THE LAND OF THE ORANG-UTAN, AND THE BIRD OF PARADISE
A NARRATIVE OF TRAVEL,
WITH STUDIES OF MAN AND NATURE
BY ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE
MACMILLAN AND CO.
BOOKS' DESCRIPTION: Original Publisher's cloth, xvi, 653pp, ads. Folding maps and plates (all present as called for - see photos)
CONDITION: VERY GOOD+. A near fine copy. Some very minor wear to head and tail of spine but generally very clean. Binding secure with original endpapers so beautifully restored that the work is barely visible. No previous names or inks. A very clean copy throughout with no marks and very little foxing/browning - occasional spots only. Folding maps are very clean. A bright copy of Wallace's most important work which can be hard to find in good original cloth.
Full PREFACE, CONTENTS and ILLUSTRATIONS list after the photos below.
Alfred Russel Wallace, OM, FRS (1823 – 1913) was a British naturalist, explorer, geographer, anthropologist and biologist. He is best known for independently conceiving the theory of evolution through natural selection, which prompted Charles Darwin to publish his own ideas in On the Origin of Species.
The Malay Archipelago - which is dedicated to Charles Darwin (see photo) - chronicles Wallace's scientific exploration, during the eight-year period 1854 to 1862, of the southern portion of the Malay Archipelago including Malaysia, Singapore, the islands of Indonesia, then known as the Dutch East Indies, and the island of New Guinea. It was published in two volumes in 1869, delayed by Wallace's ill health and the work needed to describe the many specimens he brought home. The book went through ten editions in the nineteenth century; it has been reprinted many times since, and has been translated into at least eight languages.
The book described each island that he visited in turn, giving a detailed account of its physical and human geography, its volcanoes, and the variety of animals and plants that he found and collected. At the same time, he describes his experiences, the difficulties of travel, and the help he received from the different peoples that he met. The preface notes that he travelled over 14,000 miles and collected 125,660 natural history specimens, mostly of insects though also with thousands of molluscs, birds, mammals and reptiles.
The Malay Archipelago attracted many reviews, with interest from scientific, geographic, church and general periodicals. Reviewers noted and sometimes disagreed with various of his theories, especially the division of fauna and flora along what soon became known as the Wallace line, natural selection and uniformitarianism. Nearly all agreed that he had provided an interesting and comprehensive account of the geography, natural history, and peoples of the archipelago, which was little known to their readers at the time, and that he had collected an astonishing number of specimens. The book is much cited, and is Wallace's most successful, both commercially and as a piece of literature.
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AUTHOR OF "THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES,"
I Dedicate this Book,
AS A TOKEN OF PERSONAL ESTEEM AND FRIENDSHIP
TO EXPRESS MY DEEP ADMIRATION
His Genius and his Works.
MY readers will naturally ask why I have delayed
writing this book for six years after my return; and I feel bound to
give them full satisfaction on this point.
When I reached England in the spring of 1862, I found myself
surrounded by a room full of packing-cases, containing the collections
that I had from time to time sent home for my private use. These
comprised nearly three thousand bird-skins, of about a thousand species;
and at least twenty thousand beetles and butterflies, of about seven
thousand species; besides some quadrupeds and land-shells. A large
proportion of these I had not seen for years; and in my then weak state
of health, the unpacking, sorting, and arranging of such a mass of
specimens occupied a long time.
I very soon decided, that until I had done something towards naming
and describing the most important groups in my collection, and had
worked out some of the more interesting problems of variation and
geographical distribution, of which I had had glimpses while collecting
them, I would not attempt to publish my travels. I could, indeed, at
once have printed my notes and journals, leaving all reference to
questions of natural history for a future work; but I felt that this
would be as unsatisfactory to myself, as it would be disappointing to my
friends, and uninstructive to the public.
Since my return, up to this date, I have published eighteen papers,
in the Transactions or Proceedings of the Linnæan Zoological and
Entomological Societies, describing or cataloguing portions of my
collections; besides twelve others in various scientific periodicals, on
more general subjects connected with them.
