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Details about  1918 KN PENNY Coin Kings Norton Mint World War I Birmingham II RARE Antique Old

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1918 KN PENNY Coin Kings Norton Mint World War I Birmingham II RARE Antique Old
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Item condition:
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In Good Conditon for its age

20 Jul, 2014 22:44:04 BST
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Item specifics

Seller notes: In Good Conditon for its age
Year of Issue: 1918 Collections/ Bulk Lots: 1918 King Norton Penny
Number of Pieces: 1
1918 Penny

End of WWI
Minted at Kings Norton Mint Birmingham

A Ninety Five Year old British Penny from 1918

This Penny has a Small KN above the date to show it was not made by the royal mint but by the King Norton Mint

Many of these coins were removed from circulation by collectors

In the reign of King George V the Royal Mint ran out of capacity to strike enough coins for everyday usage, so they contracted out the minting of some Pennies. One of the two Mints they used was the King’s Norton Mint, unlike the Birmingham Mint, the King’s Norton Mint had never struck coins for them before.

They only made pennies for the Mint in 1918 and 1919 and all of these coins carry the ‘KN’ mint mark by the left of the date. Of the two mints, the King’s Norton is by a far distance the most difficult to get.

In Good Condition given it is almost one hundred years old

Would make an Excellent Gift or Collectable Keepsake souvineer

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The penny of King Edward VII (1901–1910) is of the same technical standards as the late Victorian issues. The head on the obverse is by George William de Saulles (1862–1903), facing right, with the inscription EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP. The reverse shows the seated Britannia surrounded by ONE PENNY and over the date, which remained the standard design until 1970, although there is a variety of some 1902 pennies known as the low tide penny, where the sea appears exceptionally low on Britannia's leg. Pennies were produced for all years of Edward VII's reign.

King George V (1910–1936) pennies were produced to the same standard until 1922, but after a three-year gap in production the alloy composition was changed in 1925 to 95.5% copper, 3% tin, and 1.5% zinc, although the weight remained at 1⁄3 ounces (
To convert a weight/mass with grams, use the unit-code "g" such as in:  {{convert|454|g|lb}} → 454 grams (1.00 lb). Parameter 1 is: 1/3. See: Template:Convert/list_of_units for other unit-codes. ) and the diameter 31 millimetres. The inscription around the three variations of the left-facing king's head remained GEORGIVS V DEI GRA BRITT OMN REX FID DEF IND IMP, while Britannia remained on the reverse, as before. In addition to the Royal Mint in the Tower of London, in 1912, 1918 and 1919 some coins were produced at the Heaton Mint in Birmingham, and are identified by an "H" to the left of the date, and in 1918 and 1919 some were also produced at the Kings Norton Metal Co. Ltd, also in Birmingham, and are identified by "KN" to the left of the date. Pennies were produced in 1911–1922 inclusive, and 1926–1936 inclusive bearing George V's effigy, however the 1933 penny is the greatest British numismatic rarity of the 20th century - only seven coins were minted, specifically for the king to lay under the foundation stones of new buildings; one of these coins was stolen when a church in Leeds was demolished in the 1960s, and its whereabouts is currently unknown.

British coinage
Current circulation   
One penny Two pence Five pence Ten pence Twenty pence Fifty pence One pound Two pounds
Commemorative and bullion   
Twenty-five pence Five pounds Maundy money Quarter sovereign Half sovereign Sovereign Britannia
Withdrawn (decimal)   
Half penny
Withdrawn (pre-decimal,
selected coins)   
Quarter-farthing Third-farthing Half-farthing Farthing Halfpenny Penny Threepence Groat Sixpence One shilling Two shillings (florin) Half crown Double florin (four shillings) Crown Half guinea Guinea
See also   
Pound sterling Coins of the pound sterling List of British banknotes and coins Scottish coinage Coins of Ireland List of people on coins of the United Kingdom

World War I (WWI) was a global war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918. It was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until the start of World War II in 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter. It involved all the world's great powers,[5] which were assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (based on the Triple Entente of the United Kingdom, France and Russia) and the Central Powers (originally centred around the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy; but, as Austria–Hungary had taken the offensive against the agreement, Italy did not enter into the war).[6] These alliances both reorganised (Italy fought for the Allies), and expanded as more nations entered the war. Ultimately more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history.[7][8] More than 9 million combatants were killed, largely because of technological advancements that led to enormous increases in the lethality of weapons without corresponding improvements in protection or mobility. It was the sixth-deadliest conflict in world history, subsequently paving the way for various political changes such as revolutions in many of the nations involved.[9]
Long-term causes of the war included the imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe, including the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, the French Republic, and Italy. The assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by a Yugoslav nationalist in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina was the proximate trigger of the war. It resulted in a Habsburg ultimatum against the Kingdom of Serbia.[10][11] Several alliances formed over the previous decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; via their colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 28 July, the conflict opened with the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia,[12][13] followed by the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France; and a Russian attack against Germany. After the German march on Paris was brought to a halt, the Western Front settled into a static battle of attrition with a trench line that changed little until 1917. In the East, the Russian army successfully fought against the Austro-Hungarian forces but was forced back from East Prussia and Poland by the German army. Additional fronts opened after the Ottoman Empire joined the war in 1914, Italy and Bulgaria in 1915 and Romania in 1916. The Russian Empire collapsed in March 1917, and Russia left the war after the October Revolution later that year. After a 1918 German offensive along the western front, the Allies drove back the German armies in a series of successful offensives and United States forces began entering the trenches. Germany, which had its own trouble with revolutionaries at this point, agreed to a cease-fire on 11 November 1918, later known as Armistice Day. The war had ended in victory for the Allies.
Events on the home fronts were as tumultuous as on the battle fronts, as the participants tried to mobilize their manpower and economic resources to fight a total war. By the end of the war, four major imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires—ceased to exist. The successor states of the former two lost a great amount of territory, while the latter two were dismantled entirely. The map of central Europe was redrawn into several smaller states.[14] The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war and the breakup of empires, the repercussions of Germany's defeat and problems with the Treaty of Versailles are agreed to be factors contributing to World War II

D.III biplanes
Date    28 July 1914 – 11 November 1918 (Armistice)
Treaty of Versailles signed 28 June 1919
(4 years and 11 months)
Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye signed 10 September 1919
Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine signed 27 November 1919
Treaty of Trianon signed 4 June 1920
Treaty of Sèvres signed 10 August 1920
Location    Europe, Africa, the Middle East, the Pacific Islands, China and off the coast of South and North America
Result    Allied victory
End of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and Austro-Hungarian empires
Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East
Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers
Establishment of the League of Nations. (more...)
Allied (Entente) Powers
 British Empire
 New Zealand
 South Africa
 Russia (1914–17)
 Italy (1915–18)
 United States (1917–18)
 Romania (1916–18)
 Greece (1917–18)
and others
Central Powers
 Ottoman Empire
 Bulgaria (1915–18)
Various co-belligerents
Commanders and leaders
Leaders and commanders
 Raymond Poincaré
 Georges Clemenceau
 Ferdinand Foch
 H. H. Asquith
 David Lloyd George
 Douglas Haig
 Nicholas II
 Nicholas Nikolaevich
 Victor Emanuel III
 Antonio Salandra
 Vittorio Orlando
 Luigi Cadorna
 Woodrow Wilson
 John J. Pershing
 Ferdinand I
and others
Leaders and commanders
 Wilhelm II
 Paul von Hindenburg
 Erich Ludendorff
 Franz Joseph I
 Karl I
 Conrad von Hötzendorf
 Mehmed V
 Enver Pasha
 Mustafa Kemal
 Ferdinand I
 Nikola Zhekov
and others
Total: 42,959,850
Central Powers[1]
Total: 25,248,321
Casualties and losses
Military dead:
Military wounded:
Military missing:
22,477,500 KIA, WIA or MIA ...further details.    Military dead:
Military wounded:
Military missing:
16,403,000 KIA, WIA or MIA ...further details.
[hide] v t e
Theatres of World War I
Balkans Western Front Eastern Front Italian Front
Middle Eastern
Caucasus Persia Gallipoli Mesopotamia Sinai and Palestine South Arabia
South-West Africa West Africa East Africa North Africa
Asian and Pacific theatre
Other theatres
America Atlantic Ocean Mediterranean

[hide] v t e
Major armed conflicts involving the United States Armed Forces
listed chronologically
Indian Wars Shays' Rebellion Whiskey Rebellion Walton War Dorr Rebellion Anahuac Disturbances Mormon War Regulator–Moderator War Cordova Rebellion Bleeding Kansas Wakarusa War Utah War Morrisite War Erie War Civil War Bald Hills War Erie Gauge War Sheep Wars San Elizario Salt War Brooks–Baxter War Pleasant Valley War Coal Creek War Ned Christie's War Homestead Strike Battle of Blair Mountain California Water Wars Sheepshooters' War Coal Wars Illinois Coal Wars Black Patch Tobacco Wars Bonus Army Colorado Coalfield War West Virginia Coal Wars Red River Bridge War Harlan County War
Revolutionary War Quasi-War First Barbary War Blockade of Africa Sixty Years' War Chesapeake–Leopard Affair War of 1812 War of the Sixth Coalition African Slave Trade Patrol Second Barbary War Falklands Expedition Johanna Expedition First Sumatran Expedition Second Sumatran Expedition Ivory Coast Expedition Shimonoseki Campaign Mexican–American War Taos Revolt First Fiji Expedition Second Opium War Cortina Troubles Trent Affair Chesapeake Affair Formosa Expedition Second Fiji Expedition Samoan crisis Korean Expedition Las Cuevas War Egyptain Expedition First Samoan Civil War Hawaiian Rebellions Philippine Revolution Spanish–American War Philippine–American War Wilcox Rebellion Garza Revolution Black Week Hawaiian Civil War Overthrow of Hawaii Second Samoan Civil War Second Boer War Boxer Rebellion Banana Wars Occupation of Nicaragua Occupation of Veracruz Mexican Revolution Border War Pancho Villa Expedition Bandit War World War I Occupation of Haiti First invasion of The Dominican Republic Russian Civil War World War II Greek Civil War First Indochina War Korean War 1953 Iran crisis First Taiwan Strait Crisis Laotian Civil War Second Taiwan Strait Crisis 1958 Lebanon crisis Central American crisis Guatemalan Civil War Portuguese Colonial War Bay of Pigs Invasion South African Border War Vietnam War Cambodian Civil War Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation Nicaraguan Civil War Dominican Civil War Second invasion of the Dominican Republic Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 Philippines insurgency Afghan Civil War Cambodian–Vietnamese War Iran–Iraq War Chadian-Libyan conflict Yom Kippur War Nicaraguan Revolution Salvadoran Civil War First Gulf of Sidra incident Invasion of Grenada Lebanese Civil War Angolan Civil War Second Gulf of Sidra incident First bombing of Libya Invasion of Panama Civil war in Afghanistan (1989–1992) Third Gulf of Sidra incident Gulf War Iraqi no-fly zones Somali Civil War Bombing of Iraq Iraqi Kurdish Civil War Invasion of Haiti Bosnian War Third Taiwan Strait Crisis Conch Republic clashes Missile Strikes on Iraq Civil war in Afghanistan (1996–2001) Kosovo War Albanian Rebellion Shia insurgency in Yemen Missile Strikes on Sudan and Afghanistan Kurdistan Islamist Conflict War on Terror Afghanistan War Maghreb insurgency Iraq War Drone attacks in Pakistan Central African Republic Bush War War in North-West Pakistan War in Darfur Iraqi insurgency (2003–2006) Pakistan Skirmishes Shia insurgency in Yemen War in Somalia (2006–2009) Civil war in Iraq Violence in Pakistan 2006–09 War in Somalia (2009–present) Honduran Coup Somali piracy crackdown Yemeni al-Qaeda crackdown Libyan Civil War Lord's Resistance Army insurgency Iraq insurgency 2011-present 2012 East DR Congo conflict Azawad insurgency
Related articles   
List of conflicts in the U.S. List of wars involving the U.S. Timeline of U.S. military operations Length of U.S. participation in major wars Overseas expansion Military history Covert regime-change actions Casualties of war
[hide] v t e
World War I
Home front during World War I
European theatre Balkans Western Front Eastern Front Italian Front
Middle Eastern theatre Caucasus Mesopotamia Sinai and Palestine Gallipoli Persia South Arabia
African theatre South-West West East North
Asian and Pacific theatre Siege of Tsingtao
Atlantic Ocean Mediterranean
Entente Powers   
Russian Empire/Republic French Empire: France, Vietnam British Empire: United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa Italy Romania United States Serbia Portugal China Japan Belgium Montenegro Greece Armenia Brazil
Central Powers   
Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire Bulgaria
Mexican Revolution (1910–1920) Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912) First Balkan War (1912–1913) Second Balkan War (1913)
Origins Sarajevo assassination July Crisis
Battle of the Frontiers Battle of Cer First Battle of the Marne Battle of Tannenberg Battle of Galicia Battle of the Masurian Lakes Battle of Kolubara Battle of Sarikamish Race to the Sea First Battle of Ypres
Second Battle of Ypres Battle of Gallipoli Battles of the Isonzo Great Retreat Conquest of Serbia Siege of Kut
Erzurum Offensive Battle of Verdun Lake Naroch Offensive Battle of Asiago Battle of Jutland Battle of the Somme Brusilov Offensive Battle of Romani Monastir Offensive Conquest of Romania
Capture of Baghdad First Battle of Gaza Second Battle of Arras Kerensky Offensive Third Battle of Ypres (Passchendaele) Battle of Caporetto Battle of Mughar Ridge Battle of Jerusalem Battle of Cambrai
Armistice of Erzincan Salonika front Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Spring Offensive First Transjordan Second Transjordan Hundred Days Offensive Battle of Baku Vardar Offensive Meuse-Argonne Offensive Battle of Megiddo Battle of Vittorio Veneto Armistice of Villa Giusti Armistice with Germany Armistice with the Ottoman Empire Battle of the Lys
Other conflicts   
Maritz Rebellion (1914–1915) Angola (1914–1915) Indo-German Conspiracy (1914–1919) Senussi Campaign (1915–1916) Easter Rising (1916) Russian Revolution (1917) Finnish Civil War (1918)
Russian Civil War (1917–1921) Ukrainian Civil War (1917–1921) Armenian–Azerbaijani War (1918–1920) Georgian–Armenian War (1918) German Revolution (1918–1919) Revolutions and interventions in Hungary (1918–1920) Hungarian–Romanian War (1918–1919) Greater Poland Uprising (1918–1919) Estonian War of Independence (1918–1920) Latvian War of Independence (1918–1920) Lithuanian Wars of Independence (1918–1920) Third Anglo-Afghan War (1919) Egyptian Revolution (1919) Polish–Ukrainian War (1918–1919) Polish–Soviet War (1919–1921) Irish War of Independence (1919–1921) Turkish War of Independence including the Greco-Turkish War (1919–1923) and the Turkish–Armenian War (1920) Polish–Lithuanian War (1920) Soviet–Georgian War (1921) Irish Civil War (1922–1923)
Military engagements Naval warfare Convoy system Air warfare Cryptography Geography's role Horse use Poison gas Railways Strategic bombing Technology Trench warfare Total war Christmas truce Last surviving veterans
Civilian impact /
atrocities /
Casualties 1918 flu pandemic Destruction of Kalisz Rape of Belgium Ottoman people (Armenian Genocide, Assyrian Genocide, Pontic Greek Genocide) Women's roles Popular culture German prisoners of war in the United States
Agreements /
Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire Sykes-Picot St.-Jean-de-Maurienne French-Armenian Damascus Paris Peace Conference Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Treaty of Lausanne Treaty of London Treaty of Neuilly Treaty of St. Germain Treaty of Sèvres Treaty of Trianon Treaty of Versailles
Aftermath "Fourteen Points" League of Nations World War I memorials

