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Details about  3 in 1 Newspapers Berlin Wall Gulf War Mandela Germany East West South Africa UK

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3 in 1 Newspapers Berlin Wall Gulf War Mandela Germany East West South Africa UK
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Three Headlines in One Newspaper
Daily Mirror
Fall of Berlin Wall * Gulf War * Release of Nelson Mandela

Replica Three Daily Mirrrors in One Newspaper

From Saturday 11th November 1989,  17th January 1991 &
Febuary 12th 1990

It has some incredable images plus all the news from all 3 Amazing Events


Contains 8
Pages
 
In Excellent Condition

Magnificent Keepsake Souvenir to Remember days no one will forget

 
I have a lot of Old Newspapers on Ebay so Please 
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The Berlin Wall (German: Berliner Mauer) was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off (by land) West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin.[1] The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls,[2] which circumscribed a wide area (later known as the "death strip") that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc claimed that the wall was erected to protect its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany. In practice, the Wall served to prevent the massive emigration and defection that marked East Germany and the communist Eastern Bloc during the post-World War II period.

The Berlin Wall was officially referred to as the "Anti-Fascist Protection Rampart" (German: Antifaschistischer Schutzwall) by GDR authorities, implying that neighbouring West Germany had not been fully de-Nazified.[3] The West Berlin city government sometimes referred to it as the "Wall of Shame"—a term coined by mayor Willy Brandt—while condemning the Wall's restriction on freedom of movement. Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize the "Iron Curtain" that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.

Before the Wall's erection, 3.5 million East Germans circumvented Eastern Bloc emigration restrictions and defected from the GDR, many by crossing over the border from East Berlin into West Berlin, from where they could then travel to West Germany and other Western European countries. Between 1961 and 1989, the wall prevented almost all such emigration.[4] During this period, around 5,000 people attempted to escape over the wall, with an estimated death toll of over 100[5] in and around Berlin, although that claim is disputed.[6]

In 1989, a series of radical political changes occurred in the Eastern Bloc, associated with the liberalization of the Eastern Bloc's authoritarian systems and the erosion of political power in the pro-Soviet governments in nearby Poland and Hungary. After several weeks of civil unrest, the East German government announced on 9 November 1989 that all GDR citizens could visit West Germany and West Berlin. Crowds of East Germans crossed and climbed onto the wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, euphoric public and souvenir hunters chipped away parts of the wall; the governments later used industrial equipment to remove most of what was left. The physical wall was primarily destroyed in 1990. The fall of the Berlin Wall paved the way for German reunification, which was formally concluded on 3 October 1990.

Berlin Wall
Berlinermauer.jpg
View from the West Berlin side of graffiti art on the wall in 1986. The wall's "death strip", on the east side of the wall, here follows the curve of the Luisenstadt Canal (filled in 1932).
Berlin-wall-map.png
Map of the location of the Berlin Wall, showing checkpoints
General information
Type     Wall
Country      East Germany
Flag of East Berlin (1956-1990).svg East Berlin (Soviet-occupied sector of Berlin)
Coordinates     52.516111°N 13.376944°ECoordinates: 52.516111°N 13.376944°E
Construction started     13 August 1961
Dimensions
Other dimensions    

    Length of border around West Berlin: 155 km (96 mi)
        Length of border between West Berlin and East Germany: 111.9 km (69.5 mi)
        Length of border between West and East Berlin: 43.1 km (26.8 mi)
        Length of border through residential areas in East Berlin: 37 km (23 mi)
    Concrete segment wall height: 3.6 m (12 ft)
    Concrete segment wall length: 106 km (66 mi)
    Wire mesh fencing: 66.5 km (41.3 mi)
    Anti-vehicle trenches length: 105.5 km (65.6 mi)
    Contact or signal fence length: 127.5 km (79.2 mi)
    Column track width: 7 m (7.7 yd)
    Column track length: 124.3 km (77.2 mi)
    Number of watch towers: 302
    Number of bunkers: 20

Technical details
Size     155 km (96 mi)

Warsaw Pact
The Eastern Bloc
Soviet Socialist Republics[hide]

    Armenian SSR
    Azerbaijan SSR
    Byelorussian SSR
    Estonian SSR
    Georgian SSR
    Kazakh SSR
    Kirghiz SSR
    Latvian SSR
    Lithuanian SSR
    Moldavian SSR
    Russian SFSR
    Tajik SSR
    Turkmen SSR
    Ukrainian SSR
    Uzbek SSR

Allied states[hide]

    Hungarian People's Republic
    Polish People's Republic
    Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

Socialist Republic of Romania

    German Democratic Republic

People's Republic of Albania
(to 1961)

    People's Republic of Bulgaria

Related organisations[hide]

    Cominform
    COMECON

World Federation of
Trade Unions (WFTU)
World Federation of
Democratic Youth (WFDY)
Dissent and opposition[hide]
Forest Brothers

    in Lithuania
    in Latvia
    in Estonia

Operation "Jungle"

    Ukrainian Insurgent Army
    Goryani movement (Bulgaria)
    Romanian anti-communism

1953 uprisings

    in Plzeň
    in East Germany

1956 protests

    in Georgia
    in Poznań

    Hungarian Revolution of 1956
    Novocherkassk massacre (Russia)

1968 events

    Prague Spring
    Invasion of Czechoslovakia
    Red Square demonstration

    Charter 77 (Czechoslovakia)

    Solidarity (Poland)

    Jeltoqsan (Kazakhstan)

    Braşov Rebellion (Romania)

    April 9 tragedy (Georgia)

    Black January (Azerbaijan)

Cold War events[hide]

    Marshall Plan

    1948 Czechoslovak coup

    Tito–Stalin split

    Berlin Blockade

    1961 Berlin Wall crisis

    1980 Moscow Olympics

Decline[hide]

    Singing Revolution

    Polish Round Table Agreement

    Revolutions of 1989

    Fall of the Berlin Wall

January 1991

    in Lithuania
    in Latvia

    Breakup of Yugoslavia

    End of the Soviet Union

    Fall of communism in Albania

    Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Little is left of the Wall at its original site, which was destroyed almost everywhere. Three long sections are still standing: an 80-metre-long (260 ft) piece of the first (westernmost) wall at the Topography of Terror, site of the former Gestapo headquarters, halfway between Checkpoint Charlie and Potsdamer Platz; a longer section of the second (easternmost) wall along the Spree River near the Oberbaumbrücke, nicknamed East Side Gallery; and a third section that is partly reconstructed, in the north at Bernauer Straße, which was turned into a memorial in 1999. Some other isolated fragments and a few watchtowers also remain in various parts of the city.

None still accurately represents the Wall's original appearance. They are badly damaged by souvenir seekers. Fragments of the Wall were taken and some were sold around the world. Appearing both with and without certificates of authenticity, these fragments are now a staple on the online auction service eBay as well as German souvenir shops. Today, the eastern side is covered in graffiti that did not exist while the Wall was guarded by the armed soldiers of East Germany. Previously, graffiti appeared only on the western side. Along the tourist areas of the city centre, the city government has marked the location of the former wall by a row of cobblestones in the street. In most places only the "first" wall is marked, except near Potsdamer Platz where the stretch of both walls is marked, giving visitors an impression of the dimension of the barrier system.
Museum

15 years after the fall, a private museum rebuilt a 200-metre (656 ft) section close to Checkpoint Charlie, although not in the location of the original wall. They temporarily erected more than 1,000 crosses in memory of those who died attempting to flee to the West. The memorial was installed in October 2004 and demolished in July 2005.[97]
Cultural differences

For many years after reunification, people in Germany talked about cultural differences between East and West Germans (colloquially Ossis and Wessis), sometimes described as Mauer im Kopf (The wall in the head). A September 2004 poll found that 25 percent of West Germans and 12 percent of East Germans wished that East and West should be separated again by a "Wall".[98] A poll taken in October 2009 on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the fall of the wall indicated, however, that only about a tenth of the population was still unhappy with the unification (8 percent in the East; 12 percent in the West). Although differences are still perceived between East and West, Germans make similar distinctions between North and South.[99]

A 2011 poll conducted by Russia's VTsIOM, found that more than half of all Russians do not know who built the Berlin Wall. Ten percent of people surveyed thought Berlin residents built it themselves. Six percent said Western powers built it and four percent thought it was a "bilateral initiative" of the Soviet Union and the West. Fifty-eight percent said they did not know who built it, with just 24 percent correctly naming the Soviet Union and its then-communist ally East Germany.[100]
Wall segments around the world
Main article: List of Berlin Wall segments

