957 Real Madrid CF  

1956 Real Madrid CF  



Roll of honour

UEFA Club Footballer of the Year

Year Player Club

2010 Diego Milito

FC Internazionale Milano

2009 Lionel Messi FC Barcelona

2008 Cristiano Ronaldo Manchester United FC

2007 Kaká AC Milan

2006 Ronaldinho FC Barcelona

2005 Steven Gerrard Liverpool FC

2004 Deco FC Porto

2003 Gianluigi Buffon Juventus FC

2002 Zinédine Zidane Real Madrid CF

2001 Stefan Effenberg FC Bayern München

2000 Fernando Redondo Real Madrid CF

1999 David Beckham Manchester United FC

1998 Ronaldo FC Internazionale Milano

UEFA Club Goalkeeper of the Year

Year Player Club

2010 Júlio César FC Internazionale Milano

2009 Edwin van der Sar Manchester United FC

2008 Petr Čech Chelsea FC

2007 Petr Čech Chelsea FC

2006 Jens Lehmann Arsenal FC

2005 Petr Čech Chelsea FC

2004 Vítor Baía FC Porto

2003 Gianluigi Buffon Juventus

2002 Oliver Kahn FC Bayern München

2001 Oliver Kahn FC Bayern München

2000 Oliver Kahn FC Bayern München

1999 Oliver Kahn FC Bayern München

1998 Peter Schmeichel Manchester United FC

UEFA Club Defender of the Year

Year Player Club

2010 Maicon FC Internazionale Milano

2009 John Terry Chelsea FC

2008 John Terry Chelsea FC

2007 Paolo Maldini AC Milan

2006 Carles Puyol FC Barcelona

2005 John Terry Chelsea FC

2004 Ricardo Carvalho FC Porto

2003 Roberto Carlos Real Madrid CF

2002 Roberto Carlos Real Madrid CF

2001 Roberto Ayala Valencia CF

2000 Jaap Stam Manchester United FC

1999 Jaap Stam Manchester United FC

1998 Fernando Hierro Real Madrid CF

UEFA Club Midfielder of the Year

Year Player Club

2010 Wesley Sneijder

FC Internazionale Milano

2009 Xavi Hernández FC Barcelona

2008 Frank Lampard Chelsea FC

2007 Clarence Seedorf AC Milan

2006 Deco FC Barcelona

2005 Kaká AC Milan

2004 Deco FC Porto

2003 Pavel Nedvěd Juventus

2002 Michael Ballack FC Bayern München

2001 Gaizka Mendieta Valencia CF

2000 Gaizka Mendieta Valencia CF

1999 David Beckham Manchester United FC

1998 Zinédine Zidane Juventus

UEFA Club Forward of the Year

Year Player Club

2010 Diego Milito

FC Internazionale Milano

2009 Lionel Messi FC Barcelona

2008 Cristiano Ronaldo Manchester United FC

2007 Kaká AC Milan

2006 Samuel Eto'o FC Barcelona

2005 Ronaldinho FC Barcelona

2004 Fernando Morientes AS Monaco FC

2003 Ruud van Nistelrooy Manchester United FC

2002 Raúl González Real Madrid CF

2001 Raúl González Real Madrid CF

2000 Raúl González Real Madrid CF

1999 Andriy Shevchenko FC Dynamo Kyiv

1998 Ronaldo FC Internazionale Milano

 

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