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death. He was the last Emperor of India, and the first Head of the Commonwealth.

As the second son of King George V, he was not expected to inherit the throne and spent his early life in the shadow of his elder brother, Edward. He served in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force during World War I, and after the war took on the usual round of public engagements. He married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1923, and they had two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret.

George's elder brother ascended the throne as Edward VIII on the death of their father in 1936. However, less than a year later Edward revealed his desire to marry the divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson. British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin advised Edward that for political and religious reasons he could not marry Mrs Simpson and remain king. Edward abdicated in order to marry, and George ascended the throne as the third monarch of the House of Windsor.

On the day of his accession, the Oireachtas, the parliament of the Irish Free State, removed the monarch from its constitution. Further events during George's reign accelerated the break-up of the British Empire and its transition into the Commonwealth of Nations. Three years after his accession, the Empire and Commonwealth, except the Irish Free State, was at war with Nazi Germany. In the next two years, war with Italy and Japan followed. Though Britain and its allies were ultimately victorious, the United States and the Soviet Union rose as pre-eminent world powers and the British Empire declined. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, his title of Emperor of India was abandoned in June 1948. Ireland was formally declared a republic in 1949, and India followed suit the following year. George adopted the new title of Head of the Commonwealth. He was beset by health problems in the later years of his reign. After his death, he was succeeded by his elder daughter, Elizabeth II.

Because of his stammer, Albert dreaded public speaking.[27] After his closing speech at the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley on 31 October 1925, one which was an ordeal for both him and the listeners,[28] he began to see Lionel Logue, an Australian-born speech therapist. The Duke and Logue practised breathing exercises, and the Duchess rehearsed with him patiently.[29] Subsequently, he was able to speak with less hesitation.[30] With his delivery improved, the Duke opened Parliament House in Canberra during a tour of the empire in 1927.[31] His journey by sea to Australia, New Zealand and Fiji took him via Jamaica, where Albert played doubles tennis partnered with a black man, which was unusual at the time and taken locally as a display of equality between races.[32]

The Duke and Duchess of York had two children: Elizabeth (called "Lilibet" by the family), and Margaret. The Duke and Duchess and their two daughters lived a relatively sheltered life at their London residence, 145 Piccadilly. One of the few stirs arose when the Canadian Prime Minister, R. B. Bennett, considered the Duke for Governor General of Canada in 1931—a proposal that the King rejected on the advice of his ministers

The King's Speech is a 2010 British historical drama film directed by Tom Hooper and written by David Seidler. Colin Firth plays King George VI who, to cope with a stammer, sees Lionel Logue, an Australian speech therapist played by Geoffrey Rush. The men become friends as they work together, and after his brother abdicates the throne, the new King relies on Logue to help him make a radio broadcast on Britain's declaration of war on Germany in 1939.

Seidler read about George VI's life after overcoming a stuttering condition he endured during his youth. He started writing about the men's relationship as early as the 1980s, but postponed work, at the Queen Mother's wishes, until her death in 2002. He later rewrote his screenplay for the stage to focus on the essential relationship between the two protagonists. Nine weeks before filming began, Logue's notebooks were discovered and quotations from them were incorporated into the script.

Principal photography took place in London and around Britain from November 2009 to January 2010. The opening scenes were filmed in Elland Road, Leeds, (for the since demolished Wembley Stadium), Buckingham Palace interiors in Lancaster House, and Ely Cathedral stood in for Westminster Abbey. The cinematography differs from other historical dramas; hard light was used to give the story a greater resonance and wider than normal lenses were used to recreate the King's feelings of constriction. A third technique Hooper employed was the off-centre framing of characters: in his first consultation with Logue, George VI is captured hunched on the side of a couch at the edge of the frame.

Released in the United Kingdom on 7 January 2011, The King's Speech was a major box office and critical success. Censors initially gave it adult ratings due to profanity, though these were later revised downwards after criticism by the makers and distributors in the UK and some instances of swearing were muted in the US. On a budget of GB£8 million, it earned over US$400 million internationally (£250 million).[5] It was widely praised by film critics for its visual style, art direction, and acting. Other commentators discussed the film's representation of historical detail, especially the reversal of Winston Churchill's opposition to abdication. The film received many awards and nominations, particularly for Colin Firth's performance; his Golden Globe Award for Best Actor was the sole win at that ceremony from seven nominations. The King's Speech won seven British Academy Film Awards, including Best Picture, Best Actor (Firth), Best Supporting Actor (Rush), and Best Supporting Actress (Bonham Carter). The film also won four Academy Awards: Best Picture, Best Director (Hooper), Best Actor (Firth), and Best Original Screenplay (Seidler).


Third choice to play the lead,[6] Colin Firth's performance earned him BAFTA & Academy awards, among others.

Colin Firth as King George VI / Prince Albert, Duke of York

Geoffrey Rush as Lionel Logue

Helena Bonham Carter as Elizabeth, Duchess of York / Queen Elizabeth

Guy Pearce as Edward, Prince of Wales / King Edward VIII

Michael Gambon as King George V

Timothy Spall as Winston Churchill

Jennifer Ehle as Myrtle Gruenert Logue

Derek Jacobi as Cosmo Gordon Lang (Archbishop of Canterbury)

Anthony Andrews as Stanley Baldwin

Eve Best as Wallis Simpson

Freya Wilson as Princess Elizabeth

Ramona Marquez as Princess Margaret

Claire Bloom as Queen Mary

Tim Downie as Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester

Maya Seidler as Mary, Princess Royal

Works directed by Tom Hooper

Theatrical films

 Red Dust (2004) · The Damned United (2009) · The King's Speech (2010) · Les Misérables (2012)


 EastEnders (1998–2000) · Love in a Cold Climate (2001) · Daniel Deronda (2002) · Elizabeth I (2005) · Longford (2006) · John Adams (2008)

[hide]v · d · eAcademy Award for Best Picture (2001–2020)

A Beautiful Mind (2001) · Chicago (2002) · The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) · Million Dollar Baby (2004) · Crash (2005) · The Departed (2006) · No Country for Old Men (2007) · Slumdog Millionaire (2008) · The Hurt Locker (2009) · The King's Speech (2010)

Complete list · (1927–1940) · (1941–1960) · (1961–1980) · (1981–2000) · (2001–2020)

[hide]v · d · eBAFTA Award for Best Film (2001–2020)

Best Film

 Gladiator (2001) · The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2002) · The Pianist (2003) · The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2004) · The Aviator (2005) · Brokeback Mountain (2006) · The Queen (2007) · Atonement (2008) · Slumdog Millionaire (2009) · The Hurt Locker (2010) · The King's Speech (2011)

Best Film Not in the

English Language

 Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2001) · Amores perros (2002) · Talk to Her (2003) · In This World (2004) · The Motorcycle Diaries (2005) · The Beat That My Heart Skipped (2006) · Pan's Labyrinth (2007) · The Lives of Others (2008) · I've Loved You So Long (2009) · A Prophet (2010) · The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo (2011)

Best British Film

 Billy Elliot (2001) · Gosford Park (2002) · The Warrior (2003) · Touching the Void (2004) · My Summer of Love (2005) · Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit (2006) · The Last King of Scotland (2007) · This Is England (2008) · Man on Wire (2009) · Fish Tank (2010) · The King's Speech (2011)

Complete list · (1948–1960) · (1961–1980) · (1981–2000) · (2001–2020)

[hide]v · d · eBIFA Award for Best British Independent Film

My Name Is Joe (1998) · Wonderland (1999) · Billy Elliot (2000) · Sexy Beast (2001) · Sweet Sixteen (2002) · Dirty Pretty Things (2003) · Vera Drake (2004) · The Constant Gardener (2005) · This Is England (2006) · Control (2007) · Slumdog Millionaire (2008) · Moon (2009) · The King's Speech (2010)

[hide]v · d · eScreen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture (2001–2010)

Gosford Park (2001) : Eileen Atkins, Bob Balaban, Alan Bates, Charles Dance, Stephen Fry, Michael Gambon, Richard E. Grant, Tom Hollander, Derek Jacobi, Kelly Macdonald, Helen Mirren, Jeremy Northam, Clive Owen, Ryan Phillippe, Maggie Smith, Geraldine Somerville, Kristin Scott Thomas, Sophie Thompson, Emily Watson, James Wilby

Chicago (2002) : Christine Baranski, Ekaterina Chtchelkanova, Taye Diggs, Denise Faye, Colm Feore, Richard Gere, Deidre Goodwin, Queen Latifah, Lucy Liu, Susan Misner, Mýa, John C. Reilly, Dominic West, Renée Zellweger, Catherine Zeta-Jones

The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (2003) : Sean Astin, Sean Bean, Cate Blanchett, Orlando Bloom, Billy Boyd, Bernard Hill, Ian Holm, Ian McKellen, Dominic Monaghan, Viggo Mortensen, John Noble, Miranda Otto, John Rhys-Davies, Andy Serkis, Liv Tyler, Karl Urban, Hugo Weaving, David Wenham, Elijah Wood

Sideways (2004) : Thomas Haden Church, Paul Giamatti, Virginia Madsen, Sandra Oh

Crash (2005) : Christopher "Ludacris" Bridges, Sandra Bullock, Don Cheadle, Matt Dillon, Jennifer Esposito, William Fichtner, Brendan Fraser, Terrence Howard, Thandie Newton, Ryan Phillippe, Larenz Tate

Little Miss Sunshine (2006) : Alan Arkin, Abigail Breslin, Steve Carell, Toni Collette, Paul Dano, Greg Kinnear

No Country for Old Men (2007) : Javier Bardem, Josh Brolin, Garret Dillahunt, Tess Harper, Woody Harrelson, Tommy Lee Jones, Kelly Macdonald

Slumdog Millionaire (2008) : Rubina Ali, Tanay Hemant Chheda, Ashutosh Lobo Gajiwala, Azharuddin Mohammed Ismail, Anil Kapoor, Irrfan Khan, Ayush Mahesh Khedekar, Tanvi Ganesh Lonkar, Madhur Mittal, Dev Patel, Freida Pinto

Inglourious Basterds (2009) : Daniel Brühl, August Diehl, Julie Dreyfus, Michael Fassbender, Sylvester Groth, Jacky Ido, Diane Kruger, Mélanie Laurent, Denis Menochet, Mike Myers, Brad Pitt, Eli Roth, Til Schweiger, Rod Taylor, Christoph Waltz, Martin Wuttke

The King's Speech (2010) : Anthony Andrews, Helena Bonham Carter, Jennifer Ehle, Colin Firth, Michael Gambon, Derek Jacobi, Guy Pearce, Geoffrey Rush, Timothy Spall

Complete list · (1995–2000) · (2001–2010)

[hide]v · d · eEdward VIII abdication crisis

Main protagonists

 Edward VIII · Wallis Simpson

Other persons involved

 Joseph Lyons (Prime Minister of Australia) · William Lyon Mackenzie King (Prime Minister of Canada) · Éamon de Valera (Prime Minister of the Irish Free State) · Michael Joseph Savage (Prime Minister of New Zealand) · J. B. M. Hertzog (Prime Minister of South Africa) · Stanley Baldwin (Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) · Cosmo Gordon Lang (Archbishop of Canterbury) · Alfred Blunt (Bishop of Bradford) · John Theodore Goddard (Mrs. Simpson's solicitor) · Alexander Hardinge (Edward VIII's private secretary) · Prince Albert, Duke of York (Edward VIII's brother, later George VI) · Queen Mary (Edward VIII's mother) · Ernest Aldrich Simpson (Mrs. Simpson's second husband)

Legal documents

 Succession to the Throne Act 1937 (Canada) · Executive Authority (External Relations) Act 1936 (Ireland) · His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936 (UK)

Cultural depictions

 Edward & Mrs. Simpson (1978) · Wallis & Edward (2005) · The King's Speech (2010) · W.E (2011)

Winners and nominees

In the list below, the winner of the award for each year is shown first, followed by the other nominees. Except for the early years (when the Academy used a non-calendar year), the year shown is the one in which the film first premiered in Los Angeles County, California; normally this is also the year of first release, but it may be the year after first release (as with Casablanca and, if the film-festival premiere is considered, Crash). This is the year before the ceremony at which the award is given; for example, a film exhibited theatrically during 2005 was eligible for consideration for the 2005 Best Picture Oscar, awarded in 2006. The number of the ceremony (1st, 2nd, etc.) appears in parentheses after the awards year, linked to the article (if any) on that ceremony. Each individual entry shows the title followed by the production company, and the producer. For foreign language films, the original title is also shown. Until 1950, the Best Picture award was given to the production company; from 1951 on, it has gone to the producer. The official name of the award has changed several times over the years:

1927/28 → 1928/29: Outstanding Picture

1929/30 → 1940: Outstanding Production

1941 → 1943: Outstanding Motion Picture

1944 → 1961: Best Motion Picture

1962 → Present: Best Picture

For the first ceremony, three films were nominated for the award. For the following three years, five films were nominated for the award. This was expanded to eight in 1933, to ten in 1934, and to twelve in 1935, before being dropped back to ten in 1937. In 1945 it was reduced back to five. This number remained until 2010, when it was once again raised to ten.