Not all segments of the wall were ground up as the wall was being torn down. Many segments have been given to various institutions around the world. They can be found, for instance, in presidential and historical museums, lobbies of hotels and corporations, at universities and government buildings, and in public spaces around the world.
50th Anniversary commemoration

On 13 August 2011, Germany marked the 50th anniversary of East Germany beginning the erection of the Berlin Wall. Chancellor Angela Merkel joined with President Christian Wulff and Berlin Mayor Klaus Wowereit at the Bernauer Straße memorial park to remember lives and liberty. Speeches extolled freedom and a minute of silence at noon honored those who died trying to flee to the West. "It is our shared responsibility to keep the memory alive and to pass it on to the coming generations as a reminder to stand up for freedom and democracy to ensure that such injustice may never happen again," entreated Mayor Wowereit. "It has been shown once again: Freedom is invincible at the end. No wall can permanently withstand the desire for freedom", proclaimed President Wulff."[101][102][103][104]
Media relating to the wall

    Documentary films specifically about the Berlin Wall:
        The Tunnel, a NBC News Special documentary film broadcast in December 1962
        The Road to the Wall, a 1962 documentary film
        Something to Do with the Wall, 1991 documentary about the fall of the Berlin Wall by Ross McElwee and Marilyn Levine, originally conceived as a commemoration of the 25th anniversary of its construction.[105]
    Fictional films featuring the Berlin Wall have included:
        The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, 1965 – Cold War classic set on both sides of The Wall, from the book by John le Carré, directed by Martin Ritt
        The Boy and the Ball and the Hole in the Wall, Spanish-Mexican co-production, 1965[106]
        Funeral in Berlin, 1966 – Spy movie starring Michael Caine, directed by Guy Hamilton
        Casino Royale, 1967 – featuring a segment centred around a house apparently bisected by the wall.
        The Wicked Dreams of Paula Schultz, 1968 – Cold War spy farce about an Olympic athlete who defects. Director George Marshall
        Berlin Tunnel 21, 1981 – A made-for-TV movie about a former American officer leading an attempt to build a tunnel underneath The Wall as a rescue route.
        The Innocent, 1993 – About the joint CIA/MI6 operation to build a tunnel under East Berlin in the 1950s. Directed by John Schlesinger
        The Tunnel, 2001 – Dramatization of a collaborative tunnel under the wall. Film by Roland Suso Richter
    Some novels specifically about the Berlin Wall:
        John le Carré, The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, 1963 – Classic Cold War spy fiction
        Len Deighton, Berlin Game, 1983 – Classic Cold War spy fiction
        T.H.E. Hill, The Day Before the Berlin Wall: Could We Have Stopped It? – An Alternate History of Cold War Espionage,[107] 2010 – based on a legend told in Berlin in the 1970s
        John Marks, The Wall, 1999 NYT Review[108] – an American spy defects to the East just hours before the Wall falls
        Marcia Preston, West of the Wall (published as Trudy's Promise in North America), 2008 – Left behind in East Berlin, the heroine waits for news of her husband after he makes his escape over the Berlin Wall[109]
        Peter Schneider, The Wall Jumper, 1984 (German: Der Mauerspringer, 1982) – the Wall plays a central role in this novel set in Berlin of the 1980s
    Music related to the Berlin Wall
        "Holidays in the Sun", a song by the English punk rock band The Sex Pistols prominently mentions the wall, specifically singer Johnny Rotten's fantasy of digging a tunnel under it.
        Over de muur (nl), a 1984 song by Dutch pop band Klein Orkest (nl), about the differences between East and West Berlin during the period of the Berlin Wall.[110]
        Chippin' Away,[111] a song by Tom Fedora, as performed by Crosby, Stills & Nash on the Berlin Wall appeared on Graham Nash's 1986 solo album Innocent Eyes.
        The music video for Liza Fox's song "Free" (2013) contain video clips of the fall of the Berlin Wall.[112]
    Art related to the Berlin Wall
        In the year 1982 the West-German artist Elsner created about 500 artworks along the former border strip around West-Berlin as part of his work series "Border Injuries". On one of his actions he even tore down a large part of the wall,[113] installed a prepared foil of 3x2m in it and finished the painting there before the border soldiers on patrol could detect him. This performance was even recorded on video.[114] His actions are well-documented both in newspapers from that time and in recent scientific publications.[115]
    Video games related to the Berlin Wall
        The "First Strike" downloadable content pack for 2010s Call of Duty: Black Ops includes a multiplayer map that takes place at the Berlin Wall ("Berlin Wall")

See also

    Brandenburg Gate
    Chapel of Reconciliation
    Checkpoint Charlie stand-off Stand-off between US and Soviet Tanks, October 1961
    Dissolution of the Soviet Union, 1991
    Inner German Border
    Iron Curtain
    History of Solidarity
    List of walls
    Operation Gold
    Ostalgie
    Panmunjom, the Korean equivalent of the wall and the last standing front of the Cold War
    Removal of Hungary's border fence
    The Berlin Wall (video game)
    The Wall – Live in Berlin, a rock opera/concert by Roger Waters

The Berlin Wall
Main article    

    Berlin Wall

   
alt =
Related articles    

    Inner German border
    Iron Curtain
    Wall of Shame
    East Berlin
    West Berlin
    German reunification
    Eastern Bloc emigration and defection
    Republikflucht
    Berlin Crisis of 1961

Memorials, museums and galleries    

    White Crosses
    East Side Gallery
    Checkpoint Charlie Museum
    Topography of Terror
    Mauerpark
    Chapel of Reconciliation

Crossings    

    Berlin border crossings
    Checkpoint Charlie
    Checkpoint Bravo
    Berlin Friedrichstraße station
    Tränenpalast, Friedrichstrasse station

Deaths from breaching the Wall    

    List of deaths at the Berlin Wall
    Ida Siekmann
    Günter Litfin
    Marienetta Jirkowsky
    Chris Gueffroy
    Peter Fechter
    Winfried Freudenberg
    Heinz Sokolowski
    Hildegard Trabant

Other people connected to the Wall    

    Günter Schabowski
    Riccardo Ehrman
    Conrad Schumann

The Wall in speeches    

    Ich bin ein Berliner
    Tear down this wall!

The Wall in popular culture    

    The Tunnel (NBC documentary)
    The Wall (1962 film)
    The Road to the Wall
    Das Versprechen
    The Tunnel (2001 film)
    Good Bye, Lenin!
    Sonnenallee
    The Berlin Wall (video game)
    "Nikita"
    "West of the Wall"
    "The Soldier"

Other    

    List of Berlin Wall segments
    Ghost station

    Wikipedia book Book:Berlin Wall

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Cold War

    Participants and notable figures
    ANZUS
    NATO
    Non-Aligned Movement
    SEATO
    Warsaw Pact

1940s    

    Yalta Conference
    Operation Unthinkable
    Potsdam Conference
    Gouzenko Affair
    Operation Masterdom
    Operation Beleaguer
    Operation Blacklist Forty
    Iran crisis of 1946
    Greek Civil War
    Corfu Channel incident
    Turkish Straits crisis
    Restatement of Policy on Germany
    First Indochina War
    Truman Doctrine
    Asian Relations Conference
    Marshall Plan
    1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état
    Tito–Stalin split
    Berlin Blockade
    Western betrayal
    Iron Curtain
    Eastern Bloc
    Western Bloc
    Chinese Civil War (Second round)

1950s    

    Bamboo Curtain
    Korean War
    1953 Iranian coup d'état
    Uprising of 1953 in East Germany
    1954 Guatemalan coup d'état
    Partition of Vietnam
    First Taiwan Strait Crisis
    Geneva Summit (1955)
    Poznań 1956 protests
    Hungarian Revolution of 1956
    Suez Crisis
    Sputnik crisis
    Second Taiwan Strait Crisis
    Cuban Revolution
    Kitchen Debate
    Bandung Conference
    Bricker Amendment
    McCarthyism
    Operation Gladio
    Iraqi July Revolution

1960s    

    Congo Crisis
    Sino-Soviet split
    1962 Burmese coup d'état
    1960 U-2 incident
    Bay of Pigs Invasion
    Berlin Wall
    Portuguese Colonial War (Angolan War of Independence
    Guinea-Bissau War of Independence
    Mozambican War of Independence)
    Cuban missile crisis
    Iraqi Ramadan Revolution
    1963 Syrian coup d'état
    November 1963 Iraqi coup d'état[citation needed]
    Vietnam War
    1964 Brazilian coup d'état
    United States occupation of the Dominican Republic (1965–66)
    South African Border War
    Transition to the New Order
    Domino theory
    ASEAN Declaration
    Laotian Civil War
    1966 Syrian coup d'état
    Argentine Revolution
    Korean DMZ Conflict
    Greek military junta of 1967–74
    USS Pueblo incident
    Six-Day War
    War of Attrition
    Cultural Revolution
    Sino-Indian War
    Prague Spring
    Invasion of Czechoslovakia
    Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution
    Goulash Communism
    Sino-Soviet border conflict
    Communist insurgency in the Philippines
    Corrective Move