Nearly two thousand of my Coleoptera, and many hundreds of my
butterflies, have been already described by various eminent naturalists,
British and foreign; but a much larger number remains undescribed.
Among those to whom science is most indebted for this laborious work, I must name Mr. F. P. Pascoe, late President of the Entomological
Society of London, who has almost completed the classification and
description of my large collection of Longicorn beetles (now in his
possession), comprising more than a thousand species, of which at least
nine hundred were previously undescribed, and new to European cabinets.
The remaining orders of insects, comprising probably more than two
thousand species, are in the collection of Mr. William Wilson Saunders,
who has caused the larger portion of them to be described by good
entomologists. The Hymenoptera alone amounted to more than nine hundred
species, among which were two hundred and eighty different kinds of
ants, of which two hundred were new.
The six years' delay in publishing my travels thus enables me to
give, what I hope may be an interesting and instructive sketch of the
main results yet arrived at by the study of my collections; and as the
countries I have to describe are not much visited or written about, and
their social and physical conditions are not liable to rapid change, I
believe and hope that my readers will gain much more than they will
lose, by not having read my book six years ago, and by this time perhaps forgotten all about it.
I must now say a few words on the plan of my work.
My journeys to the various islands were regulated by the seasons and
the means of conveyance. I visited some islands two or three times at
distant intervals, and in some cases had to make the same voyage four
times over. A chronological arrangement would have puzzled my readers.
They would never have known where they were; and my frequent references
to the groups of islands, classed in accordance with the peculiarities
of their animal productions and of their human inhabitants, would have
been hardly intelligible. I have adopted, therefore, a geographical,
zoological, and ethnological arrangement, passing from island to island
in what seems the most natural succession, while I transgress the order
in which I myself visited them as little as possible.
I divide the Archipelago into five groups of islands, as follow:—
I. THE INDO-MALAY ISLANDS: comprising the Malay Peninsula and Singapore, Borneo, Java, and Sumatra.
II. THE TIMOR GROUP: comprising the islands of Timor, Flores, Sumbawa, and Lombock, with several smaller ones.
III. CELEBES: comprising also the Sula Islands and Bouton.
IV. THE MOLUCCAN GROUP: comprising Bouru, Ceram, Batchian, Gilolo,
and Morty; with the smaller islands of Ternate, Tidore, Makian, Kaióa,
Amboyna, Banda, Goram, and Matabello.
V. THE PAPUAN GROUP: comprising the great island of New Guinea, with
the Aru Islands, Mysol, Salwatty, Waigiou, and several others. The Ké
Islands are described with this group on account of their ethnology,
though zoologically and geographically they belong to the Moluccas.
The chapters relating to the separate islands of each of these groups
are followed by one on the Natural History of that group; and the work
may thus be divided into five parts, each treating of one of the natural
divisions of the Archipelago.
The first chapter is an introductory one, on the Physical Geography of the whole region; and the last is a general sketch of
the Races of Man in the Archipelago and the surrounding countries. With
this explanation, and a reference to the Maps which illustrate the work,
I trust that my readers will always know where they are, and in what
direction they are going.
I am well aware that my book is far too small for the extent of the
subjects it touches upon. It is a mere sketch; but so far as it goes I
have endeavoured to make it an accurate one. Almost the whole of the
narrative and descriptive portions were written on the spot, and have
had little more than verbal alterations. The chapters on Natural
History, as well as many passages in other parts of the work, have been
written in the hope of exciting an interest in the various questions
connected with the origin of species and their geographical
distribution. In some cases I have been able to explain my views in
detail; while in others, owing to the greater complexity of the subject,
I have thought it better to confine myself to a statement of the more
interesting facts of the problem, whose solution is to be found in the
principles developed by Mr. Darwin in his various works. The numerous
Illustrations will, it is believed, add much to the interest and value of
the book. They have been made from my own sketches, from photographs, or
from specimens; and such subjects only have been chosen as would really
illustrate the narrative or the descriptions.