For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. For example, the 2nd Academy Awards presented on April 3, 1930, recognized films that were released between August 1, 1928 and July 31, 1929. Starting with the 7th Academy Awards, held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the full previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31.


1927/28[A] (1st)

Film  Production Company(ies)  Producer(s)

Wings  Paramount, Famous Players-Lasky  Lucien Hubbard

The Racket  Caddo, Paramount  Howard Hughes

Seventh Heaven  Fox  William Fox

1928/29 (2nd)

Film  Production Company(ies)  Producer(s)

The Broadway Melody  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer[L]  Irving Thalberg & Lawrence Weingarten

Alibi  Feature Productions, United Artists  Roland West

The Hollywood Revue of 1929  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Harry Rapf

In Old Arizona  Fox  Winfield Sheehan[G]

The Patriot  Paramount  Ernst Lubitsch


1929/30[B] (3rd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

All Quiet on the Western Front  Universal  Carl Laemmle, Jr.

The Big House  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Irving Thalberg

Disraeli  Warner Bros.  Jack Warner, Darryl F. Zanuck

The Divorcee  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Robert Z. Leonard

The Love Parade  Paramount  Ernst Lubitsch

1930/31 (4th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Cimarron  RKO Radio  William LeBaron

East Lynne  Fox  Winfield Sheehan[G]

The Front Page  Caddo, United Artists  Howard Hughes

Skippy  Paramount  Adolph Zukor

Trader Horn  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Irving G. Thalberg

1931/32 (5th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Grand Hotel  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Irving Thalberg

Arrowsmith  Goldwyn, United Artists  Samuel Goldwyn

Bad Girl  Fox  Winfield Sheehan[G]

The Champ  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  King Vidor

Five Star Final  First National  Hal B. Wallis

One Hour with You  Paramount  Ernst Lubitsch

Shanghai Express  Paramount  Adolph Zukor

The Smiling Lieutenant  Paramount  Ernst Lubitsch

1932/33 (6th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Cavalcade[H]  Fox  Winfield Sheehan[G]

A Farewell to Arms[H]  Paramount  Adolph Zukor

42nd Street  Warner Bros.  Darryl F. Zanuck

I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang  Warner Bros.  Hal B. Wallis

Lady for a Day  Columbia  Frank Capra

Little Women[H]  RKO Radio  Merian C. Cooper, Kenneth MacGowan

The Private Life of Henry VIII  London Films, United Artists  Alexander Korda

She Done Him Wrong  Paramount  William LeBaron

Smilin' Through  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Irving Thalberg

State Fair  Fox  Winfield Sheehan[G]

1934 (7th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

It Happened One Night[I]  Columbia  Harry Cohn

The Barretts of Wimpole Street[I]  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Irving Thalberg

Cleopatra  Paramount  Cecil B. DeMille

Flirtation Walk  First National  Jack L. Warner, Hal B. Wallis, Robert Lord

The Gay Divorcee  RKO Radio  Pandro S. Berman

Here Comes the Navy  Warner Bros.  Lou Edelman

The House of Rothschild[I]  20th Century, United Artists  Darryl F. Zanuck, William Goetz, Raymond Griffith

Imitation of Life  Universal  John M. Stahl

One Night of Love  Columbia  Harry Cohn, Everett Riskin

The Thin Man  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Hunt Stromberg

Viva Villa!  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  David O. Selznick

The White Parade  Fox  Jesse L. Lasky

1935 (8th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Mutiny on the Bounty[J]  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Irving Thalberg, Albert Lewin

Alice Adams  RKO Radio  Pandro S. Berman

Broadway Melody of 1936  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  John W. Considine, Jr.

Captain Blood[J]  Warner Bros., Cosmopolitan  Hal B. Wallis, Harry Joe Brown, Gordon Hollingshead

David Copperfield  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  David O. Selznick

The Informer[J]  RKO Radio  Cliff Reid

The Lives of a Bengal Lancer  Paramount  Louis D. Lighton

A Midsummer Night's Dream  Warner Bros.  Henry Blanke

Les Misérables  20th Century, United Artists  Darryl F. Zanuck

Naughty Marietta  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Hunt Stromberg

Ruggles of Red Gap  Paramount  Arthur Hornblow, Jr.

Top Hat  RKO Radio  Pandro S. Berman

1936 (9th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Great Ziegfeld  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Hunt Stromberg

Anthony Adverse  Warner Bros.  Henry Blanke

Dodsworth  Goldwyn, United Artists  Samuel Goldwyn, Merritt Hulbert

Libeled Lady  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Lawrence Weingarten

Mr. Deeds Goes to Town  Columbia  Frank Capra

Romeo and Juliet  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Irving Thalberg

San Francisco  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  John Emerson, Bernard H. Hyman

The Story of Louis Pasteur  Warner Bros.  Henry Blanke

A Tale of Two Cities  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  David O. Selznick

Three Smart Girls  Universal  Joe Pasternak, Charles R. Rogers

1937 (10th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Life of Emile Zola  Warner Bros.  Henry Blanke

The Awful Truth  Columbia  Leo McCarey, Everett Riskin

Captains Courageous  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Louis Lighton

Dead End  Goldwyn, United Artists  Samuel Goldwyn, Merritt Hulbert

The Good Earth  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Irving Thalberg, Albert Lewin

In Old Chicago  20th Century Fox  Darryl F. Zanuck, Kenneth MacGowan

Lost Horizon  Columbia  Frank Capra

One Hundred Men and a Girl  Universal  Charles R. Rogers, Joe Pasternak

Stage Door  RKO Radio  Pandro S. Berman

A Star Is Born  Selznick International, United Artists  David O. Selznick

1938 (11th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

You Can't Take It With You  Columbia  Frank Capra

The Adventures of Robin Hood  Warner Bros.  Hal B. Wallis, Henry Blanke

Alexander's Ragtime Band  20th Century Fox  Darryl F. Zanuck, Harry Joe Brown

Boys Town  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  John W. Considine, Jr.

The Citadel  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Victor Saville

Four Daughters  Warner Bros., First National  Hal B. Wallis, Henry Blanke

Grand Illusion  R. A. O., World Pictures  Frank Rollmer, Albert Pinkovitch

Jezebel  Warner Bros.  Hal B. Wallis, Henry Blanke

Pygmalion  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Gabriel Pascal

Test Pilot  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Louis Lighton

1939 (12th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Gone with the Wind  Selznick, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  David O. Selznick

Dark Victory  Warner Bros.  David Lewis

Goodbye, Mr. Chips  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Victor Saville

Love Affair  RKO Radio  Leo McCarey

Mr. Smith Goes to Washington  Columbia  Frank Capra

Ninotchka  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Sidney Franklin

Of Mice and Men  Roach, United Artists  Lewis Milestone

Stagecoach  United Artists  Walter Wanger

The Wizard of Oz  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Mervyn LeRoy

Wuthering Heights  Goldwyn, United Artists  Samuel Goldwyn


1940 (13th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Rebecca  Selznick, United Artists  David O. Selznick

All This, and Heaven Too  Warner Bros.  Jack L. Warner, Hal B. Wallis, David Lewis

Foreign Correspondent  Wanger, United Artists  Walter Wanger

The Grapes of Wrath  20th Century Fox  Darryl F. Zanuck, Nunnally Johnson

The Great Dictator  Chaplin, United Artists  Charlie Chaplin

Kitty Foyle  RKO Radio  David Hempstead

The Letter  Warner Bros.  Hal B. Wallis

The Long Voyage Home  Argosy, Wanger, United Artists  John Ford

Our Town  Lesser, United Artists  Sol Lesser

The Philadelphia Story  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Joseph L. Mankiewicz

1941[C] (14th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

How Green Was My Valley  20th Century Fox  Darryl F. Zanuck

Blossoms in the Dust  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Irving Asher

Citizen Kane  RKO Radio  Orson Welles

Here Comes Mr. Jordan  Columbia  Everett Riskin

Hold Back the Dawn  Paramount  Arthur Hornblow, Jr.

The Little Foxes  RKO Radio  Samuel Goldwyn

The Maltese Falcon  Warner Bros.  Hal B. Wallis

One Foot in Heaven  Warner Bros.  Hal B. Wallis

Sergeant York  Warner Bros.  Hal B. Wallis, Jesse L. Lasky

Suspicion  RKO Radio  Alfred Hitchcock

1942 (15th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Mrs. Miniver  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Sidney Franklin

49th Parallel  GFD, Columbia  Michael Powell

Kings Row  Warner Bros.  Hal B. Wallis

The Magnificent Ambersons  Mercury, RKO Radio  Orson Welles

The Pied Piper  20th Century Fox  Nunnally Johnson

The Pride of the Yankees  Goldwyn, RKO Radio  Samuel Goldwyn

Random Harvest  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Sidney Franklin

The Talk of the Town  Columbia  George Stevens

Wake Island  Paramount  Joseph Sistrom

Yankee Doodle Dandy  Warner Bros.  Jack Warner, Hal B. Wallis, William Cagney

1943 (16th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Casablanca  Warner Bros.  Hal B. Wallis

For Whom the Bell Tolls  Paramount  Sam Wood

Heaven Can Wait  20th Century Fox  Ernst Lubitsch

The Human Comedy  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Clarence Brown

In Which We Serve  United Artists  Noël Coward

Madame Curie  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Sidney Franklin

The More the Merrier  Columbia  George Stevens

The Ox-Bow Incident  20th Century Fox  Lamar Trotti

The Song of Bernadette  20th Century Fox  William Perlberg

Watch on the Rhine  Warner Bros.  Hal B. Wallis

1944[D] (17th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Going My Way  Paramount  Leo McCarey

Double Indemnity  Paramount  Joseph Sistrom

Gaslight  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Arthur Hornblow, Jr.

Since You Went Away  Selznick, United Artists  David O. Selznick

Wilson  20th Century Fox  Darryl F. Zanuck

1945 (18th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Lost Weekend  Paramount  Charles Brackett

Anchors Aweigh  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Joe Pasternak

The Bells of St. Mary's  RKO Radio  Leo McCarey

Mildred Pierce  Warner Bros.  Jerry Wald

Spellbound  United Artists  David O. Selznick

1946 (19th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Best Years of Our Lives  RKO Radio  Samuel Goldwyn

Henry V  United Artists  Laurence Olivier

It's a Wonderful Life  RKO Radio  Frank Capra

The Razor's Edge  20th Century Fox  Darryl F. Zanuck

The Yearling  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Sidney Franklin

1947 (20th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Gentleman's Agreement  20th Century Fox  Darryl F. Zanuck

The Bishop's Wife  RKO Radio  Samuel Goldwyn

Crossfire  RKO Radio  Adrian Scott

Great Expectations  Rank-Cineguild, U-I  Ronald Neame

Miracle on 34th Street  20th Century Fox  William Perlberg

1948 (21st)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Hamlet  J. Arthur Rank-Two Cities Films, Universal International  Laurence Olivier

Johnny Belinda  Warner Bros.  Jerry Wald

The Red Shoes  Rank Organisation, Powell and Pressburger, Eagle-Lion Films  Michael Powell, Emeric Pressburger

The Snake Pit  20th Century Fox  Anatole Litvak, Robert Bassler

The Treasure of the Sierra Madre  Warner Bros.  Henry Blanke

1949 (22nd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

All the King's Men  Rossen, Columbia  Robert Rossen

Battleground  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Dore Schary

The Heiress  Paramount  William Wyler

A Letter to Three Wives  20th Century Fox  Sol C. Siegel

Twelve O'Clock High  20th Century Fox  Darryl F. Zanuck


1950 (23rd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

All About Eve  20th Century Fox  Darryl F. Zanuck

Born Yesterday  Columbia  S. Sylvan Simon

Father of the Bride  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Sam Zimbalist

King Solomon's Mines  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Sam Zimbalist

Sunset Boulevard  Paramount  Charles Brackett

1951 (24th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

An American in Paris  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Arthur Freed

Decision Before Dawn  20th Century Fox  Anatole Litvak, Frank McCarthy

A Place in the Sun  Paramount  George Stevens

Quo Vadis  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Sam Zimbalist

A Streetcar Named Desire  Warner Bros.  Charles K. Feldman

1952 (25th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Greatest Show on Earth  Paramount  Cecil B. DeMille

High Noon  United Artists  Stanley Kramer

Ivanhoe  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Pandro S. Berman

Moulin Rouge  United Artists  John Huston

The Quiet Man  Republic  John Ford, Merian C. Cooper

1953 (26th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

From Here to Eternity  Columbia  Buddy Adler

Julius Caesar  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  John Houseman

The Robe  20th Century Fox  Frank Ross

Roman Holiday  Paramount  William Wyler

Shane  Paramount  George Stevens

1954 (27th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

On the Waterfront  Columbia  Sam Spiegel[N]

The Caine Mutiny  Columbia  Stanley Kramer

The Country Girl  Paramount  William Perlberg

Seven Brides for Seven Brothers  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Jack Cummings

Three Coins in the Fountain  20th Century Fox  Sol C. Siegel

1955 (28th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Marty  United Artists  Harold Hecht

Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing  20th Century Fox  Buddy Adler

Mister Roberts  Warner Bros.  Leland Hayward

Picnic  Columbia  Fred Kohlmar

The Rose Tattoo  Paramount  Hal B. Wallis

1956 (29th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Around the World in 80 Days  United Artists  Michael Todd

Friendly Persuasion  Allied Artists  William Wyler

Giant  Warner Bros.  George Stevens, Henry Ginsberg

The King and I  20th Century Fox  Charles Brackett

The Ten Commandments  Paramount  Cecil B. DeMille

1957 (30th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Bridge on the River Kwai  Columbia  Sam Spiegel

Peyton Place  20th Century Fox  Jerry Wald

Sayonara  Warner Bros.  William Goetz

12 Angry Men  United Artists  Henry Fonda, Reginald Rose

Witness for the Prosecution  United Artists  Arthur Hornblow, Jr.

