1843 Half Sovereign Weight
One Hundred and Seventy One Year Old Sovereign Weight
Made of Brass with a Golden Lustre
Has a Queen Victorias Head with the words "Royal Mint 1843"
The Back has the words "Curt Weight"and "Sovereign" & the Number 2 . 13 1/8 with the year 1843
Weights the same weight a a half sovereign
In Very Good Condition given it is almost 200 years old
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sovereign is a gold coin of the United Kingdom, with a nominal value of
one pound sterling but in practice used as a bullion coin.
after the English gold sovereign, last minted in 1604, the name was
revived with the Great Recoinage of 1816. Minting these new
sovereigns began in 1817. The gold content was fixed by the coin act of
1816 at 1320/5607 (0.235420) troy ounces (7.322381 g), nearly equivalent
to 113 grains. This weight has remained practically constant to the
present day (some minute changes have resulted from its legal
redefinition in the metric system of weights).
minted in the United Kingdom from 1817 to 1917, in 1925, and from 1957.
Australia, India, Canada, and South Africa all occasionally minted the
coins. In 2013 the Royal Mint announced that it would restart the
manufacture of sovereigns in India to cater to the Indian market.
These sovereigns will be minted by Indian gold producer MMTC-PAMP to
Royal Mint specification. MMTC-PAMP is a joint venture between MMTC
Ltd and PAMP of Switzerland.
In addition to the sovereign, the
Royal Mint also struck ten-shilling half sovereigns, two-pound double
sovereigns, and five-pound quintuple sovereign coins. Only the sovereign
and the half sovereign were commonly struck for circulation.
2009, The Royal Mint released a new coin in the sovereign series: the
quarter-sovereign, similar in some ways to the original gold English
crown of the rose.
Sovereigns minted since 1817 have been produced according to the coin act of 1816:
Weight: 7.988052 g (calculated from original definition; the coin act
of 1971 adjusted the standard to exactly 7.98805 g.)
Thickness: 1.52 mm
Diameter: 22.05 mm
Fineness: 22 carat = 916⅔ / 1000 (± 2/1000)
Gold Content: 7.322381 g = 0.235420 (exactly: 1320/5607) troy ounces or
113.0016 grains (original definition; actual gold content may differ
due to allowed tolerances and abrasion, see Reminting worn coins below.)
Sovereigns were produced as follows:
London: 1817–1917, 1925, 1957 onwards
Bombay: 1918 only
During the 1850s, Victoria alone contributed more than one-third of the
world’s gold output. Although a Mint opened in Sydney in 1855, it had
difficulty keeping pace with the output of the goldfields and in 1871 a
new branch of the Royal Mint opened in Melbourne. Melbourne sovereigns
carry a small ‘M’ to identify them.
Sydney Millions of pounds of
gold bullion were shipped from Australia to London each year to be
minted into coin. However, it soon became apparent that it would be
easier to refine the gold and turn it into coins at source, rather than
transport it to Britain and have it turned into coins there. Sydney,
Melbourne, and Adelaide each submitted to be the venue of a branch of
the Royal Mint and after some deliberation the British government
awarded it to Sydney, which began issuing coins in 1855. This mint
issued coins with its own design from 1855 until 1870 then, in 1871 the
Royal Mint insisted that all gold sovereigns regardless of Mint should
carry the British design.
The coins minted by Sydney carry a small ‘S’ mintmark to identify them for quality control purposes.
The gold mines at Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie in Western Australia, once
discovered, quickly became recognised as two of Australia’s richest. The
problems of transporting the raw gold over 2,100 miles to the nearest
Mint in Melbourne were obvious and so a new branch of the Royal Mint was
authorised and opened in 1899.
Sovereigns minted at Perth carry a small ‘P’ mintmark.
(India) Another branch of the British Mint was established in Bombay in
India in 1918, where the demand for sovereigns was particularly high.
The Bombay mint only produced coins for one year and all are dated 1918.
Nonetheless, the Indian mint struck more sovereigns (approximately 1.3
million) in its single year of operation than the Ottawa branch managed
in more a decade.
Sovereigns from the Bombay mint were distinguished by the letter ‘I’ for India.
(Canada) The Klondike Gold Rush of 1897-1898 saw more than 25,000
people seek their fortune in the frozen North of Canada. For some time
all of Canada’s coinage was struck in England but these new gold strikes
made this impractical.
