Original vintage advertising poster for Airline Deruluft, the airline that
started as a joint venture between Russia and Germany that later became Aeroflot
and Deutsche Lufthansa. The poster is in French advertising air travel between
the Soviet Union and the Baltic States. In one day from Moscow via Berlin to
Paris or London. Designed by Voh, printed by Druckerei Gutenberg Berlin. Good
condition, minor tears, glue marks and repaired minor loss along the margins,
backed on linen. Faint horizontal fold marks in middle.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Deruluft (Deutsch-Russische Luftverkehrs A.G., or Deruluft) was a
joint Soviet-German airline, established on 24 November 1921. Deruluft opened
its first service to Moscow from Königsberg (later Kaliningrad) on 1 May 1922. It
started a new route from Berlin via Tallinn to Leningrad on 6 June 1928, and
maintained both routes until 31 March 1936.
Most of the aircraft used were German, and so was its organization, at least
until the 1930s. Its first aircraft were Dutch-built Fokker F.III
's. Later German Junkers F13
's were added to the
fleet. At first, Deruluft carried only mail and officials, but on 27 August 1922
the service was opened to the public. From 1929 onwards the early Fokker F.III
's were replaced
by Dornier Merkur's
. Early 1931 the
was added. Deruluft was terminated on 31
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
||This article has multiple
issues. Please help improve
it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
OJSC Aeroflot – Russian Airlines
(Russian: ОАО «Аэрофло́т-Росси́йские авиали́нии», OAO Aeroflot-Rossiyskiye
avialinii) (MCX: AFLT), commonly known as Aeroflot (Russian: Аэрофлот, English translation: "air fleet"), is the
flag carrier and largest
airline of the Russian Federation. The carrier operates domestic and
international passenger services, mainly from its hub at Sheremetyevo International
Aeroflot is one of the oldest airlines in the
world, tracing its history back to 1923. During the Soviet era, Aeroflot was the Soviet national airline and the largest airline in
the world. Following the
dissolution of the USSR, the
carrier has been transformed from a state-run enterprise
into a semi-privatised company which ranks amongst the most profitable in the
Aeroflot is still considered the de facto national airline of Russia. It is 51%-owned by
the Russian Government, as of June 2011 .
The company has embarked on a fleet modernisation program, extensive route
restructuring, and an image overhaul. The airline joined SkyTeam in April 2006, becoming the 10th member of the
history of Soviet civil aviation
An early Soviet poster calling on citizens to buy
stock in Dobrolyot
On 17 January 1921, the Sovnarkom of the Russian Soviet
Federative Socialist Republic published "About Air Transportation".
The document which was signed by Vladimir Lenin set out the basic regulations on
transport over the territory of the RSFSR. The document was significant as
it was the first time that a Russian state had declared sovereignty over its airspace. In addition, the document
defined rules for the operation of foreign aircraft over the Soviet Union's
airspace and territory. After Lenin issued an order, a State Commission was
formed on 31 January 1921 for the purpose of civil aviation planning in the
Soviet Union. As a result of the commission's plans, Glavvozdukhflot (Chief
Administration of the Civil Air Fleet) (Russian: Главвоздухфлот (Главное управление воздушного флота)) was
established, and it began mail and passenger flights on the Moscow-Oryol-Kursk-Kharkov route on 1 May 1921 using Sikorsky Ilya
Muromets aircraft.:1 This was followed by the formation of
Deruluft-Deutsch Russische Luftverkehrs
A.G. in Berlin on 11 November 1921, as a joint venture between the Soviet
Union and Germany. The company, whose aircraft were registered in both Germany
and the Soviet Union, began operations on 1 May 1922 with a Fokker F.III flying between
Königsberg and Moscow.:2 The service was initially operated
twice a week and restricted to the carriage of mail.:2–3
On 3 February 1923 Sovnarkom approved plans for the expansion of the Red Air
Fleet, and it is this date which was officially recognised as the beginning of
civil aviation in the
Soviet Union. After a resolution of the Central
Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Enterprise for
Friends of the Air Fleet (ODVF) was founded on 8 March 1923, followed by the
formation of Dobrolet (Russian: Добролёт) on 17 March 1923. Regular flights by
Dobrolet from Moscow to Nizhniy Novgorod commenced on 15 July 1923.