1958 (31st)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Gigi  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Arthur Freed

Auntie Mame  Warner Bros.  Jack L. Warner

Cat on a Hot Tin Roof  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Lawrence Weingarten

The Defiant Ones  Kramer, United Artists  Stanley Kramer

Separate Tables  United Artists  Harold Hecht

1959 (32nd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Ben-Hur  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Sam Zimbalist

Anatomy of a Murder  Columbia  Otto Preminger

The Diary of Anne Frank  20th Century Fox  George Stevens

The Nun's Story  Warner Bros.  Henry Blanke

Room at the Top  Continental, British Lion Films  John Woolf, James Woolf


1960 (33rd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Apartment  United Artists  Billy Wilder

The Alamo  United Artists  John Wayne

Elmer Gantry  United Artists  Bernard Smith

Sons and Lovers  20th Century Fox  Jerry Wald

The Sundowners  Warner Bros.  Fred Zinnemann

1961 (34th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

West Side Story  United Artists  Robert Wise

Fanny  Warner Bros.  Joshua Logan

The Hustler  20th Century Fox  Robert Rossen

Judgment at Nuremberg  United Artists  Stanley Kramer

1962[E] (35th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Lawrence of Arabia  Columbia  Sam Spiegel

The Longest Day  20th Century Fox  Darryl F. Zanuck

The Music Man  Warner Bros.  Morton DaCosta

Mutiny on the Bounty  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Aaron Rosenberg

To Kill a Mockingbird  U-I  Alan J. Pakula

1963 (36th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Tom Jones  United Artists  Tony Richardson

America, America  Warner Bros.  Elia Kazan

Cleopatra  20th Century Fox  Walter Wanger

How the West Was Won  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Cinerama  Bernard Smith

Lilies of the Field  United Artists  Ralph Nelson

1964 (37th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

My Fair Lady  Warner Bros.  Jack L. Warner

Becket  Paramount  Hal B. Wallis

Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb  Columbia  Stanley Kubrick

Mary Poppins  Walt Disney Productions  Walt Disney, Bill Walsh

Zorba the Greek  20th Century Fox  Michael Cacoyannis

1965 (38th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Sound of Music  20th Century Fox  Robert Wise

Darling  Embassy  Joseph Janni

Doctor Zhivago  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Carlo Ponti

Ship of Fools  Columbia  Stanley Kramer

A Thousand Clowns  United Artists  Fred Coe

1966 (39th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

A Man for All Seasons  Columbia  Fred Zinnemann

Alfie  Paramount  Lewis Gilbert

The Russians Are Coming, the Russians Are Coming  United Artists  Norman Jewison

The Sand Pebbles  20th Century Fox  Robert Wise

Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?  Warner Bros.  Ernest Lehman

1967 (40th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

In the Heat of the Night  United Artists  Walter Mirisch

Bonnie and Clyde  Warner Bros., Seven Arts  Warren Beatty

Doctor Dolittle  20th Century Fox  Arthur P. Jacobs

The Graduate  Embassy  Lawrence Turman

Guess Who's Coming to Dinner  Columbia  Stanley Kramer

1968 (41st)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Oliver!  Columbia  John Woolf

Funny Girl  Columbia  Ray Stark

The Lion in Winter  Avco Embassy  Martin Poll

Rachel, Rachel  Warner Bros.  Paul Newman

Romeo and Juliet  Paramount  Anthony Havelock-Allan, John Brabourne

1969 (42nd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Midnight Cowboy  United Artists  Jerome Hellman

Anne of the Thousand Days  Universal  Hal B. Wallis

Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid  20th Century Fox  John Foreman

Hello, Dolly!  20th Century Fox  Ernest Lehman

Z[K]  Cinema V  Jacques Perrin, Ahmed Rachedi


1970 (43rd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Patton  20th Century Fox  Frank McCarthy

Airport  Universal  Ross Hunter

Five Easy Pieces  Columbia  Bob Rafelson, Richard Wechsler

Love Story  Paramount  Howard G. Minsky

MASH  20th Century Fox  Ingo Preminger

1971 (44th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The French Connection  20th Century Fox  Philip D'Antoni

A Clockwork Orange  Warner Bros.  Stanley Kubrick

Fiddler on the Roof  United Artists  Norman Jewison

The Last Picture Show  Columbia  Stephen J. Friedman

Nicholas and Alexandra  Columbia  Sam Spiegel

1972 (45th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Godfather  Paramount  Albert S. Ruddy

Cabaret  Allied Artists  Cy Feuer

Deliverance  Warner Bros.  John Boorman

The Emigrants[K]  Warner Bros.  Bengt Forslund

Sounder  20th Century Fox  Robert B. Radnitz

1973 (46th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Sting  Universal  Tony Bill, Michael Phillips, Julia Phillips

American Graffiti  Lucasfilm, Universal  Francis Ford Coppola, Gary Kurtz

Cries and Whispers[K]  New World Pictures  Ingmar Bergman

The Exorcist  Warner Bros.  William Peter Blatty

A Touch of Class  Avco Embassy  Melvin Frank

1974 (47th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Godfather Part II[O]  Paramount  Francis Ford Coppola, Gray Frederickson, Fred Roos

Chinatown  Paramount  Robert Evans

The Conversation  Paramount  Francis Ford Coppola

Lenny  United Artists  Marvin Worth

The Towering Inferno  20th Century Fox, Warner Bros.  Irwin Allen

1975 (48th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest  United Artists  Saul Zaentz[N], Michael Douglas

Barry Lyndon  Warner Bros.  Stanley Kubrick

Dog Day Afternoon  Warner Bros.  Martin Bregman, Martin Elfand

Jaws  Universal  Richard D. Zanuck

Nashville  Paramount  Robert Altman

1976 (49th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Rocky  United Artists  Irwin Winkler, Robert Chartoff

All the President's Men  Warner Bros.  Walter Coblenz

Bound for Glory  United Artists  Robert F. Blumofe, Harold Leventhal

Network  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, United Artists  Howard Gottfried

Taxi Driver  Columbia  Michael Phillips, Julia Phillips

1977 (50th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Annie Hall  United Artists  Charles H. Joffe

The Goodbye Girl  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Warner Bros.  Ray Stark

Julia  20th Century Fox  Richard Roth

Star Wars  Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox  Gary Kurtz

The Turning Point  20th Century Fox  Herbert Ross, Arthur Laurents

1978 (51st)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Deer Hunter  Universal  Barry Spikings, Michael Deeley, Michael Cimino, John Peverall

Coming Home  United Artists  Jerome Hellman

Heaven Can Wait  Paramount  Warren Beatty

Midnight Express  Columbia  Alan Marshall, David Puttnam

An Unmarried Woman  20th Century Fox  Paul Mazursky, Tony Ray

1979 (52nd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Kramer vs. Kramer  Columbia  Stanley R. Jaffe

All That Jazz  20th Century Fox  Robert Alan Aurthur

Apocalypse Now  United Artists  Francis Ford Coppola, Fred Roos, Gray Frederickson, Tom Sternberg

Breaking Away  20th Century Fox  Peter Yates

Norma Rae  20th Century Fox  Tamara Asseyev, Alex Rose


1980 (53rd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Ordinary People  Paramount  Ronald L. Schwary

Coal Miner's Daughter  Universal  Bernard Schwartz

The Elephant Man  Paramount  Jonathan Sanger

Raging Bull  United Artists  Irwin Winkler, Robert Chartoff

Tess  Columbia  Claude Berri, Timothy Burrill

1981 (54th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Chariots of Fire  The Ladd Company, Warner Bros.  David Puttnam

Atlantic City  Paramount  Denis Héroux

On Golden Pond  ITC, Universal  Bruce Gilbert

Raiders of the Lost Ark  Lucasfilm, Paramount  Frank Marshall

Reds  Paramount  Warren Beatty

1982 (55th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Gandhi  Columbia  Richard Attenborough

E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial  Universal  Steven Spielberg, Kathleen Kennedy[M]

Missing  Universal  Edward Lewis, Mildred Lewis

Tootsie  Columbia  Sydney Pollack, Dick Richards

The Verdict  20th Century Fox  Richard D. Zanuck, David Brown

1983 (56th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Terms of Endearment  Paramount  James L. Brooks

The Big Chill  Columbia  Michael Shamberg

The Dresser  Columbia  Peter Yates

The Right Stuff  Warner Bros., The Ladd Company  Irwin Winkler, Robert Chartoff

Tender Mercies  EMI Films, Universal  Philip S. Hobel

1984 (57th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Amadeus  Orion  Saul Zaentz

The Killing Fields  Warner Bros.  David Puttnam

A Passage to India  Columbia  John Brabourne, Richard Goodwin

Places in the Heart  Tri-Star  Arlene Donovan

A Soldier's Story  Columbia  Norman Jewison, Ronald L. Schwary, Patrick Palmer

1985 (58th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Out of Africa  Universal  Sydney Pollack

The Color Purple  Warner Bros.  Steven Spielberg, Kathleen Kennedy, Frank Marshall, Quincy Jones

Kiss of the Spider Woman  Island Alive  David Weisman

Prizzi's Honor  20th Century Fox, ABC Motion Pictures  John Foreman

Witness  Paramount  Edward S. Feldman

1986 (59th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Platoon  Orion  Arnold Kopelson

Children of a Lesser God  Paramount  Burt Sugarman, Patrick J. Palmer

Hannah and Her Sisters  Orion  Robert Greenhut

The Mission  Warner Bros.  Fernando Ghia, David Puttnam

A Room with a View  Cinecom  Ismail Merchant

1987 (60th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Last Emperor[O]  Columbia  Jeremy Thomas

Broadcast News  20th Century Fox  James L. Brooks

Fatal Attraction  Paramount  Stanley R. Jaffe, Sherry Lansing

Hope and Glory  Columbia  John Boorman

Moonstruck  Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer  Patrick J. Palmer, Norman Jewison

1988 (61st)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Rain Man  United Artists  Mark Johnson

The Accidental Tourist  Warner Bros.  Lawrence Kasdan, Charles Okun, Michael Grillo

Dangerous Liaisons  Warner Bros.  Norma Heyman, Hank Moonjean

Mississippi Burning  Orion  Frederick Zollo, Robert F. Colesberry

Working Girl  20th Century Fox  Douglas Wick

1989 (62nd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Driving Miss Daisy  Warner Bros.  Richard D. Zanuck, Lili Fini Zanuck

Born on the Fourth of July  Universal  A. Kitman Ho, Oliver Stone

Dead Poets Society  Touchstone Pictures  Steven Haft, Paul Junger Witt, Tony Thomas

Field of Dreams  Universal  Lawrence Gordon, Charles Gordon

My Left Foot  Miramax  Noel Pearson


1990 (63rd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Dances with Wolves  Orion  Jim Wilson, Kevin Costner

Awakenings  Columbia  Walter F. Parkes, Lawrence Lasker

Ghost  Paramount  Lisa Weinstein

The Godfather Part III  Paramount  Francis Ford Coppola

Goodfellas  Warner Bros.  Irwin Winkler

1991 (64th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Silence of the Lambs  Orion  Edward Saxon, Kenneth Utt, Ron Bozman

Beauty and the Beast  Disney  Don Hahn

Bugsy  TriStar  Mark Johnson, Barry Levinson, Warren Beatty

JFK  Warner Bros.  A. Kitman Ho, Oliver Stone

The Prince of Tides  Columbia  Barbra Streisand, Andrew S. Karsch

1992 (65th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Unforgiven  Warner Bros.  Clint Eastwood

The Crying Game  Miramax  Stephen Woolley

A Few Good Men  Columbia, Castle Rock Entertainment  Rob Reiner, Andrew Scheinman