In 1908 a Canadian branch of the British
Royal Mint was opened in Ottawa. As well as producing silver and base
metal coins for everyday use, the new Canadian mint also turned the
recently discovered gold into sovereigns striking intermittently between
1908 and 1919.
Sovereigns of this mint carry a small ‘C’ mintmark.
(South Africa) The next, and final, branch mint was established in
Pretoria (South Africa) in 1923. Like the Australian and Canadian mints,
this was set up to turn locally mined gold into coins. Significant
quantities of gold were discovered in Johannesburg in 1886, setting off
another mass migration as speculators, prospectors, fortune-seekers, and
adventurers from all over the world descended upon the region.
the end of the 1890s the area was responsible for a significant
percentage of global gold production. Sovereigns, identical to the
British coins except for the inclusion of an ‘SA’ mintmark, were struck
at Pretoria between 1923 and 1932.
One penny Two pence Five pence Ten pence Twenty pence Fifty pence One pound Two pounds
Commemorative and bullion
Twenty-five pence Five pounds Maundy money Quarter sovereign Half sovereign Sovereign Britannia
Third-farthing Half-farthing Farthing Halfpenny Penny Threepence Groat
Sixpence One shilling Two shillings (florin) Half crown Double florin
(four shillings) Crown Half guinea Guinea
sterling Coins of the pound sterling List of British banknotes and coins
Scottish coinage Coins of Ireland List of people on coins of the United
William III & II (Dutch: Willem III; 4 November
1650 – 8 March 1702) was a sovereign Prince of Orange of the House of
Orange-Nassau by birth. From 1672 he governed as Stadtholder William
III of Orange (Dutch: Willem III van Oranje) over Holland, Zeeland,
Utrecht, Gelderland, and Overijssel of the Dutch Republic. From 1689 he
reigned as William III over England and Ireland; it is a coincidence
that his regnal number (III) was the same for both Orange and England.
As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is informally
known by sections of the population in Northern Ireland and Scotland as
"King Billy". In what became known as the "Glorious Revolution", on 5
November 1688 William invaded England in an action that ultimately
deposed King James II & VII and won him the crowns of England,
Scotland and Ireland. In the British Isles, William ruled jointly with
his wife, Mary II, until her death on 28 December 1694. The period of
their joint reign is often referred to as "William and Mary".
Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful
Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and
Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion
of their faith. Largely because of that reputation, William was able to
take the British crowns when many were fearful of a revival of
Catholicism under James. William's victory over James at the Battle of
the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by the Orange Order. His reign
marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the
Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover.
Prince of Orange
Reign 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702
Predecessor William II
Successor John William Friso
Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel
Reign July 1672 – 8 March 1702
Predecessor William II
Successor William IV
King of England, Scotland and Ireland (more ...)
Reign 13 February 1689 – 8 March 1702
Coronation 11 April 1689
Predecessor James II & VII
Co-monarch Mary II
Spouse Mary II of England
House House of Orange-Nassau
Father William II, Prince of Orange
Mother Mary, Princess Royal
Born 4 November 1650
[N.S.: 14 November 1650]
Binnenhof, The Hague
Died 8 March 1702 (aged 51)
[N.S.: 19 March 1702]
Kensington Palace, London
Burial Westminster Abbey, London
William III of England and Orange & II of Scotland
House of Orange-Nassau
Cadet branch of the House of Nassau
Born: 4 November 1650 Died: 8 March 1702
Title last held by
William II Prince of Orange
Baron of Breda
4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702 Succeeded by
John William Friso
Title last held by
James II & VII King of England
King of Ireland
13 February 1689 – 8 March 1702
with Mary II (until 28 December 1694) Succeeded by
King of Scotland
11 May 1689 – 8 March 1702
with Mary II (until 28 December 1694)
First Stadtholderless Period
Title last held by
William II Stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland
Second Stadtholderless Period
Title next held by
Stadtholder of Utrecht
Stadtholder of Guelders and Overijssel
James II Lord High Admiral
1689 Succeeded by
The Earl of Torrington
[hide] v t e