1970s    

    Détente
    Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
    Black September in Jordan
    1970 Syrian Corrective Revolution
    Cambodian Civil War
    Realpolitik
    Ping-pong diplomacy
    Corrective Revolution (Egypt)
    Four Power Agreement on Berlin
    1972 Nixon visit to China
    1973 Chilean coup d'état
    Yom Kippur War
    Carnation Revolution
    Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
    Rhodesian Bush War
    Angolan Civil War
    Mozambican Civil War
    Ogaden War
    Ethiopian Civil War
    Lebanese Civil War
    Sino-Albanian split
    Cambodian–Vietnamese War
    Sino-Vietnamese War
    Iranian Revolution
    Operation Condor
    Dirty War
    Bangladesh Liberation War
    Korean Air Lines Flight 902
    Seven Days to the River Rhine

1980s    

    Soviet war in Afghanistan
    1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts
    Solidarity
        Soviet reaction
    Contras
    Central American crisis
    RYAN
    Korean Air Lines Flight 007
    Able Archer 83
    Star Wars
    Invasion of Grenada
    People Power Revolution
    Nagorno-Karabakh War
    Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
    Fall of the Berlin Wall
    Revolutions of 1989
    Glasnost
    Perestroika

1990s    

    Mongolian Revolution of 1990
    Breakup of Yugoslavia
    Dissolution of the Soviet Union
    Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts    

    Abkhazia
    China
    Korea
    Nagorno-Karabakh
    South Ossetia
    Transnistria

Foreign policy    

    Truman Doctrine
    Marshall Plan
    Containment
    Eisenhower Doctrine
    Domino theory
    Hallstein Doctrine
    Kennedy Doctrine
    Peaceful coexistence
    Ostpolitik
    Johnson Doctrine
    Brezhnev Doctrine
    Nixon Doctrine
    Ulbricht Doctrine
    Carter Doctrine
    Reagan Doctrine
    Rollback
    Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies    

    Capitalism
        Chicago school
        Keynesianism
        Monetarism
        Neoclassical economics
        Reaganomics
        Supply-side economics
        Thatcherism

    Communism
        Marxism–Leninism
        Castroism
        Eurocommunism
        Guevarism
        Hoxhaism
        Juche
        Maoism
        Stalinism
        Titoism

    Liberal democracy
    Social democracy

Organizations    

    ASEAN
    CIA
    Comecon
    EEC
    KGB
    Safari Club
    MI6
    Stasi

Propaganda    

    Active measures
    Izvestia
    Pravda
    Crusade for Freedom
    Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
    Red Scare
    TASS
    Voice of America
    Voice of Russia

Races    

    Arms race
    Nuclear arms race
    Space Race

See also    

    Brinkmanship
    NATO–Russia relations
    Soviet espionage in U.S.
    Russian espionage in U.S.
    Soviet Union–United States relations
    US–Soviet summits

    Category
    Portal
    Timeline
    List of conflicts

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Revolutions of 1989
Internal background    

    Era of Stagnation
    Communism
    Anti-communism
    Criticism of communism
    Eastern Bloc
    Eastern Bloc economies
    Eastern Bloc politics
    Eastern Bloc information dissemination
    Eastern Bloc emigration and defection
    KGB
    Nomenklatura
    Shortage economy
    Totalitarianism
    Eastern European Anti-Communist Insurgencies

International background    

    Active measures
    Cold War
    List of socialist states
    Predictions of Soviet collapse
    Reagan Doctrine
    Soviet imperialism
    Terrorism and the Soviet Union
    Vatican Opposition
    Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

Reforms    

    Socialism with Chinese characteristics
    Perestroika
    Glasnost
    Democratisation in the Soviet Union
    Sinatra Doctrine
    Doi Moi

Government leaders    

    Ramiz Alia
    Nicolae Ceauşescu
    Mikhail Gorbachev
    Károly Grósz
    Erich Honecker
    János Kádár
    Miloš Jakeš
    Egon Krenz
    Wojciech Jaruzelski
    Slobodan Milošević
    Mathieu Kérékou
    Mengistu Haile Mariam
    Ne Win
    Denis Sassou Nguesso
    Heng Samrin
    Deng Xiaoping
    Todor Zhivkov
    Siad Barre

Opposition methods    

    Civil resistance
    Demonstrations
    Human chains
    Magnitizdat
    Polish underground press
    Protests
    Samizdat
    Strike action

Opposition leaders    

    Lech Wałęsa
    Václav Havel
    Alexander Dubček
    Ion Iliescu
    Wu'erkaixi
    Chai Ling
    Wang Dan
    Feng Congde
    Tank Man
    Joachim Gauck
    Sali Berisha
    Sanjaasürengiin Zorig
    Vladimir Bukovsky
    Boris Yeltsin
    Viacheslav Chornovil
    Vytautas Landsbergis
    Zianon Pazniak
    Zhelyu Zhelev
    Aung San Suu Kyi
    Meles Zenawi
    Isaias Afewerki

Opposition movements    

    Charter 77
    New Forum
    Civic Forum
    Democratic Party of Albania
    Democratic Russia
    Initiative for Peace and Human Rights
    Sąjūdis
    Peaceful Revolution
    People's Movement of Ukraine
    Solidarity
    Popular Front of Latvia
    Popular Front of Estonia
    Public Against Violence
    Belarusian Popular Front
    National League for Democracy
    National Salvation Front
    Union of Democratic Forces

Events by location    
Eastern Europe
   

    Albania
    Bulgaria
    Czechoslovakia
    East Germany
    Hungary
    Poland
    Romania
    Soviet Union
    Yugoslavia

Soviet Union
   

    Armenia
    Azerbaijan
    Belarus
    Chechnya
    Estonia
    Georgia
    Latvia
    Lithuania
    Kazakhstan
    Kyrgyzstan
    Moldova
    Russia
    Tajikstan
    Turkmenistan
    Ukraine
    Uzbekistan

Elsewhere
   

    Afghanistan
    Angola
    Benin
    Burma
    Cambodia
    China
    Congo-Brazzaville
    Ethiopia
    Mongolia
    Mozambique
    Somalia
    South Yemen

Individual events    

    1988 Polish strikes
    April 9 tragedy
    Black January
    Baltic Way
    Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
    Removal of Hungary's border fence
    Polish Round Table Agreement
    Hungarian Round Table Talks
    Pan-European Picnic
    Monday Demonstrations
    Alexanderplatz demonstration
    Malta Summit
    German reunification
    January Events in Lithuania
    January Events in Latvia
    March 1991 protests in Belgrade
    August Coup
    Dissolution of the Soviet Union

Later events    

    Colour revolution
    Decommunization
    Lustration
    Democratization
    Economic liberalization
    Post-Soviet conflicts
    Neo-Sovietism
    Neo-Stalinism
    Post-communism
    Yugoslav Wars

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Eastern Bloc

    Soviet Union
    Communism

Formation    

    Secret Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact protocol
    Soviet invasion of Poland
    Soviet occupations
        Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina
        Baltic states
        Hungary
        Romania
    Yalta Conference

   
Annexed as, or
into, SSRs
   

    Eastern Finland
    Estonia
    Latvia
    Lithuania
    Memel
    East Prussia
    West Belarus
    Western Ukraine
    Moldavia

Satellite states    

    Hungarian People's Republic
    People's Republic of Poland
    Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
    Romanian People's Republic/Socialist Republic of Romania
    East Germany
    People's Republic of Albania (to 1961)
    People's Republic of Bulgaria
    Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia (to 1948)

Annexing SSRs    

    Russian SFSR
    Ukrainian SSR
    Byelorussian SSR

Organizations    

    Cominform
    COMECON
    Warsaw Pact
    World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU)
    World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY)

Revolts and
opposition
   

    Welles Declaration
    Goryani Movement
    Forest Brothers
    Ukrainian Insurgent Army
    Operation Jungle
    Baltic state continuity
    Baltic Legations (1940–1991)
    Cursed soldiers
    Rebellion of Cazin 1950
    1953 uprising in Plzeň
    1953 East German uprising
    1956 Georgian demonstrations
    1956 Poznań protests
    1956 Hungarian Revolution
    Novocherkassk massacre
    1965 Yerevan demonstrations
    Prague Spring / Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia
    Brezhnev Doctrine
    1968 Red Square demonstration
    Belgrade 1968 students' demonstrations
    1968 Kosovo protests
    1970 Polish protests
    Croatian Spring
    1972 unrest in Lithuania SSR
    June 1976 protests
    Solidarity / Soviet reaction / Martial law
    1981 Kosovo protests
    Reagan Doctrine
    Jeltoqsan
    Karabakh movement
    April 9 tragedy
    Romanian Revolution
    Black January