Howards End  Sony Pictures Classics  Ismail Merchant

Scent of a Woman  Universal  Martin Brest

1993 (66th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Schindler's List  Universal  Steven Spielberg, Gerald R. Molen, Branko Lustig

The Fugitive  Warner Bros.  Arnold Kopelson

In the Name of the Father  Universal  Jim Sheridan

The Piano  Miramax  Jane Campion

The Remains of the Day  Columbia  Mike Nichols, John Calley, Ismail Merchant

1994 (67th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Forrest Gump  Paramount  Wendy Finerman, Steve Tisch, Steve Starkey

Four Weddings and a Funeral  PolyGram Filmed Entertainment, Gramercy  Duncan Kenworthy

Pulp Fiction  Miramax  Lawrence Bender

Quiz Show  Hollywood Pictures  Michael Jacobs, Julian Krainin, Michael Nozick, Robert Redford

The Shawshank Redemption  Columbia, Castle Rock Entertainment  Niki Marvin

1995 (68th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Braveheart  Paramount, Icon, 20th Century Fox  Mel Gibson, Alan Ladd, Jr., Bruce Davey

Apollo 13  Universal, Imagine Entertainment  Brian Grazer

Babe  Universal  Bill Miller, George Miller, Doug Mitchell

The Postman (Il Postino)[K]  Miramax  Mario Cecchi Gori, Vittorio Cecchi Gori, Gaetano Daniele

Sense and Sensibility  Columbia  Lindsay Doran

1996 (69th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The English Patient  Miramax  Saul Zaentz

Fargo  PolyGram Filmed Entertainment, Gramercy  Ethan Coen

Jerry Maguire  Gracie Films, TriStar  James L. Brooks, Laurence Mark, Richard Sakai, Cameron Crowe

Secrets & Lies  October Films  Simon Channing-Williams

Shine  Fine Line Features  Jane Scott

1997 (70th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Titanic  Lightstorm Entertainment, 20th Century Fox, Paramount  James Cameron, Jon Landau

As Good as It Gets  TriStar  James L. Brooks, Bridget Johnson, Kristi Zea

The Full Monty  Fox Searchlight  Umberto Pasolini

Good Will Hunting  Miramax  Lawrence Bender

L.A. Confidential  Warner Bros.  Curtis Hanson, Arnon Milchan, Michael G. Nathanson

1998 (71st)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Shakespeare in Love  Miramax/Universal  David Parfitt, Donna Gigliotti, Harvey Weinstein, Edward Zwick, Marc Norman

Elizabeth  PolyGram Filmed Entertainment, Gramercy  Shekhar Kapur, Alison Owen, Eric Fellner, Tim Bevan

Life Is Beautiful[K]  Miramax  Elda Ferri, Gianluigi Braschi

Saving Private Ryan  DreamWorks, Paramount  Steven Spielberg, Ian Bryce, Mark Gordon, Gary Levinsohn

The Thin Red Line  20th Century Fox  Robert Michael Geisler, John Roberdeau, Grant Hill

1999 (72nd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

American Beauty  DreamWorks  Bruce Cohen, Dan Jinks

The Cider House Rules  Miramax  Richard N. Gladstein

The Green Mile  Castle Rock Entertainment, Warner Bros.  Frank Darabont, David Valdes

The Insider  Touchstone Pictures  Pieter Jan Brugge, Michael Mann

The Sixth Sense  Hollywood Pictures  Frank Marshall, Kathleen Kennedy, Barry Mendel, M. Night Shyamalan


2000 (73rd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Gladiator  DreamWorks, Universal  Douglas Wick, David Franzoni, Branko Lustig

Chocolat  Miramax  David Brown, Kit Golden, Leslie Holleran

Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon[K]  Sony Pictures Classics  William Kong, Hsu Li Kong, Ang Lee

Erin Brockovich  Universal, Columbia  Danny DeVito, Michael Shamberg, Stacey Sher

Traffic  USA Films  Edward Zwick, Marshall Herskovitz, Laura Bickford

2001 (74th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

A Beautiful Mind  Universal, DreamWorks  Brian Grazer, Ron Howard

Gosford Park  USA Films  Robert Altman, Bob Balaban, David Levy

In the Bedroom  Miramax  Graham Leader, Ross Katz, Todd Field

The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring  New Line Cinema  Peter Jackson, Fran Walsh, Barrie M. Osborne

Moulin Rouge!  20th Century Fox  Martin Brown, Baz Luhrmann, Fred Baron

2002 (75th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Chicago  Miramax  Martin Richards

Gangs of New York  Miramax  Alberto Grimaldi, Harvey Weinstein

The Hours  Paramount, Miramax  Scott Rudin, Robert Fox

The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers  New Line Cinema  Barrie M. Osborne, Fran Walsh, Peter Jackson

The Pianist  Focus Features  Roman Polanski, Robert Benmussa, Alain Sarde

2003 (76th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King  New Line Cinema  Barrie M. Osborne, Peter Jackson, Fran Walsh

Lost in Translation  Focus Features  Ross Katz, Sofia Coppola

Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World  20th Century Fox, Miramax, Universal  Samuel Goldwyn, Jr., Peter Weir, Duncan Henderson

Mystic River  Warner Bros.  Robert Lorenz, Judie G. Hoyt, Clint Eastwood

Seabiscuit  Universal, DreamWorks  Kathleen Kennedy, Frank Marshall, Gary Ross

2004 (77th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Million Dollar Baby  Warner Bros.  Clint Eastwood, Albert S. Ruddy, Tom Rosenberg

The Aviator  Warner Bros., Miramax  Michael Mann, Graham King

Finding Neverland  Miramax  Richard N. Gladstein, Nellie Bellflower

Ray  Universal  Taylor Hackford, Stuart Benjamin, Howard Baldwin

Sideways  Fox Searchlight  Michael London

2005 (78th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Crash  Lions Gate Entertainment  Paul Haggis, Cathy Schulman

Brokeback Mountain  Focus Features  Diana Ossana, James Schamus

Capote  United Artists  Caroline Baron, William Vince, Michael Ohoven

Good Night, and Good Luck  Warner Bros.  Grant Heslov

Munich  DreamWorks, Universal  Steven Spielberg, Kathleen Kennedy, Barry Mendel

2006 (79th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Departed  Warner Bros.  Graham King

Babel  Paramount Vantage  Alejandro González Iñárritu, Steve Golin, Jon Kilik

Letters from Iwo Jima[K]  Warner Bros.  Clint Eastwood, Steven Spielberg, Robert Lorenz

Little Miss Sunshine  Fox Searchlight  David T. Friendly, Peter Saraf, Marc Turtletaub

The Queen  Miramax  Andy Harries, Christine Langan, Tracey Seaward

2007 (80th)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

No Country for Old Men  Miramax, Paramount Vantage  Scott Rudin, Ethan Coen, Joel Coen

Atonement  Focus Features  Tim Bevan, Eric Fellner, Paul Webster

Juno  Fox Searchlight  Lianne Halfon, Mason Novick, Russell Smith

Michael Clayton  Warner Bros.  Jennifer Fox, Kerry Orent, Sydney Pollack

There Will Be Blood  Paramount Vantage, Miramax  Paul Thomas Anderson, Daniel Lupi, JoAnne Sellar

2008 (81st)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

Slumdog Millionaire[O]  Fox Searchlight, Warner Bros.  Christian Colson

The Curious Case of Benjamin Button  Paramount, Warner Bros.  Kathleen Kennedy, Frank Marshall, Cean Chaffin

Frost/Nixon  Universal  Ron Howard, Brian Grazer, Eric Fellner

Milk  Focus Features  Bruce Cohen, Dan Jinks

The Reader  The Weinstein Co.  Anthony Minghella, Sydney Pollack, Donna Gigliotti, Redmond Morris

2009 (82nd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The Hurt Locker  Summit Entertainment  Kathryn Bigelow, Mark Boal, Nicolas Chartier, Greg Shapiro

Avatar  Lightstorm Entertainment, 20th Century Fox  James Cameron, Jon Landau

The Blind Side  Warner Bros.  Gil Netter, Andrew A. Kosove, Broderick Johnson

District 9  TriStar  Peter Jackson, Carolynne Cunningham

An Education  Sony Pictures Classics  Finola Dwyer, Amanda Posey

Inglourious Basterds  The Weinstein Co., Universal  Lawrence Bender

Precious  Lions Gate Entertainment  Lee Daniels, Sarah Siegel-Magness, Gary Magness

A Serious Man  Focus Features  Joel Coen, Ethan Coen

Up  Disney/Pixar  Jonas Rivera

Up in the Air  Paramount  Daniel Dubiecki, Ivan Reitman, Jason Reitman


2010 (83rd)

Film  Production company(s)  Producer(s)

The King's Speech  The Weinstein Co.  Iain Canning, Emile Sherman and Gareth Unwin

Black Swan  Fox Searchlight  Scott Franklin, Mike Medavoy and Brian Oliver

The Fighter  Paramount  David Hoberman, Todd Lieberman and Mark Wahlberg

Inception  Warner Bros.  Christopher Nolan and Emma Thomas

The Kids Are All Right  Focus Features  Gary Gilbert, Jeffrey Levy-Hinte and Celine Rattray

127 Hours  Fox Searchlight  Danny Boyle and Christian Colson

The Social Network  Columbia  Dana Brunetti, Ceán Chaffin, Michael De Luca and Scott Rudin

Toy Story 3  Disney/Pixar  Darla K. Anderson

True Grit  Paramount  Ethan Coen, Joel Coen, and Scott Rudin

Winter's Bone  Roadside Attractions  Alix Madigan and Anne Rosellini

The British Royal Family

HM The Queen

Philip HRH The Duke of Edinburgh

Charles HRH The Prince of Wales

Camilla HRH The Duchess of Cornwall

Princess Dianna

William HRH The Duke of Cambridge

Kathryn HRH The Duchess of Cambridge

HRH Prince Harry of Wales

Andrew HRH The Duke of York

HRH Princess Beatrice of York

HRH Princess Eugenie of York

Edward HRH The Earl of Wessex

Anne HRH The Princess Royal

British Monarchs

he Normans

(1066 - 1154)

King William I, the Conqueror 1066 - 1087

King Henry I 1100 - 1135

King Stephen 1135 - 1154

Empress Matilda 1141


(1154 - 1399)

King Henry II 1154 - 1189

King Richard I the Lionheart 1189 - 1199

King John 1 1199 - 1216

King Henry III 1216 - 1272

King Edward I 1272 - 1307

King Edward II 1307 - 1327

King Edward III 1327 - 1377

Richard II 1377 - 1399

The House of Lancaster

(1399 - 1461)

Henry IV 1399 - 1413

Henry V 1413 - 1422

Henry VI 1422 - 1461, 1470 - 1471

The House of York

(1461 - 1485)

King Edward IV 1461 -1470, 1471 - 1483

King Edward V 1483 - 1483

King Richard III 1483 - 1485

The Tudors

(1485 -1603)

King Henry VII 1485 - 1509

King Henry VIII 1509 - 1547

King Edward VI 1547 - 1553

Jane Grey 1554

Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) 1553 - 1558

Queen Elizabeth I 1558 - 1603

The Stuarts

(1603 - 1649) (1660 - 1714)

James I 1603 - 1625

Charles I 1625 - 1649

Charles II 1660 - 1685

James II 1685 - 1688

William III 1688 - 1702 and Queen Mary II 1688 - 1694

Queen Anne 1702 - 1714

The House of Hanoverians

(1714 -1901)

King George I 1714 - 1727

King George II 1727 - 1760

King George III 1760 - 1820

King George IV 1820 - 1830

King William IV 1830 - 1837

Queen Victoria 1837 - 1901

Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and The Windsors

(1901 -1910) (1910 - Today)

King Edward VII 1901 - 1910

King George V 1910 - 1936

King Edward VIII June 1936

King George VI 1936 - 1952

Queen Elizabeth II 1952 - present day


Millennium:    2nd millennium
Centuries:    19th century – 20th century – 21st century
Decades:    1880s  1890s  1900s  – 1910s –  1920s  1930s  1940s
Years:    1915 1916 1917 – 1918 – 1919 1920 1921
1918 by topic:
Archaeology Architecture Art Aviation Awards Comics Film Literature (Poetry) Meteorology Music Rail transport Radio Science Sports Television
By country
Australia Canada China Ecuador France Germany Greece India Ireland Italy Japan Malaya Mexico New Zealand Norway Ottoman Syria Palestine (British administered) Philippines Russia Singapore South Africa United Kingdom United States
Sovereign states State leaders Religious leaders Law
Birth and death categories
Births Deaths
Establishments and disestablishments categories
Establishments Disestablishments
Works and introductions categories
Works Introductions
v t e
1918 in other calendars
Gregorian calendar    1918
Ab urbe condita    2671
Armenian calendar    1367
Assyrian calendar    6668
Bahá'í calendar    74–75
Bengali calendar    1325
Berber calendar    2868
British Regnal year    7 Geo. 5 – 8 Geo. 5
Buddhist calendar    2462
Burmese calendar    1280
Byzantine calendar    7426–7427
Chinese calendar    丁巳年十一月十九日
— to —
Coptic calendar    1634–1635
Ethiopian calendar    1910–1911
Hebrew calendar    5678–5679
Hindu calendars   
 - Vikram Samvat    1974–1975
 - Shaka Samvat    1840–1841
 - Kali Yuga    5019–5020
Holocene calendar    11918
Igbo calendar   
 - Ǹrí Ìgbò    918–919
Iranian calendar    1296–1297
Islamic calendar    1336–1337
Japanese calendar    Taishō 7
Juche calendar    7
Julian calendar    Gregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar    4251
Minguo calendar    ROC 7
Thai solar calendar    2461
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    Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1918
Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar.