Stadtholders of Guelders
van Egmond Willem van Egmond jr. Philip I of Croÿ-Chimay Willem van
Egmond jr. Adolf III of Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein Jan V of
Nassau-Vianden-Diez Philip of Burgundy Floris van Egmond René of Châlon
Philip de Lalaing Philip de Montmorency, Count of Hoorn Karel van Brimeu
Gillis van Berlaymont John VI of Nassau-Dillenburg Willem IV van den
Bergh Adolf van Nieuwenaar Maurice of Nassau Frederick Henry of Orange
William II of Orange interregnum William III of Orange interregnum
William IV of Orange William V of Orange
[hide] v t e
Stadtholders of Holland, Zeeland and (from 1528) Utrecht
van Lannoy Willem van Lalaing Gozewijn de Wilde Jan van Lannoy Lewis de
Bruges Wolfert VI van Borselen Joost van Lalaing Jan III van Egmond
Henry III of Nassau-Breda Antoon van Lalaing René of Châlon Louis of
Flanders Maximilian II of Burgundy William of Orange Maximilian of
Hennin Philip of Noircarmes William of Orange Adolf van Nieuwenaar
(Utrecht only) Maurice of Nassau Frederick Henry of Orange William II of
Orange interregnum William III of Orange interregnum William IV of
Orange William V of Orange
[hide] v t e
Stadtholders of Overijssel
Schenck van Toutenburg Maximiliaan van Egmond Jan van Ligne Karel van
Brimeu Gillis van Berlaymont Caspar van Robles Georges van Lalaing
Francisco Verdugo Adolf van Nieuwenaar Maurice of Nassau Frederick Henry
of Orange William II of Orange William III of Orange William IV of
Orange William V of Orange
[hide] v t e
Stadtholders of Drenthe
van Moers Jasper van Marwijck Charles, Duke of Guelders Ludolf Coenders
Georg Schenck van Toutenburg Maximiliaan van Egmond Jan van Ligne Karel
van Brimeu Gillis van Berlaymont Caspar van Robles Georges van Lalaing
Francisco Verdugo Willem Lodewijk of Nassau-Dietz Maurice of Nassau
Ernst Casimir Hendrik Casimir I Willem Frederik Hendrik Casimir II
William II of Orange William III of Orange William IV of Orange William V
[hide] v t e
English, Scottish and British monarchs
Monarchs of England before 1603 Monarchs of Scotland before 1603
Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred
the Unready Sweyn Forkbeard Edmund Ironside Cnut the Great Harold
Harefoot Harthacnut Edward the Confessor Harold Godwinson Edgar the
Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the
Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III
Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III
Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I
I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II
Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine
III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Canmore
Donald III Duncan II Donald III Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV
William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret First Interregnum John
Second Interregnum Robert I David II Edward Robert II Robert III James I
James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI
Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns in 1603
James I & VI Charles I Commonwealth Charles II James II & VII Mary II and William III & II Anne
British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707
Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 18th century – 19th century – 20th century
Decades: 1810s 1820s 1830s – 1840s – 1850s 1860s 1870s
Years: 1840 1841 1842 – 1843 – 1844 1845 1846
1843 in topic:
Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music
Australia – Brazil - Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – US – UK
Rail Transport – Science – Sports
Lists of leaders
Colonial Governors – State leaders
Birth and death categories
Births – Deaths
Establishments and disestablishments categories
Establishments – Disestablishments
1843 in other calendars Gregorian calendar 1843
Ab urbe condita 2596
Armenian calendar 1292
Assyrian calendar 6593
Bahá'í calendar −1 – 0
Bengali calendar 1250
Berber calendar 2793
British Regnal year 6 Vict. 1 – 7 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar 2387
Burmese calendar 1205
Byzantine calendar 7351–7352
Chinese calendar 壬寅年 (Water Tiger)
4539 or 4479
— to —
癸卯年 (Water Rabbit)
4540 or 4480
Coptic calendar 1559–1560
Discordian calendar 3009
Ethiopian calendar 1835–1836
Hebrew calendar 5603–5604
- Vikram Samvat 1899–1900
- Shaka Samvat 1765–1766
- Kali Yuga 4944–4945
Holocene calendar 11843
Igbo calendar 843–844
Iranian calendar 1221–1222
Islamic calendar 1258–1259
Japanese calendar Tenpō 14
Juche calendar N/A
Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar 4176
Minguo calendar 69 before ROC
Thai solar calendar 2386
Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar.