Cold War events    

    Marshall Plan
    Berlin Blockade
    Tito–Stalin split
    1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état
    1961 Berlin Wall crisis

Conditions    

    Emigration and defection (list of defectors)
    Sovietization of the Baltic states
    Information dissemination
    Politics
    Economies
    Telephone tapping

Decline    

    Revolutions of 1989
    Fall of the Berlin Wall
    Fall of communism in Albania
    Singing Revolution
    Collapse of the Soviet Union
    Dissolution of Czechoslovakia
    January 1991 events in Lithuania
    January 1991 events in Latvia

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (/mænˈdɛlə/;[4] Xhosa pronunciation: [xoˈliːɬaɬa manˈdeːla]; 18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, politician and philanthropist who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was South Africa's first black chief executive, and the first elected in a fully representative democratic election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid through tackling institutionalised racism, poverty and inequality, and fostering racial reconciliation. Politically an African nationalist and democratic socialist, he served as President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1991 to 1997. Internationally, Mandela was Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999.

A Xhosa born to the Thembu royal family, Mandela attended the Fort Hare University and the University of Witwatersrand, where he studied law. Living in Johannesburg, he became involved in anti-colonial politics, joining the ANC and becoming a founding member of its Youth League. After the South African National Party came to power in 1948, he rose to prominence in the ANC's 1952 Defiance Campaign, was appointed superintendent of the organisation's Transvaal chapter and presided over the 1955 Congress of the People. Working as a lawyer, he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and, with the ANC leadership, was unsuccessfully prosecuted in the Treason Trial from 1956 to 1961. Influenced by Marxism, he secretly joined the South African Communist Party (SACP) and sat on its Central Committee. Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the SACP he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) in 1961, leading a sabotage campaign against the apartheid government. In 1962, he was arrested, convicted of conspiracy to overthrow the state, and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial.

Mandela served 27 years in prison, initially on Robben Island, and later in Pollsmoor Prison and Victor Verster Prison. An international campaign lobbied for his release. He was released in 1990, during a time of escalating civil strife. Mandela joined negotiations with President F. W. de Klerk to abolish apartheid and establish multiracial elections in 1994, in which he led the ANC to victory and became South Africa's first black president. He published his autobiography in 1995. During his tenure in the Government of National Unity he invited other political parties to join the cabinet, and promulgated a new constitution. He also created the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. While continuing the former government's liberal economic policy, his administration also introduced measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, and expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator between Libya and the United Kingdom in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial, and oversaw military intervention in Lesotho. He declined to run for a second term, and was succeeded by his deputy, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela became an elder statesman, focusing on charitable work in combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the Nelson Mandela Foundation.

Mandela was a controversial figure for much of his life. Denounced as a communist terrorist by critics,[5][6] he nevertheless gained international acclaim for his activism, having received more than 250 honours, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, the US Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Soviet Order of Lenin. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is often referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba, or as Tata ("Father"); he is often described as "the father of the nation".

His Excellency
Nelson Mandela
BR OM AC CC OJ GCStJ QC GCH
Nelson Mandela on the eve of his 90th birthday in Johannesburg in May 2008
Mandela in Johannesburg, on 13 May 2008
1st President of South Africa
In office
10 May 1994 – 14 June 1999
Deputy     Thabo Mbeki
F. W. de Klerk
Preceded by     F. W. de Klerk
As State President
Succeeded by     Thabo Mbeki
Personal details
Born     Rolihlahla Mandela
18 July 1918
Mvezo, Cape Province, Union of South Africa
Died     5 December 2013 (aged 95)
Johannesburg, South Africa
Resting place     Mandela Graveyard
Qunu, Eastern Cape
31°48′21.8″S 28°36′52.7″E
Nationality     South African
Political party     African National Congress
Other political
affiliations     South African Communist Party
Spouse(s)     Evelyn Ntoko Mase
(m. 1944–1957; divorced)
Winnie Madikizela
(m. 1958–1996; divorced)
Graça Machel
(m. 1998–2013; his death)
Children    

    Thembekile Mandela
    Makaziwe Mandela
    Makgatho Mandela
    Makaziwe Mandela
    Zenani Mandela
    Zindziswa Mandela

Alma mater    

    University of Fort Hare
    UoL External Programme
    University of South Africa
    University of the Witwatersrand

Occupation    

    Activist
    Politician
    Philanthropist
    Lawyer

Religion     Methodist[1][2]
Known for     Anti-Apartheid Movement
Awards    

    Sakharov Prize (1988)
    Bharat Ratna (1990)
    Nobel Peace Prize (1993)
    Order of Lenin
    Presidential Medal of Freedom

Notable work(s)     Long Walk to Freedom
Signature     Signature of Nelson Mandela
Website     www.nelsonmandela.org
Nickname(s)     Madiba
Tata
Dalibhunga (initiation name)[

His Excellency
Nelson Mandela
BR OM AC CC OJ GCStJ QC GCH
Nelson Mandela on the eve of his 90th birthday in Johannesburg in May 2008
Mandela in Johannesburg, on 13 May 2008
1st President of South Africa
In office
10 May 1994 – 14 June 1999
Deputy     Thabo Mbeki
F. W. de Klerk
Preceded by     F. W. de Klerk
As State President
Succeeded by     Thabo Mbeki
Personal details
Born     Rolihlahla Mandela
18 July 1918
Mvezo, Cape Province, Union of South Africa
Died     5 December 2013 (aged 95)
Johannesburg, South Africa
Resting place     Mandela Graveyard
Qunu, Eastern Cape
31°48′21.8″S 28°36′52.7″E
Nationality     South African
Political party     African National Congress
Other political
affiliations     South African Communist Party
Spouse(s)     Evelyn Ntoko Mase
(m. 1944–1957; divorced)
Winnie Madikizela
(m. 1958–1996; divorced)
Graça Machel
(m. 1998–2013; his death)
Children    

    Thembekile Mandela
    Makaziwe Mandela
    Makgatho Mandela
    Makaziwe Mandela
    Zenani Mandela
    Zindziswa Mandela

Alma mater    

    University of Fort Hare
    UoL External Programme
    University of South Africa
    University of the Witwatersrand

Occupation    

    Activist
    Politician
    Philanthropist
    Lawyer

Religion     Methodist[1][2]
Known for     Anti-Apartheid Movement
Awards    

    Sakharov Prize (1988)
    Bharat Ratna (1990)
    Nobel Peace Prize (1993)
    Order of Lenin
    Presidential Medal of Freedom

Notable work(s)     Long Walk to Freedom
Signature     Signature of Nelson Mandela
Website     www.nelsonmandela.org
Nickname(s)     Madiba
Tata
Dalibhunga (initiation name)

Political offices
Preceded by
F. W. de Klerk     President of South Africa
1994–1999     Succeeded by
Thabo Mbeki
Party political offices
Preceded by
Oliver Tambo     President of the African National Congress
1991–1997     Succeeded by
Thabo Mbeki
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
Andrés Pastrana Arango     Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
1998–1999     Succeeded by
Thabo Mbeki
[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Nelson Mandela

    18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013
    President of South Africa (1994–1999)
    President of the African National Congress (1991–1997)

Life    

    Rivonia Trial
    70th Birthday Tribute
    Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa
    Awards and honours
    90th Birthday Tribute
    Death and funeral

   
Nelson Mandela
Politics    

    South African general election, 1994
    Presidency
    Intervention in Lesotho
    Ismail Ayob

Books and speeches    

    "I Am Prepared to Die" (speech)
    Long Walk to Freedom
    Mandela: The Authorised Biography

Family    

    Ngubengcuka (great-grandfather)
    Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa (father)
    Evelyn Mase (wife)
    Winnie Madikizela-Mandela (wife)
    Graça Machel (wife)
    Makgatho Mandela (son)
    Makaziwe Mandela (daughter)
    Zenani Mandela-Dlamini (daughter)
    Mandla Mandela (grandson)

Depictions in film    

    Mandela (1987)
    Mandela (1996)
    Mandela and de Klerk (1997)
    Goodbye Bafana (2007)
    Endgame (2009)
    Invictus (2009)
    Winnie Mandela (2011)
    Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom (2013)