Below, events of World War I have the "WWI" prefix.

February 16: The Act of Independence of Lithuania
January 8 – Woodrow Wilson delivers his Fourteen Points speech.
January 12
Finland enacts a "Mosaic Confessors" law, granting Finnish Jews civil rights.
Latvia declares independence from Russia while German troops occupy territory in Latvia.
January 15 – The keel of HMS Hermes is laid in Britain, the first purpose-designed aircraft carrier to be laid down.
January 18 – Russian Constituent Assembly meets.
January 19 – Russian Constituent Assembly proclaims Russian Democratic Federative Republic, but is dissolved by Bolshevik government on same day.
January 25 – The Ukrainian People's Republic declares independence from Bolshevik Russia.
January 27 – The Finnish Civil War begins.
January – 1918 flu pandemic: "Spanish 'flu" (influenza) first observed in Haskell County, Kansas.[1]
February 5 – The SS Tuscania is torpedoed off the Irish coast; it is the first ship carrying American troops to Europe to be torpedoed and sunk.

February 23: Estonian Declaration of Independence
February 6 – Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom: Representation of the People Act gives most women over 30 the vote.[2]
February 14 – Russia switches from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar; the date skips from February 1 to February 14.
February 15 – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania adopt Gregorian calendar.
February 16 – The Council of Lithuania adopts the Act of Independence of Lithuania, declaring Lithuania's independence from the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.
February 21 – The last captive Carolina Parakeet (the last breed of parrot native to the eastern United States) dies at the Cincinnati Zoo.
February 24 – Estonian Declaration of Independence: After seven centuries of foreign rule, Estonia declares its independence from Russia. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia also declare their independence, but as the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic.
March 1 – WWI: German submarine U-19 sinks HMS Calgarian off Rathlin Island, Northern Ireland.
March 3 – WWI: Germany, Austria-Hungary and Bolshevist Russia sign the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ending Russia's involvement in the war.
March 6 – The Finnish Air Force is founded. The blue swastika is adopted as its symbol as a tribute to the Swedish explorer and aviator Eric von Rosen, who donated the first plane. Von Rosen had painted the Buddhist symbol on the plane as his personal lucky insignia.
March 7 – WWI: Finland forms an alliance with Germany.
March 12 – Moscow becomes the capital of Soviet Russia.
March 19 – The United States Congress establishes time zones and approves daylight saving time (DST goes into effect on March 31).
March 21–July 18 – WWI: Spring Offensive by the German Army along the Western Front fails to make a breakthrough despite large losses on each side, including nearly 20,000 British Army dead on the first day, Operation Michael.
March 23
WWI: The giant German cannon, the 'Paris Gun' (Kaiser Wilhelm Geschütz), begins to shell Paris from 114 km (71 mi) away.
In London at the Wood Green Empire, Chung Ling Soo (William E. Robinson, U.S.-born magician) dies during his trick where he is supposed to "catch" two separate bullets – but one of them perforates his lung. He dies the following morning in a hospital.
March 25
The Belarusian People's Republic declares independence.
Dr. Karl Muck, music director of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, is arrested under the Alien Enemies Act and imprisoned for the duration of WWI.
The famous French composer Claude Debussy dies of colorectal cancer in Paris.
March 27 – Bessarabia votes to become part of the Kingdom of Romania.
March 30 – March Days: Bolshevik and Armenian Revolutionary Federation forces suppress a Muslim revolt in Baku, Azerbaijan, resulting in up to 30,000 deaths.
April 1 – The Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service are merged to form the Royal Air Force.
April 5 – Sālote succeeds as Queen of Tonga; she will remain on the throne until her death in 1965.
April 21 – Manfred von Richthofen, "The Red Baron", WWI's most successful fighter pilot, dies in combat at Morlancourt Ridge near the Somme River.
April 23 – Zeebrugge Raid attempts to seal off the German U-boat base there.[3]
May 1 – German troops enter Don Host Oblast; they take Rostov on May 6.
May 2 – General Motors acquires the Chevrolet Motor Company of Delaware.
May 11 – The Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus is officially established.
May 15
End of the Finnish Civil War.
The United States Post Office Department begins the world's third regular airmail service, between New York City, Philadelphia and Washington, D.C..[4]
May 16 – The Sedition Act of 1918 is approved by the U.S. Congress.
May 20 – The small town of Codell, Kansas, is hit for the third year in a row on the same date by a tornado.
May 21 – United States Army Aviation Section separated from Signal Corps and divided into the Division of Military Aeronautics and the Bureau of Aircraft Production.
May 26 – The Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic is abolished. Georgia declares its independence as the Democratic Republic of Georgia.
May 27 – The Third Battle of the Aisne commences.
May 28 – Armenia and Azerbaijan declare their independence as the Democratic Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic respectively.

Austro-Hungarian battleship Szent István sunk by Italian torpedo boats

June 1 – WWI: The Battle of Belleau Wood begins.
June 8 – Nova Aquila, the brightest observed since Kepler's of 1604, is discovered.
June 10 – WWI: The Austro-Hungarian dreadnought battleship SMS Szent István is sunk by two Italian MAS motor torpedo boats off the Dalmatian coast.
June 12
Grand Duke Michael of Russia is murdered, thereby becoming the first of the Romanovs to be murdered by the Bolsheviks.
WWI: First airplane bombing raid by an American unit in France.
June 22 – Suspects in the Chicago Restaurant Poisonings are arrested, and more than 100 waiters are taken into custody, for poisoning restaurant customers with a lethal powder called Mickey Finn.
June–August – "Spanish 'flu" becomes pandemic.[5] Over 30 million people die in the following 6 months.
July 3 – The Siberian Expedition is launched to extract the Czechoslovak Legion from the Russian Civil War.
July 4 – Mehmed VI (1918–1922) succeeds Mehmed V (Resad) (1909–1918) as Ottoman Sultan.
July 9 – Great Train Wreck of 1918: in Nashville, Tennessee, an inbound local train collides with an outbound express, killing 101.
July 12 –, The Imperial Japanese Navy battle ship Kawachi blows up at Shunan, western Honshu, Japan, killing at least 621.
July 13 – The National Czechoslovak Committee is established.
July 15 – WWI – Second Battle of the Marne: The battle begins near the River Marne with a German attack.
July 17

Shooting of the Romanov family.
Shooting of the Romanov family: By order of the Bolshevik Party and carried out by the Cheka, Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra Feodorovna, their children, Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei, and retainers are executed at the Ipatiev House in Ekaterinburg, Russia.
WWI: RMS Carpathia is torpedoed and sunk off the east coast of Ireland by German submarine U-55; 218 of the 223 on board are rescued.[6]
August 1 – British anti-Bolshevik forces occupy Arkhangelsk.
August 8 – WWI – Battle of Amiens: Canadian and Australian troops begin a string of almost continuous victories with a push through the German front lines. German General Erich Ludendorff later calls this the "black day of the German Army."
August 10 – Russian Revolution: The British commander in Archangel is told to help the White Russians.
August 21 – WWI: The Second Battle of the Somme begins.
August 27 – Battle of Ambos Nogales: U.S. Army forces skirmish against Mexican Carrancistas and their German advisors at Nogales, Arizona, in the only battle of WWI fought on United States soil.
August 30
20,000 London policemen strike for increased pay and union recognition.
Russian Revolution: Vladimir Lenin is shot by Fanya Kaplan, but survives. Moisei Uritsky, the Petrograd head of the Cheka, is assassinated the same day.
September – British armies and their Arab allies roll into Syria.
September 5 – Kazan Operation begins. The event continues for 5 days and solidifies the Red Army's power in Russia over the White Army.
September 11 – The Boston Red Sox defeat the Chicago Cubs for the 1918 World Series championship, their last World Series win until 2004.
September 29 – WWI:
Allied forces break through the Hindenburg Line.
Bulgaria requests an armistice.
October – Mammy Lou becomes the oldest person to ever star in a film, at age 114.
October 3 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany appoints Max von Baden Chancellor of Germany.
October 3 – King Ferdinand I of Bulgaria abdicates in the wake of the Bulgarian military collapse in WWI. He is succeeded by his son, Boris III.
October 4 – Wilhelm II of Germany forms a new more liberal government to sue for peace.
October 8 – WWI: In the Forest of Argonne in France, U.S. Corporal Alvin C. York almost single-handedly kills 25 German soldiers and captures 132.
October 9 – Landgrave Friedrich Karl of Hessen-Kassel is elected King of Finland.
October 11 – Puerto Rico earthquake: The city of Mayagüez and adjacent towns are nearly destroyed by a 7.5 earthquake and a tsunami.
October 12 – Cloquet Fire: The city of Cloquet, Minnesota, and nearby areas are destroyed in a fire, killing 453.
October 18 – The Washington Declaration proclaims the independent Czechoslovak Republic.
October 25 – The steamer Princess Sophia sinks on Vanderbilt Reef near Juneau, Alaska; 353 people die in the greatest maritime disaster in the Pacific Northwest.
October 28
Czechoslovakia declares its independence from Austria-Hungary.
A new Polish government is declared in Western Galicia (Eastern Europe).
October 29 – Wilhelmshaven mutiny of the German High Seas Fleet.
October 30
The Martin Declaration is published, including Slovakia in the formation of the Czecho-Slovak state.
The Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen is granted independence from the Ottoman Empire by the Armistice of Mudros.
October 31 – The Hungarian government terminates the personal union with Austria, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian empire.
November – The Allied fleet enters Constantinople.
November 1
Polish–Ukrainian War inaugurated by proclamation of the West Ukrainian People's Republic in Galicia with a capital at Lwów.
Malbone Street Wreck: The worst rapid transit accident in world history occurs under the intersection of Malbone Street and Flatbush Avenue, in Brooklyn, New York City, with at least 93 dead.
November 3
WWI: Austria-Hungary enters an armistice with the Allies in Padua.
Poland declares its independence from Russia.
German Revolution: Sailors in the German fleet at Kiel mutiny and throughout northern Germany soldiers and workers begin to establish revolutionary councils on the Russian soviet model.
November 4 – WWI: Austria-Hungary surrenders to Italy.
November 6 – A new Polish government is proclaimed in Lublin.
November 7 – King Ludwig of Bavaria flees his country.
November 8 – The German army withdraws its support of the Kaiser.
November 9

Proclamation of German Republic by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin on the Reichstag balcony
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates and chooses to live in exile in the Netherlands.
Proclamation of German Republic by Philipp Scheidemann in Berlin on the Reichstag balcony
Provisional National Council Minister-President Kurt Eisner declares Bavaria to be a republic.
British battleship HMS Britannia is sunk by a German submarine off Trafalgar with the loss of around fifty lives, the last major naval engagement of WWI.
Weimar Republic is proclaimed.

Signatories to the Armistice with Germany (Compiègne), ending WWI, pose outside Marshal Foch's railway carriage.

Front page of The New York Times on Armistice Day, November 11, 1918.
November 11
End of WWI and Armistice with Germany (Compiègne): Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies between 5:12 AM and 5:20 AM in Marshal Foch's railroad car in Compiègne Forest in France. It becomes official on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month.[7]
Poland regains independence after 123 years of partitions. Józef Piłsudski is appointed Commander-in-Chief.
Emperor Charles I of Austria gives up his absolute power but does not abdicate.
November 12 – Austria becomes a republic.
November 14
Czechoslovakia becomes a republic.
Józef Piłsudski is appointed head of state of Poland.
November 16 – The Hungarian Democratic Republic is declared, marking Hungary's independence from Austria.
November 18 – Latvia declares its independence from Russia.
November 21 – Start of 3-day Lwów pogrom: Polish troops, volunteers and freed criminals massacre at least 320 Ukrainian Christians and Jews in Lwów in Galicia.
November 22
The Spartacist League founds the German Communist Party.
The Belgian royal family returns to Brussels after the war, King Albert I having commanded the Allied Army group in the autumn Courtrai offensive which liberated his country.
November 23 – British military government of Palestine begins.[8]
November 26 – The Podgorica Assembly votes for a "union of the people", declaring its union with the Kingdom of Serbia.
November 28 – Estonian War of Independence: Russian SFSR forces invade Estonia, beginning the war. A Commune of the Working People of Estonia is established in Russian-occupied Narva the next day.
November 29 – Serbia annexes Montenegro.
November 30 – Ernest Ansermet conducts the first concert by the Orchestre de la Suisse Romande.
December 1
Iceland regains independence, but remains in personal union with the King of Denmark, who also becomes the King of Iceland until 1944.
New voting laws in Sweden makes votes no longer dependent on taxable assets, each adult having one vote.
The Union of Alba Iulia is proclaimed: Following the March 27 incorporation of Bessarabia and Bucovina, Transylvania unites with the Kingdom of Romania.
The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (which later becomes the Kingdom of Yugoslavia) is proclaimed.
December 4 – President Woodrow Wilson departs by ship to the Paris Peace Conference, becoming the first United States President to travel to any foreign country while holding office.
December 5 – The British light cruiser HMS Cassandra strikes a mine and sinks in the Gulf of Finland while aiding Estonia against the Bolsheviks, with eleven sailors killed.[9]
December 14 – Prince Frederick Charles of Hesse renounces the Finnish throne.
December 16 – Vincas Mickevičius-Kapsukas declares formation of the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, a puppet state created by the Russian SFSR to justify the Lithuanian–Soviet War.
December 20 – Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk returns to the Czechoslovak Republic.
December 27 – Great Poland Uprising: The Poles in Greater Poland (or Grand Duchy of Poznań) rise up against the Germans.
December 28 – Sinn Féin have a landslide victory in Irish seats in the United Kingdom general election, following the counting of votes, winning 73 of the 105 seats in Ireland. In accordance with their manifesto, Sinn Féin members will not take their seats in the Palace of Westminster but will form the First Dáil in Ireland. Countess Constance Markievicz, while detained in Holloway Prison (London), becomes the first woman elected to (but does not take her seat in) the British House of Commons.[10]
December 31 – A British-brokered ceasefire ends two weeks of fighting between Armenians and Georgians.
Date unknown
The Grand Duchy of Baden ceases to exist.
The Native American Church is formally founded.
The Association Against the Prohibition Amendment is founded to promote repeal of prohibition in the United States.
United Business Media is founded in London as United Newspapers Ltd.