Serial publication of Charles Dickens' novel Martin Chuzzlewit begins in London. In the July chapters, he lands his hero in the United States.
Publication of Edgar Allan Poe's Gothic short story "The Tell-Tale Heart" in a Philadelphia magazine.
January 6 – Antarctic explorer James Clark Ross discovers Snow Hill Island.
January 20 – Honório Hermeto Carneiro Leão, Marquis of Paraná, becomes de facto first prime minister of the Empire of Brazil.
February 3 – Argentina supports Rosas of Uruguay and begins a siege of Montevideo.
February 6 – The Virginia Minstrels perform the first minstrel show, at the Bowery Amphitheatre in New York City.
February 11 – Giuseppe Verdi's opera I Lombardi alla prima crociata premieres at La Scala in Milan.
February 14 – The event that inspired the Beatles song Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite! is held in England.
February 25 – Provisional Cession of the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands established by Lord George Paulet.
March 13 – Catawba County, North Carolina, is created and its first court held in Mathias Barringer Jr.'s house.
March 15 – Victoria, British Columbia, is founded by the Hudson's Bay Company as a trading post and fort.
March 16 – The city of Petrópolis is founded by the government of Brazil.
March 21 – The world does not end, contrary to the first prediction by American preacher William Miller.
March 24 – Battle of Hyderabad: The Bombay Army led by Major General Sir Charles Napier defeats the Talpur Emirs, securing Sindh as a Province of British India.
March 25 – Marc Isambard Brunel's Thames Tunnel, the first tunnel under the River Thames and the world's first bored underwater tunnel, is opened in London.
April – Eta Carinae is temporarily the second-brightest star in the night sky.
May 4 – Natal is proclaimed a British colony.
May 18 – The Disruption in Edinburgh of the Free Church of Scotland from the Church of Scotland.
May 22 – The first major wagon train headed for the American Northwest sets out with one thousand pioneers from Elm Grove, Missouri on the Oregon Trail.
May 23 – Chile takes possession of the Strait of Magellan.
June 6 – In Barbados, Samuel Jackman Prescod is the first non-white person elected to the House of Assembly.
June 17 – Wairau Affray in the South Island of New Zealand: An armed posse of British settlers sent to arrest Māori chief Te Rauparaha clash with members of his Ngāti Toa tribe, resulting in 26 deaths
June 21 – Edgar Allan Poe's short story "The Gold-Bug" begins serialization in American newspapers.
July 19: SS Great Britain launch.
July 1 – Graduation from a class of 39 at the United States Military Academy, West Point, of Ulysses S. Grant (21st) and John J. Peck (8th).
July 19 – Isambard Kingdom Brunel's SS Great Britain is launched from Bristol; it will be the first iron-hulled, propeller-driven ship to cross the Atlantic Ocean.
August 1 – Brazil becomes the second country, after Great Britain, to issue nationally valid postage stamps with the release of its "Bull's Eye" series.
August 15 – Tivoli Gardens, one of the oldest still intact amusement parks in the world, opens in Copenhagen, Denmark.
August 15: Tivoli Gardens.
September –The Economist newspaper is first published in London.
September 3 – Popular uprising in Athens, Greece, including citizens and military captains, to require from King Otto the issue of a liberal Constitution to the state, which has been governed since independence (1830) by various domestic and foreign business interests.
September 4 – The Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil marries Dona Teresa Cristina of the Two Sicilies in a state ceremony in Rio de Janeiro Cathedral.
Søren Kierkegaard's philosophical book Fear and Trembling is first published.
William Rowan Hamilton discovers the calculus of quaternions and deduces that they are non-commutative.
December 9 – Bishop's University is founded as Bishop's College by Bishop George Jehoshaphat Mountain in Lennoxville, Quebec, for the education of members of the Church of England.
December 13 – Basutoland becomes a British protectorate.
December 17 – Charles Dickens' novella A Christmas Carol is first published, in London. Released on December 19 it sells out by Christmas Eve.
December 21 – The first total solar eclipse of saros 139 occurs over southern Asia.
December – The world's first Christmas cards, commissioned by Sir Henry Cole in London from the artist John Callcott Horsley, are sent.
The Danish government re-establishes the Althing in Iceland as an advisory body.