Related topics    

    Mandela House
    Robben Island
    Pollsmoor Prison
    Drakenstein Correctional Centre
    The Elders
    Mandela and Tambo law firm
    "Free Nelson Mandela" (song)
    Free Nelson Mandela (sculpture)
    Umkhonto we Sizwe

    Wiktionary-logo-en.svg Wiktionary
    Wikibooks-logo.svg Wikibooks
    Wikiquote-logo.svg Wikiquote
    Wikisource-logo.svg Wikisource
    Commons-logo.svg Commons
    Wikinews-logo.svg Wikinews
    Wikipedia book Wikibook
    Category Category

[hide]

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    t
    e

African National Congress
History
Leaders
   
Secretary-General
   

    1912–1915 S. T. Plaatje
    1915–1917 R. V. S. Thema
    1917–1919 S. Msane
    1919–1923 H.L. Bud-M'belle
    1923–1927 T. D. Mweli-Skota
    1927–1930 E. J. Khaile
    1930–1936 E. Mdolomba
    1936–1949 J. A. Calata
    1949–1955 W. M. U. Sisulu
    1955–1958 O. R. Tambo
    1958–1969 P. P. D. Nokwe
    1969–1991 A. B. Nzo
    1991–1997 M. C. Ramaphosa
    1997–2007 K. Motlanthe
    2007–present G. Mantashe

President
   

    1912–1917 J. L. Dube
    1917–1924 S. M. Makgatho
    1924–1927 Z. R. Mahabane
    1927–1930 J. T. Gumede
    1930–1936 P. ka Isaka Seme
    1937–1940 Z. R. Mahabane
    1940–1949 A. B. Xuma
    1949–1952 J. S. Moroka
    1952–1967 A. J. Lutuli
    1967–1991 O. R. Tambo
    1991–1997 N. R. Mandela
    1997–2007 T. M. Mbeki
    2007–present J. G. Zuma

Deputy President
   

    1952–1958 N. R. Mandela
    1958–1985 O. R. Tambo
    1985–1991 N. R. Mandela
    1991–1994 W. M. U. Sisulu
    1994–1997 T. M. Mbeki
    1997–2007 J. G. Zuma
    2007–2012 K. Motlanthe
    2012-present M. C. Ramaphosa

National Conferences    

    38th (1949)
    39th (1950)
    40th (1951)
    41st (1952)
    42nd (1953)
    43rd (1954)
    44th (1955)
    45th (1957)
    46th (1958)
    47th (1959)
    48th (1991)
    49th (1994)
    50th (1997)
    51st (2002)
    52nd (2007)
    53rd (2012)

Structure and wings    

    ANC Today
    ANC Women's League
    ANC Youth League
    National Executive Committee
    Radio Freedom
    Umkhonto we Sizwe

Allied organizations    

    Congress of South African Trade Unions
    South African Communist Party

Category Category
[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Heads of State of South Africa (List)
Union of South Africa    

    George V
    Edward VIII
    George VI
    Elizabeth II

   
Red Ensign of South Africa 1912-1928.svg

Flag of South Africa 1928-1994.svg

Flag of South Africa.svg
Republic
(ceremonial)    

    Charles Robberts Swart
    Theophilus Ebenhaezer Dönges
    Jozua François Naudé^*
    Jacobus Johannes Fouché
    Johannes de Klerk^*
    Nicolaas Johannes Diederichs
    Marais Viljoen^*
    B. J. Vorster
    Marais Viljoen

Republic
(executive)    

    P. W. Botha
    F. W. de Klerk
    Nelson Mandela
    Thabo Mbeki
    Kgalema Motlanthe
    Jacob Zuma

^* Acting President
[hide]

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    t
    e

Secretaries-General of the Non-Aligned Movement

    Tito
    Nasser
    Kaunda
    Boumédienne
    Gopallawa
    Jayewardene
    F. Castro
    Reddy
    Singh
    Mugabe
    Drnovšek
    Jović
    Mesić
    Kostić
    Ćosić
    Harto
    Samper
    Pastrana
    Mandela
    Mbeki
    Mahathir
    Abdullah
    F. Castro
    R. Castro
    Mubarak
    Tantawi
    Morsi
    Ahmadinejad
    Rouhani

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

First Mandela Cabinet (1994–1996)
Deputy Presidents    

    Frederik Willem de Klerk / Thabo Mbeki

Ministers    

    Kraai van Niekerk (Agriculture)
    Ben Ngubane (Arts and Culture)
    Pallo Jordan (Communications)
    Roelf Meyer (1994–1996) / Chris Fismer (1996) (Constitutional Development and Provincial Affairs)
    Sipo Mzimela (Correctional Services)
    Joe Modise (Defence)
    Sibusiso Bengu (Education)
    Dawid de Villiers (Environmental Affairs and Tourism)
    Derek Keys (1994) / Chris Liebenberg (1994–1996) (Finance)
    Alfred Nzo (Foreign Affairs)
    John Mavuso (1996) (General Services)
    Nkosazana Zuma (Health)
    Mangosuthu Buthelezi (Home Affairs)
    Joe Slovo (1994–1995) / Sankie Mtembi–Nkondo (1995–1996) (Housing)
    Dullah Omar (Justice)
    Tito Mboweni (Labour)
    Derek Hanekom (Land Affairs)
    Pik Botha (Minerals and Energy)
    Stella Sigcau (Public Enterprises)
    Zola Skweyiya (Public Service and Administration)
    Jeff Radebe (Public Works)
    Sydney Mufamadi (Safety and Security)
    Steve Tshwete (Sport and Recreation)
    Jay Naidoo (1994–1996) (The Presidency)
    Trevor Manuel (Trade and Industry)
    Mac Maharaj (Transport)
    Kader Asmal (Water Affairs and Forestry)
    Abe Williams (1994–1996) / Patrick McKenzie (1996) (Welfare)

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Second Mandela Cabinet (1996–1999)
Deputy President    

    Thabo Mbeki

Ministers    

    Derek Hanekom (Agriculture and Land Affairs)
    Ben Ngubane (1996–1997, 1999) / Lionel Mtshali (1997–1999) (Arts and Culture)
    Jay Naidoo (Communications)
    Mohammed Valli Moosa (Constitutional Development and Provincial Affairs)
    Sipo Mzimela (1996–1998) / Ben Skosana (1998–1999) (Correctional Services)
    Joe Modise (Defence)
    Sibusiso Bengu (Education)
    Pallo Jordan (Environmental Affairs and Tourism)
    Trevor Manuel (Finance)
    Alfred Nzo (Foreign Affairs)
    Nkosazana Zuma (Health)
    Mangosuthu Buthelezi (Home Affairs)
    Sankie Mtembi-Nkondo (Housing)
    Dullah Omar (Justice)
    Tito Mboweni (1996–1998) / Membathisi Mdladlana (1998–1999) (Labour)
    Penuell Maduna (Minerals and Energy)
    Stella Sigcau (Public Enterprises)
    Zola Skweyiya (Public Service and Administration)
    Jeff Radebe (Public Works)
    Sydney Mufamadi (Safety and Security)
    Steve Tshwete (Sport and Recreation)
    Gert Johannes Gerwel (The Presidency)
    Alec Erwin (Trade and Industry)
    Mac Maharaj (Transport)
    Kader Asmal (Water Affairs and Forestry)
    Geraldine Fraser-Moleketi (Welfare)

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize
1901–1925    

    1901 Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy
    1902 Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat
    1903 Randal Cremer
    1904 Institut de Droit International
    1905 Bertha von Suttner
    1906 Theodore Roosevelt
    1907 Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault
    1908 Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer
    1909 A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant
    1910 International Peace Bureau
    1911 Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried
    1912 Elihu Root
    1913 Henri La Fontaine
    1914
    1915
    1916
    1917 International Committee of the Red Cross
    1918
    1919 Woodrow Wilson
    1920 Léon Bourgeois
    1921 Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange
    1922 Fridtjof Nansen
    1923
    1924
    1925 Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes

   
Nobel Prize.png
1926–1950    

    1926 Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann
    1927 Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde
    1928
    1929 Frank B. Kellogg
    1930 Nathan Söderblom
    1931 Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler
    1932
    1933 Norman Angell
    1934 Arthur Henderson
    1935 Carl von Ossietzky
    1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas
    1937 Robert Cecil
    1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees
    1939
    1940
    1941
    1942
    1943
    1944 International Committee of the Red Cross
    1945 Cordell Hull
    1946 Emily Balch / John Mott
    1947 Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee
    1948
    1949 John Boyd Orr
    1950 Ralph Bunche