January 1 – Patrick Anthony Porteous, Scottish recipient of the Victoria Cross (d. 2000)
January 8 – Alma Ziegler, American female professional baseball player (d. 2005)
January 10 – Arthur Chung, President of Guyana (d. 2008)
January 15
João Figueiredo, former President of Brazil (d. 1999)
Gamal Abdal Nasser, 2nd President of Egypt (d. 1970)
January 16
Nel Benschop, Dutch poet (d. 2005)
Allan Ekelund, Swedish film producer (d. 2009)
Stirling Silliphant, American writer and producer (d. 1996)
January 17 – George M. Leader, American politician (d. 2013)
January 19
Peter Hobbs, American actor (d. 2011)
John H. Johnson, American publisher (d. 2005)
January 20
Juan García Esquivel, Mexican bandleader (d. 2002)
Nevin S. Scrimshaw, American clinical
January 21
Chichay, Filipino actress (d. 1993)
Richard D. Winters, U.S. Army officer (d. 2011)
January 22 – Elmer Lach, Canadian ice hockey player
January 23 – Gertrude B. Elion, American scientist recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1999)
January 24 – Oral Roberts, American neo-Pentecostal televangelist (d. 2009)
January 25 – Ernie Harwell, American baseball sportscaster (d. 2010)
January 26
Nicolae Ceauşescu, Romanian dictator (d. 1989)
Philip José Farmer, American writer (d. 2009)
Vito Scotti, American character actor (d. 1996)
January 27
Skitch Henderson, English-born musician and bandleader (d. 2005)
Elmore James, American musician (d. 1963)
January 29 – John Forsythe, American actor (Dynasty) (d. 2010)
February 1 – Dame Muriel Spark, Scottish author (d. 2006)
February 2 – Hella Haasse, Dutch writer (d. 2011)
February 3
Joey Bishop, American entertainer, member of the Rat Pack (d. 2007)
Shlomo Goren, Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel (d. 1994)
Helen Stephens, American runner (d. 1994)
February 4 – Ida Lupino, English actress, screenwriter, director/producer (d. 1995)
February 6 – Lothar-Günther Buchheim, German author (d. 2007)
February 7 – Markey Robinson, Irish painter (d. 1999)
February 8 – Fred Blassie, American professional wrestler and novelty singer (Pencil Neck Geek) (d. 2003)
February 12 – Julian Schwinger, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1994)
February 15 – Allan Arbus, American actor (M*A*S*H) (d. 2013)
February 16 – Patty Andrews, American singer (The Andrews Sisters) (d. 2013)
February 17 – William Bronk, American poet (d. 1999)
February 22
Charlie Finley, American owner of the Oakland A's 1960–80 (d. 1996)
Don Pardo, American TV announcer (Saturday Night Live)
Robert Pershing Wadlow, American tallest man record-holder (d. 1940)
February 25
Barney Ewell, American athlete (d. 1996)
Bobby Riggs, American tennis player (d. 1995)
February 26
Otis R. Bowen, American politician (d. 2013)
Theodore Sturgeon, American writer (d. 1985)
February 28 – Alfred Burke, British actor (d. 2011)

Image of President Woodrow Wilson created by 21,000 soldiers at Camp Sherman, Chillicothe, Ohio
March 1
Roger Delgado, British actor (d. 1973)
João Goulart, President of Brazil (d. 1976)
March 3
Arthur Kornberg, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2007)
Fritz Thiedemann, German equestrian (d. 2000)
March 4 – Margaret Osborne duPont, former American female tennis player
March 5
Shlomo Lorincz, member of Israeli Knesset for Agudat Yisrael (d. 2009)
James Tobin, American economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2002)
March 9
George Lincoln Rockwell, American Nazi leader (d. 1967)
Mickey Spillane, American writer (d. 2006)
March 10 – Günther Rall, German ace fighter pilot (d. 2009)
March 11 – Jack Coe, American evangelist (d. 1956)
March 12 – Elaine de Kooning, American artist (d. 1989)
March 15 – William McIntyre, Canadian Puisne Justice (d. 2009)
March 16 – Frederick Reines, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
March 18 – Bob Broeg, American sports writer (d. 2005)
March 20 – Jack Barry, American television game show host and producer (d. 1984)
March 22 – Cheddi Jagan, President of Guyana (d. 1997)
March 23 – Émile Derlin Zinsou, President of Benin
March 25 – Howard Cosell, American attorney, lecturer, and sports journalist (d. 1995)
March 29
Pearl Bailey, African-American singer and actress (d. 1990)
Shirley Jameson, American female baseball player (d. 1993)
Sam Walton, founder of Wal-Mart (d. 1992)
March 30 – Joseph Allen Jr., American actor (d. 1962)
April 8 – Betty Ford, First Lady of the United States (d. 2011)
April 9 – Jørn Utzon, Danish architect (d. 2008)
April 16 – Spike Milligan, Irish comedian (d. 2002)
April 17 – William Holden, American actor (d. 1981)
April 18
Gabriel Axel, Danish film director
Shinobu Hashimoto, Japanese screenwriter
Clifton Hillegass, American author, founder of CliffsNotes (d. 2001)
April 20 – Kai Siegbahn, Swedish physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2007)
April 22
Mickey Vernon, American baseball player (d. 2008)
William Jay Smith, American poet
April 26 – Fanny Blankers-Koen, Dutch athlete (d. 2004)
April 27 – John Rice, American baseball umpire (d. 2011)
May 1 – Jack Paar, American television show host (The Tonight Show) (d. 2004)
May 3 – Benjamin C. Thompson, American architect (d. 2002)
May 4 – Kakuei Tanaka, former Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1993)
May 9
Orville Freeman, American politician (d. 2003)
Mike Wallace, American journalist (d. 2012)
May 10
T. Berry Brazelton, American pediatrician
George Welch, American aviator (d. 1954)
May 11 – Richard Feynman, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1988)
May 12 – Julius Rosenberg, American-born Soviet spy (d. 1953)
May 15
Eddy Arnold, American country music singer (d. 2008)
Joseph Wiseman, Canadian actor (d. 2009)
May 16 – Wilf Mannion, English footballer (d. 2000)
May 17
A. C. Lyles, American film producer
Birgit Nilsson, Swedish soprano (d. 2005)
May 18 – Claudia Bryar, American actress (d. 2011)
May 19 – Abraham Pais, Dutch-born American physicist (d. 2000)
May 20 – Edward B. Lewis, American geneticist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2004)
May 23 – Frank Mancuso, American major league baseball player and politician (d. 2007)
May 27 – Yasuhiro Nakasone, Prime Minister of Japan
May 30 – Károly Doncsecz, Slovenian potter (d. 2002)
June 2 – Kathryn Tucker Windham, American writer and storyteller (d. 2011)
June 4 – Johnny Klein, American drummer (d. 1997)
June 6 – Edwin G. Krebs, American biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 2009)
June 8 – Robert Preston, American actor (The Music Man) (d. 1987)
June 9 – John Hospers, American philosopher (d. 2011)
June 10 – Patachou, French singer
June 15 – François Tombalbaye, former President of Chad (d. 1975)
June 18
Jerome Karle, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
Franco Modigliani, Italian-born economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003)
June 27 – Willy Breinholst, Danish humorist and writer (d. 2009)
July 4
Ann Landers, American advice columnist (d. 2002)
Pauline Phillips, American advice columnist, popularly known as Abigail Van Buren (d. 2013)
Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV, King of Tonga (d. 2006)
July 5 – George Rochberg, American composer (d. 2005)
July 6 – Sebastian Cabot, American actor (Family Affair) (d. 1977)
July 9 – Jarl Wahlström, Salvation Army General (d. 1999)
July 12 – Mary Glen-Haig, British Olympic fencer
July 13 – Alberto Ascari, Italian race car driver (d. 1955)
July 14 – Ingmar Bergman, Swedish film director (d. 2007)
July 15 – Bertram Brockhouse, Canadian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2003)
July 16 – Bayani Casimiro, Filipino dancer and actor (d. 1989)
July 17 – Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio, President of Guatemala (d. 2003)
July 18 – Nelson Mandela, President of South Africa, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize
July 24 – Ruggiero Ricci, Italian-born violinist (d. 2012)
July 25 – Jane Frank, American artist (d. 1986)
July 26 – Marjorie Lord, American actress
July 27 – Leonard Rose, American cellist (d. 1984)
July 29 – Edwin O'Connor, American novelist and Pulitzer Prize for Fiction winner (d. 1968)
July 31
Paul D. Boyer, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
Hank Jones, American pianist (d. 2010)
August 3 – Sidney Gottlieb, American Central Intelligence Agency official (d. 1999)
August 4 – Noel Willman, Irish actor (d. 1988)
August 5 – Betty Oliphant, co-founder of National Ballet of Canada (d. 2004)
August 8 – Brian Stonehouse, English painter and WWII spy (d. 1998)
August 13 – Frederick Sanger, English biochemist, Nobel Prize laureate
August 22
Bruria Kaufman, American-born Israeli physicist (d. 2010)
Said Mohamed Djohar, former President of the Comoros (d. 2006)
August 25 – Leonard Bernstein, American composer and conductor (d. 1990)
August 26 – Hutton Gibson, religion writer and father of actor Mel Gibson
August 27 – Jelle Zijlstra, Dutch politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1966 until 1967 (d. 2001)
August 30 – Ted Williams, American baseball player (d. 2002)
September 3 – Helen Wagner, American soap opera actress (d. 2010)
September 4
Paul Harvey, American radio broadcaster (d. 2009)
Gerald Wilson, American jazz trumpeter
September 8 – Derek Barton, British chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
September 9 – Oscar Luigi Scalfaro, 9th President of the Italian Republic
September 13 – Rosemary Kennedy, sister of President of the United States John F. Kennedy (d. 2005)
September 15 – Nipsey Russell, American comedian (d. 2005)
September 17 – Chaim Herzog, 6th President of Israel 1983–93 (d. 1997)
September 21 – John Gofman, American Manhattan Project scientist and advocate (d. 2007)
September 22 – Henryk Szeryng, Polish-born violinist (d. 1988)
September 27 – Martin Ryle, English radio astronomer, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics (d. 1984)
September 28
Ángel Labruna, Argentine soccer player and manager (d. 1983)
Arnold Stang, American comic actor (d. 2009)
October 4 – Kenichi Fukui, Japanese chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1998)
October 6 – Goh Keng Swee, former Deputy Prime Minister of Singapore (d. 2010)
October 8 – Jens Christian Skou, Danish chemist, Nobel Prize laureate
October 9 – E. Howard Hunt, Watergate break-in coordinator (d. 2007)
October 17 – Rita Hayworth, American actress (d. 1987)
October 18
Konstantinos Mitsotakis, former Greek Prime Minister
Bobby Troup, American singer-songwriter and actor (Emergency!) (d. 1999)
October 19
Louis Althusser, French philosopher (d. 1990)
Robert S. Strauss, Democratic National Committee Chairman
October 23 – Augusta Dabney, American actress (d. 2008)
October 27
Mihkel Mathiesen, Estonian statesman (d. 2003)
Teresa Wright, American actress (d. 2005)
October 31 – Ian Stevenson, American parapsychologist (d. 2007)
November 3
Bob Feller, American baseball player (d. 2010)
Elizabeth P. Hoisington, American Brigadier General (d. 2007)
Russell B. Long, U.S. Senator from Louisiana (d. 2003)
Raimon Panikkar, Spanish theologian (d. 2010)
Dean Riesner, American film and television screenwriter (d. 2002)
November 4
Art Carney, American actor (The Honeymooners) (d. 2003)
Cameron Mitchell, American actor (The High Chapparal) (d. 1994)
November 7 – Billy Graham, American evangelist, spiritual adviser to several U.S. Presidents
November 9 – Spiro Agnew, American Vice President (d. 1996)
November 10 – Ernst Otto Fischer, German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2007)
November 13 – Jack Elam, American actor (d. 2003)
November 21 – Dorothy Maguire Chapman, American professional baseball player (d. 1981)
November 29 – Madeleine L'Engle, American author (d. 2007)
November 30 – Efrem Zimbalist, Jr., American actor (The FBI)
December 8 – Gérard Souzay, French baritone (d. 2004)
December 9 – Jerome Beatty, Jr., author of children's literature (d. 2002)
December 11 – Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Russian writer, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 2008)
December 12 – Joe Williams, American jazz singer (d. 1999)
December 15 – Jeff Chandler, American actor (d. 1961)
December 20 – Joseph Payne Brennan, American poet/author (d. 1990)
December 21
Donald Regan, American Treasury Secretary and White House Chief of Staff (d. 2003)
Kurt Waldheim, President of Austria and Secretary-General of the United Nations (d. 2007)
December 23
José Greco, Italian-born flamenco dancer (d. 2001)
Helmut Schmidt, Chancellor of Germany
December 25
Bertie Mee, English football player and manager (d. 2001)
Anwar Sadat, President of Egypt, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1981)