During the same period, an additional two airlines were established; Zakavia being based in Tiflis, and Ukrvozdukhput based in Kharkov.:2 During 1923 an agreement was signed
establishing a subdivision of Dobrolet to be based in Tashkent, which would operate to points in Soviet Central
Asia. Services between Tashkent and Alma Ata began on 27 April 1924, and by the end of
1924 the subdivision had carried 480 passengers and 500 kilograms (1,100 lb) of
mail and freight, on a total of 210 flights.:6 In March 1924, Dobrolet began
operating flights from Sevastopol to Yalta and Yevpatoriya in the Crimea. Dobrolet's route network was extended during the
1925–1927 period to include Kazan and
regular flights between Moscow and Kharkov were inaugurated. Plans were made for
Dobrolet flights to Kharkov to connect with Ukrvozdukhput services to Kiev, Odessa and Rostov-on-Don. During 1925, Dobrolet operated
2,000 flights over a distance of 1,000,000 kilometres (620,000 mi), carrying
14,000 passengers and 127,500 kilograms (281,000 lb) of freight, on a route
network extending to some 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi).:7 Dobrolet was transformed from a
Russian to an all-Union enterprise on 21 September 1926 as a result of Sovnarkom
resolutions, and in 1928 Dobrolet was merged with Ukrvozdukhput; the latter
having merged with Zakavia in 1925.:6–7
Responsibility for all civil aviation activities in the Soviet Union came
under the control of the Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet on 25 February
1932, and on 25 March 1932 the name "Aeroflot" was officially adopted for the
entire Soviet Civil Air Fleet.:10 The Communist Party of the Soviet
Union Congress in 1933 set out development plans for the civil aviation
industry for the following five years, which would see air transportation
becoming one of the primary means of transportation in the Soviet Union, linking
all major cities. The government also implemented plans to expand the Soviet
aircraft industry to make it less dependent on foreign built aircraft;:10–11 in 1930 some fifty percent of
aircraft flying services in the Soviet Union were of foreign manufacture.:8
Expansion of air routes which had taken shape in the late 1920s,:8 continued into the 1930s. Local (MVL)
services were greatly expanded in Soviet Central Asia and the Soviet
Far East,:11–13 which by the end of the second Five-Year
Plan in 1937 was 35,000 kilometres (22,000 mi) in length out of a total
network of some 93,300 kilometres (58,000 mi).:13 The agreement between the Soviet
Union and Germany relating to Deruluft expired on 1 January 1937, and wasn't
renewed, which saw the joint venture carrier ceasing operations on 1 April 1937.
On that date Aeroflot began operations on the Moscow to Stockholm route, and began operating the ex-Deruluft
route from Leningrad to Riga
utilising Douglas DC-3s
and Tupolev ANT-35s
(PS-35s). Flights from Moscow to Berlin, via Königsberg, were suspended until
1940, when they were restarted by Aeroflot and Lufthansa as a result of the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, and would
continue until the beginning of the Great Patriotic
War in 1941.:5
An Aeroflot PS-84
(a licence-built DC-3) at Moscow City
Airport in 1940. The Lisunov
, a derivative of the DC-3 would become the backbone of the fleet after
the Great Patriotic
Under the third Five-Year Plan, which began in 1938, civil aviation
development continued, with improvements to airport installations being made and
construction of airports being commenced. In addition to the expansion of
services between the Soviet Union's main cities, local routes (MVL) were also
expanded, and by 1940, some 337 MVL routes saw operations on a scheduled basis.
Serial production of the PS-84 (licence-built DC-3s) commenced in 1939, and the
aircraft became the backbone of Aeroflot's fleet on mainline trunk routes. When
Union was invaded by Nazi
Germany on 22 June 1941, the following day the Sovnarkom placed the Civil
Air Fleet under the control of Narkomat, leading to the full-scale mobilisation of
Aeroflot crews and technicians for the Soviet war effort. Prior to the invasion,
the Aeroflot network extended over some 146,000 kilometres (91,000 mi), and
amongst the longest routes being operated from Moscow were those to Tbilisi (via Baku), Tashkent and Vladivostok.:13 Aeroflot aircraft, including PS-35s
and PS-43s, were based at Moscow's Central Airport, and amongst important
missions undertaken by Aeroflot aircraft and crews included flying supplies to
the besieged cities of Leningrad, Kiev, Odessa and Sevastopol.:14 During the Battle of
Stalingrad, between August 1942 and February 1943, Aeroflot operated 46,000
missions to Stalingrad, ferrying in 2,587 tonnes (5,700,000 lb)
of supplies and some 30,000 troops. Following the defeat of the Wehrmacht, some 80 Junkers
Ju-52/3Ms were captured from the Germans, and were placed into the service
of the Civil Air Fleet, and after the war were placed into regular service
across the Soviet Union.:15 Whilst civil operations in European Russia west of
the front line, which ran from Leningrad to Moscow to Rostov-on-Don, were prevented from operating
because of the war, services from Moscow to the Urals, Siberia,
Central Asia, and other regions which were not affected by the war,
continued.:15–16 By the end of the war, Aeroflot
had flown 1,595,943 special missions, including 83,782 at night, and carried
1,538,982 men and 122,027 tonnes (269,020,000 lb) of cargo.:16
After its introduction in 1954, the Ilyushin Il-14
on Aeroflot's All-Union services.