1951–1975    

    1951 Léon Jouhaux
    1952 Albert Schweitzer
    1953 George Marshall
    1954 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
    1955
    1956
    1957 Lester B. Pearson
    1958 Georges Pire
    1959 Philip Noel-Baker
    1960 Albert Lutuli
    1961 Dag Hammarskjöld
    1962 Linus Pauling
    1963 International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies
    1964 Martin Luther King, Jr.
    1965 UNICEF
    1966
    1967
    1968 René Cassin
    1969 International Labour Organization
    1970 Norman Borlaug
    1971 Willy Brandt
    1972
    1973 Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger
    1974 Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō
    1975 Andrei Sakharov

1976–2000    

    1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan
    1977 Amnesty International
    1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin
    1979 Mother Teresa
    1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel
    1981 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
    1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles
    1983 Lech Wałęsa
    1984 Desmond Tutu
    1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
    1986 Elie Wiesel
    1987 Óscar Arias
    1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces
    1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama)
    1990 Mikhail Gorbachev
    1991 Aung San Suu Kyi
    1992 Rigoberta Menchú
    1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk
    1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat
    1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat
    1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta
    1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams
    1998 John Hume / David Trimble
    1999 Médecins Sans Frontières
    2000 Kim Dae-jung

2001–present    

    2001 Kofi Annan / United Nations
    2002 Jimmy Carter
    2003 Shirin Ebadi
    2004 Wangari Maathai
    2005 International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei
    2006 Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus
    2007 Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    2008 Martti Ahtisaari
    2009 Barack Obama
    2010 Liu Xiaobo
    2011 Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman
    2012 European Union
    2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Gandhi Peace Prize laureates

    Julius Nyerere (1995)
    A. T. Ariyaratne (1996)
    Gerhard Fischer (1997)
    Ramakrishna Mission (1998)
    Baba Amte (1999)
    Grameen Bank, Nelson Mandela (2000)
    John Hume (2001)
    Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan (2002)
    Václav Havel (2003)
    Coretta Scott King (2004)
    Desmond Tutu (2005)
    Chandi Prasad Bhatt (2013)

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

The Elders
Chair    

    Kofi Annan

Deputy Chair    

    Gro Harlem Brundtland

Members    

    Martti Ahtisaari
    Ela Bhatt
    Lakhdar Brahimi
    Fernando Henrique Cardoso
    Jimmy Carter
    Hina Jilani
    Graça Machel
    Mary Robinson
    Ernesto Zedillo

Honorary Members    

    Desmond Tutu (former Chair)

Former Members    

    Nelson Mandela (founder)
    Aung San Suu Kyi
    Muhammad Yunus
    Li Zhaoxing

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Time Persons of the Year

    Jimmy Carter (1976)
    Anwar Sadat (1977)
    Deng Xiaoping (1978)
    Ayatollah Khomeini (1979)
    Ronald Reagan (1980)
    Lech Wałęsa (1981)
    The Computer (1982)
    Ronald Reagan / Yuri Andropov (1983)
    Peter Ueberroth (1984)
    Deng Xiaoping (1985)
    Corazon Aquino (1986)
    Mikhail Gorbachev (1987)
    The Endangered Earth (1988)
    Mikhail Gorbachev (1989)
    George H. W. Bush (1990)
    Ted Turner (1991)
    Bill Clinton (1992)
    “The Peacemakers”: Yitzhak Rabin / Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk / Yasser Arafat (1993)
    Pope John Paul II (1994)
    Newt Gingrich (1995)
    David Ho (1996)
    Andrew Grove (1997)
    Bill Clinton / Ken Starr (1998)
    Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999)
    George W. Bush (2000)

    Complete roster
    1927–1950
    1951–1975
    1976–2000
    2001–present

Authority control    

    WorldCat
    VIAF: 98029748
    LCCN: n85153068
    ISNI: 0000 0001 2144 7715
    GND: 118730541
    SELIBR: 74042
    SUDOC: 028570804
    BNF: cb120379994 (data)
    ULAN: 500198443
    NLA: 35325159
    NDL: 00470984
    NKC: kup19950000060983
    BNE: XX1721566



Categories:

    1918 births
    2013 deaths
    African and Black nationalists
    Alumni of the University of London External System
    Anti-apartheid activists
    Congressional Gold Medal recipients
    Inmates of Robben Island
    Lenin Peace Prize recipients
    Marxist writers
    Members of the National Assembly of South Africa
    Nelson Mandela
    Nobel Peace Prize laureates
    People acquitted of treason
    People from the Eastern Cape
    Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients
    Presidents of South Africa
    Presidents of the African National Congress
    Saboteurs
    South African humanitarians
    South African lawyers
    South African memoirists
    South African Nobel laureates
    South African philanthropists
    South African politicians convicted of crimes
    South African prisoners and detainees
    South African revolutionaries
    South African socialists
    University of South Africa alumni
    Xhosa people
    Bailiffs Grand Cross of the Order of St John
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    Bands of the Order of the Aztec Eagle
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    Honorary Members of the Order of Merit
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    University of the Witwatersrand alumni
    Deaths from lung disease
    South African Methodists
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    Burials in South Africa

The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 - 17 January 1991), for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) was a war waged by coalition forces from 34 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.

The war is also known under other names, such as the Persian Gulf War, First Gulf War, Gulf War I, Kuwait War, First Iraq War, or Iraq War[14][15][16][a] before the term "Iraq War" became identified instead with the 2003 Iraq War (also referred to in the U.S. as "Operation Iraqi Freedom").[17] Kuwait's invasion by Iraqi troops that began 2 August 1990 was met with international condemnation, and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the U.N. Security Council. U.S. President George H. W. Bush deployed U.S. forces into Saudi Arabia, and urged other countries to send their own forces to the scene. An array of nations joined the Coalition, the largest military alliance since World War II. The great majority of the Coalition's military forces were from the U.S., with Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom and Egypt as leading contributors, in that order. Saudi Arabia paid around US$36 billion of the US$60 billion cost.[18]

The war was marked by the introduction of live news broadcasts from the front lines of the battle, principally by the U.S. network CNN.[19][20][21] The war has also earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast images on board the U.S. bombers during Operation Desert Storm.[22][23]

The initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with an aerial bombardment on 17 January 1991. This was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. This was a decisive victory for the Coalition forces, who liberated Kuwait and advanced into Iraqi territory. The Coalition ceased its advance, and declared a cease-fire 100 hours after the ground campaign started. Aerial and ground combat was confined to Iraq, Kuwait, and areas on Saudi Arabia's border. Iraq launched Scud missiles against Coalition military targets in Saudi Arabia and against Israel.

United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 passed in April 1991 established formal cease-fire terms. The controversies over enforcing this and subsequent resolutions would lead to the outbreak of another war 12 years later.

Persian Gulf War
Gulf War Photobox.jpg
Clockwise from top: USAF F-15Es, F-16s, and a USAF F-15C flying over burning Kuwaiti oil wells; British troops from the Staffordshire Regiment in Operation Granby; camera view from a Lockheed AC-130; Highway of Death; M728 Combat Engineer Vehicle
Date     2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991
(6 months, 3 weeks and 5 days)
(Operation Desert Storm officially ended on 30 November 1995)[1]
Location     Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Israel
Result     Decisive Coalition victory

    Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait; Emir Jaber III restored
    Sanctions against Iraq
    Heavy casualties and destruction of Iraqi and Kuwaiti infrastructure
    Establishment of Iraqi no-fly zones

Belligerents
Coalition forces:

 Kuwait
United States
 Saudi Arabia
United Kingdom
 France
And others[show]
    Iraq

    Kuwait Republic of Kuwait

Commanders and leaders
Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah

George H. W. Bush
Colin Powell
Norman Schwarzkopf
John Yeosock
Walter Boomer
Charles Horner
Stanley Arthur
King Fahd
Khalid bin Sultan[3][4]
Margaret Thatcher
John Major
    Saddam Hussein

Ali Hassan al-Majid
Salah Aboud Mahmoud
Hussein Kamel al-Majid
Strength
956,600, including 700,000 U.S. Troops [5][6]     650,000 soldiers
Casualties and losses
Coalition:
190 killed by enemy action, 44 killed by friendly fire, 248 killed by in-theater accidents
Total: 482 killed
458[7]–776 wounded[8]
Kuwait:
200 killed[9]     20,000–35,000 killed

75,000+ wounded[8]
Kuwaiti civilian losses:
Over 1,000 killed[10]
600 missing people[11]


Iraqi civilian losses:
About 3,664 killed[12]
Other civilian losses:
300 civilians killed, more injured[13]
[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Persian Gulf Wars