January 6 – Georg Cantor, German mathematician (b. 1845)
January 8
Johannes Pääsuke, Estonian photographer and filmmaker (b. 1892)
Ellis H. Roberts, American politician (b. 1827)
January 9
Max Ritter von Müller, German World War I fighter ace (b. 1887)
Émile Reynaud, French inventor (b. 1844)
January 28 – John McCrae, Canadian soldier, surgeon and poet (b. 1872)
February 2 – John L. Sullivan, American boxer (b. 1858)
February 5 – Leonard Monteagle Barlow, British fighter pilot (b. 1898)
February 6 – Gustav Klimt, Austrian painter (b. 1862)
February 10 – Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Italian pacifist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1833)
February 15 – Vernon Castle, American dancer (b. 1887)
February 23 – Adolphus Frederick VI, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (b. 1882)
March 9 – Frank Wedekind, German playwright (b. 1864)
March 10 – Jim McCormick, Scottish-born American baseball player (b. 1856)
March 13 – César Cui, Lithuanian composer (b. 1835)
March 14 – Lucretia Garfield, Wife of President James Garfield (b. 1832)
March 23 – T. P. Cameron Wilson, English poet and novelist (b. 1888)
March 25
Claude Debussy, French composer (b. 1862)
Walter Tull, First Black infantry officer to serve in the British Army (b. 1888)
March 27
Henry Adams, American historian (b. 1838)
Martin Sheridan, Irish athlete (b. 1881)
April 1 – Isaac Rosenberg, British war poet (b. 1890)
April 5 – King George Tupou II of Tonga (b. 1874)
April 20 – Karl Ferdinand Braun, German phyicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1850)
April 21 – Manfred von Richthofen, German fighter pilot (b. 1892)
April 28 – Gavrilo Princip, Yugoslav assassin (b. 1894)
May 2 – Jüri Vilms, Estonian politician (b. 1889)
May 14 – James Gordon Bennett, Jr., American newspaper publisher (b. 1841)
May 19 – Raoul Lufbery, Franco-American fighter pilot (b. 1885)
May 25 – József Kiss, Austro-Hungarian fighter pilot (b. 1896)
May 30 – Georgi Plekhanov, Russian revolutionary and philosopher (b. 1856)
June 1 – Roderic Dallas, Australian fighter pilot (b. 1891)
June 4 – Charles W. Fairbanks, Vice President of the U.S. (b. 1852)
June 10 – Arrigo Boito, Italian poet and composer (b. 1842)
June 12 – Grand Duke Michael Romanov (b. 1878)
June 19 – Francesco Baracca, Italian fighter pilot (b. 1888)
June 27 – Joséphin Péladan, French occultist (b. 1858)
July 3 – Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire (b. 1844)
July 9 – James McCudden, British fighter pilot (b. 1895)
July 14 – Quentin Roosevelt, youngest son of President Theodore Roosevelt, killed in action as fighter pilot (b. 1897)
July 17
Tsar Nicholas II of Russia (b. 1868)
Tsaritsa Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia (b. 1872)
Grand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1895)
Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1897)
Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1899)
Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna of Russia (b. 1901)
Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich of Russia (b. 1904)
July 20 – Francis Lupo, American soldier (b. 1895)
July 22 – Indra Lal Roy, Indian fighter pilot (b. 1898)
July 26 – Edward Mannock, British fighter pilot (b. 1887)
July 29 – Ernest William Christmas, Australian painter (b. 1863)
July 30
Joyce Kilmer, American journalist and poet (b. 1886)
Frank Linke-Crawford, Austro-Hungarian fighter pilot (b. 1893)
July 31 – George McElroy, British fighter pilot (b. 1893)
August 1
John Riley Banister, American policeman and cowboy (b. 1854)
Gabriel Guérin, French World War I fighter ace (b. 1892)
August 6 – Peter Strasser, German naval officer and airship commander (b. 1876)
August 10
Jean Brillant, Canadian soldier (b. 1890)
Erich Löwenhardt, German World War I fighter ace (b. 1897)
Aleksander Uurits, Estonian painter and graphic artist (b. 1888)
August 12 – Anna Held, French actress (b. 1873)
August 18 – Henry Norwest, Canadian sniper (b. 1884)
September 12 – George Reid, 4th Prime Minister of Australia (b. 1845)
September 16 – Maurice Boyau, French World War I fighter ace (b. 1888)
September 27 – Fritz Rumey, German World War I fighter ace (b. 1891)
September 28
True Boardman, American actor (b. 1882)
Georg Simmel, German sociologist and philosopher (b. 1858)
Freddie Stowers, American soldier (b. 1896)
September 29 – Frank Luke, American fighter pilot (b. 1897)
October 5
Roland Garros, French fighter pilot (b. 1888)
Robbie Ross, British writer (b. 1869)
October 9 – Raymond Duchamp-Villon, French sculptor (b. 1876)
October 11 – Wallace Lloyd Algie, Canadian soldier (b. 1891)
October 15 – Sai Baba of Shirdi, Indian guru and yogi (b. 1838)
October 19 – Harold Lockwood, American actor (b. 1887)
October 22 – Myrtle Gonzalez, American actress (b. 1891)
October 28 – Michel Coiffard, French World War I fighter ace (b. 1892)
October 29 – Rudolf Tobias, Estonian composer (b. 1873)
October 31 – Egon Schiele, Austrian artist (b. 1890)
November 2 – Hugh Cairns, Canadian soldier (b. 1896)
November 4
Wilfred Owen, British poet and soldier (b. 1893)
Andrew Dickson White, American academic, diplomat, and co-founder of Cornell University (b. 1832)
November 6 – Alan Arnett McLeod, Canadian soldier (b. 1899)
November 9
Guillaume Apollinaire, French poet (b. 1880)
Albert Ballin, German-Jewish shipping magnate (b. 1857)
Peter Lumsden, British general in Indian army (b. 1829)
November 11 – George Lawrence Price, Last Commonwealth soldier to die in WWI (b. 1892)
November 19 – Joseph Fielding Smith, American Mormon leader (b. 1838)
December 2 – Edmond Rostand, French writer (b. 1868)
December 11 – Ivan Cankar, Slovenian writer (b. 1876)
December 14 – Sidónio Pais, 4th President of Portugal (b. 1872)
December 28 – Olavo Bilac, Brazilian poet (b. 1865)
Nobel Prizes

Physics – Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck
Chemistry – Fritz Haber
Medicine – not awarded
Literature – not awarded
Peace – not awarded

RMS Titanic was a passenger liner that struck an iceberg on her maiden voyage from Southampton, England, to New York City, and sank on 15 April 1912, resulting in the deaths of 1,517 people in one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in history.
The largest passenger steamship in the world at the time, the Olympic-class RMS Titanic was owned by the White Star Line and constructed at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, Ireland, UK. After setting sail for New York City on 10 April 1912 with 2,223 people on board, she hit the iceberg four days into the crossing, at 11:40 pm on 14 April 1912, and sank at 2:20 am the following morning. The high casualty rate resulting from the sinking was due in part to the fact that, although complying with the regulations of the time, the ship carried lifeboats for only 1,178 people. A disproportionate number of men died due to the "women and children first" protocol that was enforced by the ship's crew.
Titanic was designed by experienced engineers, using some of the most advanced technologies and extensive safety features of the time. The sinking of a passenger liner on her maiden voyage, the high loss of life and media frenzy over Titanic's famous victims, the legends about the sinking, the resulting changes in maritime law, and the discovery of the wreck have all contributed to the enduring interest in Titanic.

Ocean liners with four funnels
SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse (1897) · SS Deutschland (1900) · SS Kronprinz Wilhelm (1901) · SS Kaiser Wilhelm II (1902) · RMS Lusitania (1906) · RMS Mauretania (1906) · SS Kronprinzessin Cecilie (1906) · SS France (1910) · RMS Olympic (1910) · RMS Titanic (1911) · RMS Aquitania (1913) · HMHS Britannic (1914) · RMS Windsor Castle (1922) · RMS Arundel Castle (1921)
Timeline of the world's largest passenger ships
Syracusia (240 BCE) · Thalamegos (200 BCE) · The Caravel (1400s) · SS Royal William (1831) · SS Great Western (1837) · SS British Queen (1839) · SS President (1840) · SS Great Britain (1845) · SS Atrato (1854) · SS Great Eastern (1858) · RMS Celtic (1901) · RMS Baltic (1903) · RMS Empress of Scotland (1906) · RMS Lusitania (1907) · RMS Mauretania (1907) · RMS Olympic (1911) · RMS Titanic (1912 ) · SS Imperator (1913) · SS Leviathan (1913) · RMS Majestic (1922) · SS Normandie (1935) · RMS Queen Elizabeth (1940) · MS Carnival Destiny (1996) · MS Grand Princess (1997) · MS Voyager of the Seas (1999) · MS Explorer of the Seas (2000) · MS Navigator of the Seas (2002) · RMS Queen Mary 2 (2004) · MS Freedom of the Seas / MS Liberty of the Seas / MS Independence of the Seas (2006) · MS Oasis of the Seas (2009) · MS Allure of the Seas (2010)
Olympic-class ocean liners
RMS Olympic (1910) · RMS Titanic (1911) · HMHS Britannic (1914)
Deck officers on the RMS Titanic
Edward J. Smith, Captain · Henry T. Wilde, Chief Officer · William M. Murdoch, First Officer · Charles H. Lightoller, Second Officer · Herbert J. Pitman, Third Officer · Joseph G. Boxhall, Fourth Officer · Harold G. Lowe, Fifth Officer · James P. Moody, Sixth Officer
RMS Titanic on film and TV
Saved from the Titanic (1912) · In Nacht und Eis (1912) · Atlantic (1929) · Titanic (1943) · Titanic (1953) · A Night to Remember (1958) · S.O.S. Titanic (1979) · Raise the Titanic (1980) · Titanic (TV miniseries) (1996) · No Greater Love (1996) · Titanic (1997) · The Legend of the Titanic (1999) · Titanic: The Legend Goes On (2001) · Ghosts of the Abyss (2003) · Titanic II (2010) · Titanic: Blood & Steel (2012)
Memorials to the sinking of the RMS Titanic
United Kingdom
Memorial to the Engine Room Heroes of the Titanic, Liverpool
Titanic Musicians' Memorial Southampton
Titanic Engineers' Memorial, Southampton
Titanic Memorial, Belfast
Titanic Orchestra's Memorial, Liverpool

United States
Straus Park, New York City
Titanic Memorial, New York City
Titanic Memorial, Washington, D.C.
Titanic Memorial Bandstand, Ballarat, Australia
Titanic Memorial, Broken Hill, Australia
Ships that were lost on their maiden voyage
Naval ships
Vasa (1628) · Georgiana (1863) · Flach (1866) · Bismarck (1941)1 · Dinsdale (1942)1
Passenger ships
and cargo liners
Amazon (1851) · Tayleur (1854) · Titanic (1912) · Georges Philippar (1932) · Magdalena (1949) · Hans Hedtoft (1959) · Zenobia (1980)
Cargo ships
Batavia (1629) · Fortuyn (1723) · Amsterdam (1749) · Carrier Pigeon (1852) · Irex (1890) · Hastier (1919) · Adolf Vinnen (1923) · Michael E (1941)1 · Alexander Macomb (1942)1 · Empire Clough (1942)1 · Empire Drum (1942)1, 2 · Empire Dryden (1942)1, 2 · George Calvert (1942)1 · John Morgan (1943)1 · Ranga (1982)
Racing yachts
Mohawk (1876)
1 = Due to enemy action. 2 = Maiden revenue-earning voyage.
White Star Line ships
Surviving Ships
Nomadic (1911)
Oceanic (Never completed)
Former Ships
Red Jacket (1853) · Blue Jacket (1854) · Tayleur (1854) · Oceanic (1870) · Atlantic (1871) · Baltic (1871) · Tropic (1871) · Asiatic (1871) · Republic (1872) · Adriatic (1872) · Celtic (1872) · Traffic (1872) · Belgic (1872) · Gaelic (1873) · Britannic (1874) · Germanic (1875) · Arabic (1881) · Coptic (1881) · Ionic (1883) · Doric (1883) · Belgic (1885) · Gaelic (1885) · Cufic (1885) · Runic (1889) · Teutonic (1889) · Majestic (1890) · Tauric (1891) · Magnetic (1891) · Nomadic (1891) · Naronic (1892) · Bovic (1892) · Gothic (1893) · Cevic (1894) · Pontic (1894) · Georgic (1895) · Delphic (1897) · Cymric (1898) · Afric (1899) · Medic (1899) · Persic (1899) · Oceanic  · Runic (1900) · Suevic (1901) · Celtic (1901) · Athenic (1902) · Corinthic (1902) · Ionic (1903) · Cedric (1903) · Victorian (1903) · Armenian (1903) · Arabic (1903) · Romanic (1903) · Cretic (1903) · Republic (1903) · Canopic (1904) · Cufic (1904) · Baltic (1904) · Tropic (1904) · Gallic (1907) · Adriatic (1907) · Laurentic (1909) · Megantic (1909) · Zeeland (1910) · Traffic (1911) · Olympic (1911) · Belgic (1911) · Zealandic (1911) · Titanic (1912) · Ceramic (1912)  · Lapland (1914)  · Britannic (1914)  · Belgic (1917) · Justicia (1918) · Vedic (1918) · Bardic (1919) · Gallic (1920) · Mobile (1920) · Arabic (1920) · Homeric (1920) · Haverford (1921) · Poland (1922) · Majestic (1922) · Pittsburgh (1922) · Doric (1923) · Delphic (1925) · Regina (1925) · Albertic (1927) · Calgaric (1927) · Laurentic (1927) · Britannic (1930) · Georgic (1932)

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