I have to thank Messrs. Walter and Henry Woodbury, whose acquaintance
I had the pleasure of making in Java, for a number of photographs of
scenery and of natives, which have been of the greatest assistance to
me. Mr. William Wilson Saunders has kindly allowed me to figure the
curious horned flies; and to Mr. Pascoe I am indebted for a loan of two
of the very rare Longicorns which appear in the plate of Bornean
beetles. All the other specimens figured are in my own collection.
As the main object of all my journeys was to obtain specimens of
natural history, both for my private collection and to supply duplicates
to museums and amateurs, I will give a general statement of the number
of specimens I collected, and which reached home in good condition. I
must premise that I generally employed one or two, and sometimes three
Malay servants to assist me; and for nearly half the time had the
services of an English lad, Charles Allen. I was just eight years away from England, but as I
travelled about fourteen thousand miles within the Archipelago, and made
sixty or seventy separate journeys, each involving some preparation and
loss of time, I do not think that more than six years were really
occupied in collecting.
I find that my Eastern collections amounted to:
||of natural history.
It now only remains for me to thank all those friends to whom I am
indebted for assistance or information. My thanks are more especially
due to the Council of the Royal Geographical Society, through whose
valuable recommendations I obtained important aid from our own
Government and from that of Holland; and to Mr. William Wilson Saunders,
whose kind and liberal encouragement in the early portion of my journey
was of great service to me. I am also greatly indebted to Mr. Samuel Stevens (who acted as my
agent), both for the care he took of my collections, and for the
untiring assiduity with which he kept me supplied, both with useful
information, and with whatever necessaries I required.
I trust that these, and all other friends who have been in any way
interested in my travels and collections, may derive from the perusal of
my book, some faint reflexion of the pleasures I myself enjoyed amid
the scenes and objects it describes.
CONTENTS (based on 1st edition - use as a rough guide only)
I. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY 1
II. SINGAPORE 31
III. MALACCA AND MOUNT OPHIR 39
IV. BORNEO—THE ORANG-UTAN 54
V. BORNEO—JOURNEY IN THE INTERIOR 101
VI. BORNEO—THE DYAKS 137
VII. JAVA 148
VIII. SUMATRA 190
IX. NATURAL HISTORY OF THE INDO-MALAY ISLANDS. 215
THE TIMOR GROUP.
X. BALI AND LOMBOCK 234
XI. LOMBOCK—MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 255
XII. LOMBOCK—HOW THE RAJAH TOOK THE CENSUS 276
XIII. TIMOR 288
XIV. NATURAL HISTORY OF THE TIMOR GROUP 316
THE CELEBES GROUP.
XV. CELEBES—MACASSAR 331
XVI. CELEBES—MACASSAR 358
XVII. CELEBES—MENADO 378
XVIII. NATURAL HISTORY OF CELEBES 424
XIX. BANDA 448
XX. AMBOYNA 458
XXI. TERNATE 1
XXII. GILOLO 14
XXIII. VOYAGE TO THE KAIÓA ISLANDS AND BATCHIAN 23
XXIV. BATCHIAN 36
XXV. CERAM, GORAM, AND THE MATABELLO ISLANDS 73
XXVI. BOURU 124
XXVII. THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE MOLUCCAS 138
THE PAPUAN GROUP.