    Iran–Iraq War (1980–88) (Tanker War)
    Gulf War (1990–91)
    Iraqi Kurdish/Shi'a uprisings (1991)
    Iraq no-fly zones conflict (1991–2003)
    Iraq missile strikes (1993)
    Iraq missile strikes (1996)
    Iraq bombing (1998)
    Iraq War (2003–11)
    Iraqi insurgency (post-U.S. withdrawal)

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Persian Gulf War
Invasion of Kuwait

    Kuwaiti Bridges
    Dasman Palace
    Failaka
    British Airways Flight 149

Coalition intervention

    Ad-Dawrah
    Qurah
    Maradim
    Khafji
    Bubiyan
    Wadi Al-Batin

Air campaign

    Air to Air combat
    "Package Q" Air Strike
    Amiriyah

Liberation of Kuwait

    Order of battle
    67 Easting
    73 Easting
    Al Busayyah
    Phase Line Bullet
    Medina Ridge
    Highway of Death
    Jalibah
    Norfolk

Post-ceasefire

    Rumaila
    Safwan

Part of a series on
Ba'athism
Flag of the Ba'ath Party
Organisations[hide]
Arab Ba'ath Movement     1940–1947
Ba'ath Party     1947–1966
Ba'ath Party (pro-Iraqi)     1968–2003
Ba'ath Party (pro-Syrian)     1966–present
People[hide]

    Zaki al-Arsuzi
    Michel Aflaq
    Salah al-Din al-Bitar
    Abdullah Rimawi
    Wahib al-Ghanim
    Fuad al-Rikabi
    Salah Jadid
    Hafez al-Assad
    Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
    Saddam Hussein
    Bashar al-Assad
    Muammar al-Qaddafi
    Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri

Literature[hide]

    On the Way of Resurrection
    The Battle for One Destiny
    The Genius of Arabic in Its Tongue

History[hide]

    Ba'athist Iraq
    Ramadan Revolution
    November 1963 coup d'état

    17 July Revolution
    Iran–Iraq War
    Gulf War
    UN sanctions
    Iraq War

    Ba'athist Syria
    Syrian Committee to Help Iraq
    1963 / 1966 coup d'états

    Corrective Revolution
    Civil War

Regional organisations[hide]
Algeria    

    pro-Iraq
    pro-Syria

Bahrain    

    pro-Iraq
    pro-Syria

Egypt    

    pro-Iraq
    pro-Syria

Iraq    

    pro-Iraq
    pro-Syria

Jordan    

    pro-Iraq
    pro-Syria

Lebanon    

    pro-Iraq
    pro-Syria

Libya    

    pro-Iraq

Mauritania    

    pro-Iraq
    pro-Syria

Palestine    

    pro-Iraq
    pro-Syria

Sudan    

    Neutral
    pro-Iraq
    pro-Syria

Syria    

    pro-Iraq
    pro-Syria

Tunisia    

    pro-Iraq
    pro-Syria

Yemen    

    pro-Iraq
    pro-Syria

Related topics[hide]

    Arab nationalism
    Arab socialism
    De-Ba'athification
    Nasserism
    Pan-Arabism


    Kuwait-Iraq 1973 Sanita border skirmish
    Iraq War (2003-2011)
    War on Terror
    War in Afghanistan (2001–present)
    United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (April 1991- October 2003)
    Kuwait–Iraq barrier

Portal icon     Iraq portal
Portal icon     United States portal
Portal icon     War portal
Portal icon     1990s portal

    Gulf War military awards
    Iraq disarmament crisis timeline 1990–1996, 1997–2000, 2001–2003
    Iraq–Russia relations
    Lion of Babylon tank
    List of Gulf War military equipment
    Operation Simoom
    Organization of United States Air Force Units in the Gulf War
    SIPRI Arms Transfers Database, Iraq 1973–1990
    Timeline of the Gulf War

Regional wars:

    Iran-Iraq War
    Al-Anfal Campaign
    List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

General:

    Loss of Strength Gradient
    Military history of the United States
    Post–World War II air-to-air combat losses

Games:

    Conflict: Desert Storm
    Conflict: Desert Storm II
    Gulf War: Operation Desert Hammer

Persian Gulf War
Invasion of Kuwait    

    Battle of Dasman Palace
    Battle of the Bridges
    Battle of Failaka
    U.N. Resolution 660

Coalition intervention    

    U.N. Resolution 661
    Coalition
    Iraq–United States relations
    Carter Doctrine
    Military equipment

Battles    

    Air campaign
    "Package Q" air strike
    Khafji
    Wadi Al-Batin
    Al Busayyah
    67 Easting
    73 Easting
    Phase Line Bullet
    Medina Ridge
    2nd Kuwait
    Highway of Death
    Jalibah
    Norfolk
    Rumaila
    Safwan

Aftermath    

    Operation Southern Watch
    Iraq sanctions
    Kuwaiti oil fires
    1991 uprisings
    Draining of the marshes
    Gulf War oil spill
    Depleted uranium
    Gulf War syndrome
    Awards
    Operation Provide Comfort

Outline    

    Conflict timeline
    Disarmament timeline

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

Iraq topics
History    
Ancient    

    Sumer
    Akkadian Empire
    Babylonia
    Assyria
    Neo-Assyrian Empire
    Neo-Babylonian Empire
    Achaemenid Assyria
    Seleucid Babylonia
    Parthian Babylonia
    Sassanid Asorestan

638–1958    

    Muslim conquest of Persia
    Abbasid Caliphate
    Ottoman Iraq (Mamluk dynasty)
    Mandatory Iraq
    Kingdom of Iraq
    Arab Federation

Republic    

    1958–68
    1968–2003
    2003–11
    2011–present

    Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (Regional Command
    National Command)
    Saddam Hussein
    Iran–Iraq War
    Invasion of Kuwait
    Gulf War
    Sanctions
    Iraq War
        U.S. invasion
        Iraqi insurgency
        U.S. troop withdrawal
    2011-present insurgency

Geography    

    Al-Faw Peninsula
    Al-Jazira
    Districts
    Euphrates
    Governorates
    Hamrin Mountains
    Persian Gulf
    Islands
    Mesopotamia
    Mesopotamian Marshes
    Places
    Shatt al-Arab
    Syrian Desert
    Tigris
    Umm Qasr
    Zagros Mountains

Lakes    

    Habbaniyah
    Hammar
    Milh
    Tharthar

Politics    

    Armed Forces
        Army
        Air Force
        Navy
    Constitution
    Council of Representatives (legislative)
    Elections
    Foreign aid
    Foreign relations
    Government
        Cabinet
        Presidency Council
        President
        Prime Minister
    Human rights
        LGBT
    Law
    Police
    Minorities
    Political parties
    Judiciary
        Supreme Court
        Supreme Criminal Tribunal
        Central Criminal Court
    Wars and conflicts

Economy    

    Central Bank
    Dinar (currency)
    Infrastructure
    Oil Industry
    Oil reserves
    Reconstruction
    Stock Exchange
    Telecommunications
    Transportation
        roads

Society    

    Cuisine
    Culture
    Education
        schools
    Health
        hospitals
    Media
    Music
    Sports

Demographics    

    Iraqi people
        diaspora
    Languages
        Arabic
        Aramaic
        Kurdish
        Persian
        Turkmen
    Minorities
        Armenians
        Assyrians
        Circassians
        Kurds
        Mandaeans
        Persians
        Turkmen
    Religion
        Islam
        Christianity
        Mandaeism

    Outline
    Index

    Category
    Portal
    WikiProject

[hide]

    v
    t
    e

List of modern conflicts in the Middle East
1910s    

    Unification of Saudi Arabia
    Simko Shikak revolt
    Egyptian Revolution of 1919
    Armenian Genocide (1915-1918
    Turkish War of Independence
        Greco-Turkish War
        Turkish–Armenian War
        Franco-Turkish War
        Revolts
    Mahmud Barzanji revolts

1920s    

    Franco-Syrian War
    Iraqi revolt against the British
    Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine
    Adwan Rebellion
    Arab separatism in Khuzestan
    Great Syrian Revolt
    Sheikh Said rebellion
    1929 Palestine riots

1930s    

    Ararat rebellion
    Ahmed Barzani revolt
    Simele massacre
    Saudi–Yemeni War
    Goharshad Mosque rebellion
    1935–36 Iraqi Shia revolts
    1935 Yazidi revolt
    Dersim Rebellion
    Middle East Theatre of World War II

1940s    

    1943 Barzani revolt
    Egyptian Student Riots
    Alwaziri coup
    Al-Wathbah uprising
    Kurdish separatism in Iran
        Iran crisis of 1946
    Arab–Israeli conflict
        Israeli–Palestinian conflict