James Joule experimentally finds the mechanical equivalent of heat.
Ada Lovelace translates and expands Menabrea's notes on Charles Babbage's analytical engine, including an algorithm for calculating a sequence of Bernoulli numbers, regarded as the world's first computer program.
The steam powered rotary printing press is invented by Richard March Hoe in the United States.
The Friend, a Quaker weekly, is first published in London.
Saint Louis University School of Law becomes the first law school west of the Mississippi River.
Abbeville, Louisiana, is founded by descendants of Acadians from Nova Scotia.
Germans from the Black Forest region of Southern Baden migrate to Venezuela.
The export of British textile machinery and other equipment is allowed.[vague]
January 8 – John H. Moffitt, American politician (d. 1926)
January 10 – Frank James, American outlaw (d. 1915)
January 29 – William McKinley, 25th President of the United States (d. 1901)
February 19 – Adelina Patti, Spanish opera singer (d. 1919)
February 22 – Rudolf Montecuccoli, Austro-Hungarian admiral (d. 1922)
March 17 – Henry Ware Lawton, American general (d. 1899)
April 4 – William Jackson, photographer (d. 1942)
April 15 – Henry James, American writer (d. 1916)
April 25 – Princess Alice of the United Kingdom, third child of Queen Victoria (d. 1878)
May 20 – Ito Sukeyuki, Japanese admiral (d. 1914)
May 21 – Charles Albert Gobat, Swiss politician, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1914)
June 3 – King Frederick VIII of Denmark (d. 1912)
June 9 – Bertha von Suttner, Austrian writer and pacifist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1914)
June 15 – Edvard Grieg, Norwegian composer (d. 1907)
June 30 – Sir Ernest Satow, British diplomat and scholar (d. 1928)
July 7 – Camillo Golgi, Italian physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1926)
July 29 – Johannes Schmidt, German linguist (d. 1901)
August 1 – Robert Todd Lincoln, American statesman and businessman (d. 1926)
August 20 – Christina Nilsson, Swedish operatic soprano (d. 1921)
August 31 – Georg von Hertling, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1919)
September 4 – Ján Levoslav Bella, Slovak composer (d. 1936)
September 29 – Mikhail Skobelev, Russian general (d. 1882)
November 25 – Henry Ware Eliot, American industrialist, philanthropist and the father of T. S. Eliot (d. 1919)
November 27 – Cornelius Vanderbilt II, American railway magnate (d. 1899)
November 29 – Gertrude Jekyll, British garden designer, writer and artist (d. 1932)
December 11 – Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch, German physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1910)
December 28 – Colonel Prentiss Ingraham, American author of dime fiction (d. 1904)
Owon, Korean painter (d. 1897)
Pierre Lallement, French inventor of the bicycle (d. 1891)
Eliza Moore, last American to have been a slave (d. 1948)
Antoine Bournonville, French ballet dancer and choreographer (b. 1760)
Francis Scott Key, American songwriter of The Star-Spangled Banner (b. 1779)
March 3 – David Porter, American naval officer (b. 1780)
Robert Southey, English poet (b. 1774)
Guadalupe Victoria, Mexican revolutionary (b. 1786)
March 25 – Robert Murray M'Cheyne, Scottish clergyman (b. 1813)
March 27 – Karl Salomo Zachariae Von Lingenthal, German jurist (b. 1769)
April 17 – Samuel Morey, American inventor (b. 1762)
May 28 – Noah Webster, lexicographer (b. 1758)
June 1 – William Abbot, English actor (b. 1798)
June 6 – Friedrich Hölderlin, German writer (b. 1770)
July or August – Sequoyah, creator of the Cherokee syllabary (b. c. 1767)
July 7 – John Holmes, American politician (b. 1773)
July 14 – Miguel de Álava, Spanish soldier and statesman (b. 1770)
September 4 – Léopoldine Hugo, daughter of Victor Hugo (b. 1824)
September 11 – Joseph Nicollet, geographer (b. 1786)
September 16 – Ezekiel Hart, Canadian entrepreneur & politician (b. 1770 or 1767)
November 28 – József Ficzkó, Burgenland Croatian writer (b. 1772)
December 12 – King William I of the Netherlands (b. 1772)
December 18 – Thomas Graham, Lord Lynedoch, British Governor-General of India (b. 1748)