XXVIII. MACASSAR TO THE ARU ISLANDS IN A NATIVE PRAU 157
XXIX. THE KÉ ISLANDS 176
XXX. THE ARU ISLANDS—RESIDENCE IN DOBBO 196
XXXI. THE ARU ISLANDS—JOURNEY AND RESIDENCE IN THE INTERIOR 218
XXXII. THE ARU ISLANDS—SECOND RESIDENCE IN DOBBO 267
XXXIII. THE ARU ISLANDS—PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND ASPECTS OF NATURE 285
XXXIV. NEW GUINEA—DOREY 299
XXXV. VOYAGE FROM CERAM TO WAIGIOU 331
XXXVI. WAIGIOU 349
XXXVII. VOYAGE FROM WAIGIOU TO TERNATE 368
XXXVIII. THE BIRDS OF PARADISE 387
XXXIX. NATURAL HISTORY OF THE PAPUAN ISLANDS 427
XL. THE RACES OF MAN IN THE MALAY ARCHIPELAGO 439
APPENDIX ON CRANIA AND LANGUAGES 465
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
DRAWN ON WOOD BY PAGE
1. Orang-Utan attacked by Dyaks WOLF Frontispiece
2. Rare Ferns on Mount Ophir. (From specimens) FITCH 48
3. Remarkable Bornean Beetles ROBINSON 58
4. Flying Frog. (From a drawing by the Author) KEULEMANS 60
5. Female Orang-utan. (From a photograph by Woodbury) WOLF 64
6. Portrait of a Dyak Youth. (From sketch and photographs) BAINES 104
7. Dyak Suspension-bridge. (From a sketch by the Author) FITCH 123
8. Vanda Lowii. (From specimens) FITCH 128
9. Remarkable Forest-trees. (From a sketch by the Author) FITCH 130
10. Ancient Bas-relief. (From a specimen in possession of the Author) BAINES 159
11. Portrait of a Javanese Chief. (From a photograph) BAINES 171
12. The Calliper Butterfly (Charaxes Kadenii) T. W. WOOD 178
13. Primula imperialis, (From specimens) FITCH 183
14. Chief's House and Rice-shed in a Sumatran Village. (From a photograph) ROBINSON 196
15. Females of Papilio memnon ROBINSON 200
16. Papilio Coön ROBINSON 201
17. Leaf-butterfly in flight and repose T. W. WOOD 204
18. Female Hornbill and young bird T. W. WOOD 212
19. Grammatophyllum, a gigantic Orchid. (From a sketch by the Author) FITCH 216
20. Gun-boring in Lombock. (From a sketch by the Author) BAINES 265
21. Timor Men. (From a photograph) BAINES 305
22. Native Plough and Yoke, Macassar. (From a sketch by the Author) BAINES 353
23. Sugar Palms. (From a sketch by the Author) FITCH 361
24. Skull of the Babirusa ROBINSON 434
25. Peculiar form of Wings of Celebes Butterflies WALLACE 441
26. Ejecting an Intruder BAINES 467
27. Racquet-tailed Kingfisher ROBINSON 468
Map showing Mr. Wallace's Route (tinted) Preface
The British Isles and Borneo on the same scale 5
Physical Map (tinted) 14
Map of Minahasa, North Celebes 386
Map of Amboyna 459
1. Natives shooting the Great Bird of Paradise T. W. WOOD Front.
2. "Wallace's Standard Wing," a new Bird of Paradise KEULEMANS 41
3. Sago Club BAINES 118
4. Sago-washing in Ceram. (From a sketch by the Author) BAINES 119
5. Sago Oven. (From a sketch by the Author) BAINES 120
6. Cuscus Ornatus, a Moluccan Marsupial ROBINSON 143
7. Moluccan Beetles ROBINSON 154
8. Great Black Cockatoo T. W. WOOD 228
9. Dobbo in the Trading Season (From a sketch by the Author) BAINES 267
10. Male Brenthidæ fighting ROBINSON 277
11. Papuan, New Guinea BAINES 306
12. Papuan Pipe. (From a sketch by the Author) BAINES 310
13. Horned Flies ROBINSON 314
14. Clay-beater, used in New Guinea ROBINSON 324
15. The Red Bird of Paradise T. W. WOOD 353
16. My house at Bessir, Waigiou. (From a sketch by the Author) BAINES 360
17. Malay Anchor. (From a sketch by the Author) BAINES 377
18. The "Twelve-wired" and the "King" Birds of Paradise KEULEMANS 387
19. The Magnificent Bird of Paradise. KEULEMANS 404
20. The Superb Bird of Paradise KEULEMANS 406
21. The Six-shafted Bird of Paradise KEULEMANS 408
22. The Long-tailed Bird of Paradise KEULEMANS 415
23. The Great Shielded Grasshopper ROBINSON 434
24. Papuan Charm ROBINSON 446
Amboyna, with parts of Bouru and Ceram
The Islands between Ceram and Ké
Voyage from Ceram to Waigiou
Voyage from Waigiou to Ternate
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