1950s    

    Egyptian Revolution of 1952
    1953 Iranian coup d'état
    Jebel Akhdar War
    Cypriot ethnic crisis
    Yemeni–Adenese clan violence
    1958 Lebanon crisis
    1958 Iraqi revolution
    1959 Mosul uprising

1960s    

    Iraqi–Kurdish conflict
    Dhofar Rebellion
    North Yemen Civil War
    White Revolution
    Feb. 1963 Iraqi coup
    8th March Syrian Revolution
    Nov. 1963 Iraqi coup
    Aden Emergency
    1964 Hama riot
    1966 Syrian coup d'état

1970s    

    Black September in Jordan
    1972 North Yemen–South Yemen war
    Turkish invasion of Cyprus
    Lebanese Civil War
    Political violence in Turkey (1976–80)
    Islamist uprising in Syria
    Iranian Revolution
        Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution
    1979–1983 Qatif unrest
    Grand Mosque Seizure

1980s    

    Sadr uprising (1980)
    Iran–Iraq War
    1980 Turkish coup d'état
    Kurdish–Turkish conflict
    South Yemen Civil War
    1986 Egyptian Conscription Riot
    1986 Damascus bombings
    Mecca massacre
    Abu Nidal's executions

1990s    

    Gulf War (1990–1991)
    1991 uprisings in Iraq
    Terror campaign in Egypt (1990s)
    1994 civil war in Yemen
    Islamic insurgency in Saudi Arabia (2000–present)
    Operation Desert Fox
    Islamic insurgency in Yemen
    1999 Shia uprising in Iraq

2000s    

    Iraq War
    Balochi insurgency in Iran
    2004 al-Qamishli riots
    North Yemen insurgency
    Iran–Israel proxy conflict
    Fatah–Hamas conflict
    Nahr al-Bared fighting
    2008 conflict in Lebanon
    South Yemen insurgency
    2009–10 Iranian election protests

2010s    

    Syrian Civil War
        Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon
    Egyptian Crisis
    Iraqi insurgency

This list includes post-Ottoman conflicts (after 1918) of at least 100 fatalities each
Prolonged conflicts are listed in the decade when initiated; ongoing conflicts are marked italic
[hide]

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Major armed conflicts involving the United States Armed Forces
listed chronologically
Internal    

    Shays' Rebellion
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    Dorr Rebellion
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    Bleeding Kansas
    Utah War
    Civil War
    Indian Wars
    Brooks–Baxter War
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    Homestead Strike
    Battle of Blair Mountain
    Bonus Army

International    

    Revolutionary War
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    Second Barbary War
    First Sumatran expedition
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    Ivory Coast Expedition
    Mexican–American War
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    Boxer Rebellion
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    Invasion of the Dominican Republic
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    Lebanese Civil War
    Invasion of Panama
    Gulf War
    Somali Civil War
    Bosnian War
    Kosovo War
    Afghanistan War
    Iraq War
    War in North-West Pakistan
    Libyan Civil War

Related articles    

    List of conflicts in the U.S.
    List of wars involving the U.S.
    Timeline of U.S. military operations
    Length of U.S. participation in major wars
    Overseas expansion
    Military history
    Covert regime-change actions
    Casualties of war

[hide]

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History of the United States
Timeline    

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Topics    

    African American
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    Category Category
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Cold War

    Participants and notable figures
    ANZUS
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1940s    

    Yalta Conference
    Operation Unthinkable
    Potsdam Conference
    Gouzenko Affair
    Operation Masterdom
    Operation Beleaguer
    Operation Blacklist Forty
    Iran crisis of 1946
    Greek Civil War
    Corfu Channel incident
    Turkish Straits crisis
    Restatement of Policy on Germany
    First Indochina War
    Truman Doctrine
    Asian Relations Conference
    Marshall Plan
    1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état
    Tito–Stalin split
    Berlin Blockade
    Western betrayal
    Iron Curtain
    Eastern Bloc
    Western Bloc
    Chinese Civil War (Second round)

1950s    

    Bamboo Curtain
    Korean War
    1953 Iranian coup d'état
    Uprising of 1953 in East Germany
    1954 Guatemalan coup d'état
    Partition of Vietnam
    First Taiwan Strait Crisis
    Geneva Summit (1955)
    Poznań 1956 protests
    Hungarian Revolution of 1956
    Suez Crisis
    Sputnik crisis
    Second Taiwan Strait Crisis
    Cuban Revolution
    Kitchen Debate
    Bandung Conference
    Bricker Amendment
    McCarthyism
    Operation Gladio
    Iraqi July Revolution

1960s    

    Congo Crisis
    Sino-Soviet split
    1962 Burmese coup d'état
    1960 U-2 incident
    Bay of Pigs Invasion
    Berlin Wall
    Portuguese Colonial War (Angolan War of Independence
    Guinea-Bissau War of Independence
    Mozambican War of Independence)
    Cuban missile crisis
    Iraqi Ramadan Revolution
    1963 Syrian coup d'état
    November 1963 Iraqi coup d'état[citation needed]
    Vietnam War
    1964 Brazilian coup d'état
    United States occupation of the Dominican Republic (1965–66)
    South African Border War
    Transition to the New Order
    Domino theory
    ASEAN Declaration
    Laotian Civil War
    1966 Syrian coup d'état
    Argentine Revolution
    Korean DMZ Conflict
    Greek military junta of 1967–74
    USS Pueblo incident
    Six-Day War
    War of Attrition
    Cultural Revolution
    Sino-Indian War
    Prague Spring
    Invasion of Czechoslovakia
    Iraqi Ba'athist Revolution
    Goulash Communism
    Sino-Soviet border conflict
    Communist insurgency in the Philippines
    Corrective Move

1970s    

    Détente
    Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
    Black September in Jordan
    1970 Syrian Corrective Revolution
    Cambodian Civil War
    Realpolitik
    Ping-pong diplomacy
    Corrective Revolution (Egypt)
    Four Power Agreement on Berlin
    1972 Nixon visit to China
    1973 Chilean coup d'état
    Yom Kippur War
    Carnation Revolution
    Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
    Rhodesian Bush War
    Angolan Civil War
    Mozambican Civil War
    Ogaden War
    Ethiopian Civil War
    Lebanese Civil War
    Sino-Albanian split
    Cambodian–Vietnamese War
    Sino-Vietnamese War
    Iranian Revolution
    Operation Condor
    Dirty War
    Bangladesh Liberation War
    Korean Air Lines Flight 902
    Seven Days to the River Rhine

1980s    

    Soviet war in Afghanistan
    1980 and 1984 Summer Olympics boycotts
    Solidarity
        Soviet reaction
    Contras
    Central American crisis
    RYAN
    Korean Air Lines Flight 007
    Able Archer 83
    Star Wars
    Invasion of Grenada
    People Power Revolution
    Nagorno-Karabakh War
    Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
    Fall of the Berlin Wall
    Revolutions of 1989
    Glasnost
    Perestroika

1990s    

    Mongolian Revolution of 1990
    Breakup of Yugoslavia
    Dissolution of the Soviet Union
    Dissolution of Czechoslovakia

Frozen conflicts    

    Abkhazia
    China
    Korea
    Nagorno-Karabakh
    South Ossetia
    Transnistria

Foreign policy    

    Truman Doctrine
    Marshall Plan
    Containment
    Eisenhower Doctrine
    Domino theory
    Hallstein Doctrine
    Kennedy Doctrine
    Peaceful coexistence
    Ostpolitik
    Johnson Doctrine
    Brezhnev Doctrine
    Nixon Doctrine
    Ulbricht Doctrine
    Carter Doctrine
    Reagan Doctrine
    Rollback
    Sovereignty of Puerto Rico during the Cold War

Ideologies    

    Capitalism
        Chicago school
        Keynesianism
        Monetarism
        Neoclassical economics
        Reaganomics
        Supply-side economics
        Thatcherism

    Communism
        Marxism–Leninism
        Castroism
        Eurocommunism
        Guevarism
        Hoxhaism
        Juche
        Maoism
        Stalinism
        Titoism

    Liberal democracy
    Social democracy

Organizations    

    ASEAN
    CIA
    Comecon
    EEC
    KGB
    Safari Club
    MI6
    Stasi

Propaganda    

    Active measures
    Izvestia
    Pravda
    Crusade for Freedom
    Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
    Red Scare
    TASS
    Voice of America
    Voice of Russia

Races    

    Arms race
    Nuclear arms race
    Space Race

See also    

    Brinkmanship
    NATO–Russia relations
    Soviet espionage in U.S.
    Russian espionage in U.S.
    Soviet Union–United States relations
    US–Soviet summits

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