At the end of the war, the Soviet government went about
repairing and rebuilding essential airport infrastructure, and it strengthened
the Aeroflot units in the European part of the Soviet Union. Aeroflot had by the
end of 1945 carried 537,000 passengers, compared with 359,000 in 1940.:16 The government made it a priority in
the immediate postwar years to expand services from Moscow to the capital of the
Union republics, in addition to
important industrial centres around the country. To enable this, the government
transferred to Aeroflot a large number of Li-2s, and they would become the backbone of the
The Ilyushin Il-12
entered service on Aeroflot's all-Union scheduled routes on 22 August 1947, and
supplemented already existing Li-2 services. The original
Ilyushin Il-18 entered service around the same time as the Il-12, and was
operated on routes from Moscow to Yakutsk, Khabarovsk, Vladivostok, Alma Ata, Tashkent, Sochi, Mineralnye Vody and Tbilisi. By 1950 the Il-18
was withdrawn from service, being replaced by Il-12s.:18,20 MVL and general aviation
services received a boost in March 1948, when the first Antonov An-2s were delivered and entered service
in Central Russia. Development of MVL services over latter years was attributed
to the An-2, which was operated by Aeroflot in all areas of the Soviet
Aeroflot's route network had extended to 295,400 kilometres (183,600 mi) by
1950, and it carried 1,603,700 passengers, 151,070 tonnes (333,100,000 lb) of
freight and 30,580 tonnes (67,400,000 lb) of mail during the same year. Night
flights began in the same year, and the 5th Five-Year Plan, covering the period
1951–1955, emphasised Aeroflot expanding night-time operations, which vastly
improved aircraft utilisation. By 1952, some 700 destinations around the Soviet
Union received regular flights from Aeroflot.:20 On 30 November 1954, the Ilyushin Il-14 entered
service, and the aircraft took a leading role in the operation of Aeroflot's
all-Union services. The number of passengers carried in 1955 increased to
2,500,000, whilst freight and mail carriage also increased, to 194,960 and
63,760 tons, respectively. By this time, Aeroflot's route network covered a
distance of some 321,500 kilometres (199,800 mi).:21
Aeroflot became the first airline in the world with
sustained jet aircraft service, when it introduced the Tupolev Tu-104
Communist Party Congress, held in 1956, saw plans for Aeroflot services to
be dramatically increased. The airline would see its overall activities
increased from its then current levels by 3.8 times, and it was set the target
of the carriage of 16,000,000 passengers by 1960. In order to meet these goals,
Aeroflot introduced higher capacity turbojet and turbine-prop aircraft on key
domestic routes, and on services to Aeroflot destinations abroad. A major step
for Aeroflot occurred on 15 September 1956 when the Tupolev Tu-104 jet airliner entered service on the Moscow-Omsk-Irkutsk route, marking the world's first sustained jet
airline service. The airline began international flights with the type on 12
October 1956 under the command of Boris Bugayev with flights from Moscow to Prague. The aircraft placed Aeroflot in an
envious position, as airlines in the West had operated throughout the 1950s with
large piston-engined aircraft.:21:44 By 1958 the route
network covered 349,200 kilometres (217,000 mi), and the airline carried
8,231,500 passengers, and 445,600 tons of mail and freight, with fifteen percent
of all-Union services being operated by jet aircraft.:23
Aeroflot introduced the Antonov An-10 and Ilyushin Il-18 in 1959, and together with its
existing jet aircraft, the airline was able to extend services on modern
aircraft to twenty one cities during 1960.:23 The Tupolev Tu-114, then the world's largest
airliner, entered service with the Soviet carrier on 24 April 1961 on the
covering a distance of 6,980 kilometres (4,340 mi) in 8 hours 20 minutes.:24 The expansion of the Aeroflot fleet
saw services with modern aircraft being extended to forty one cities in 1961,
with fifty percent of all-Union services being operated by these aircraft. This
fleet expansion also saw the number of passengers carried in 1961 skyrocketing
Further expansion came in 1962 when both the Tupolev Tu-124 and Antonov An-24 entered regular service with
Aeroflot on various medium and short-haul routes. By 1964, Aeroflot operated
direct flights from Moscow to 100 cities, from Leningrad to 44 cities, and from
Kiev to 38 cities. The airline also operated direct flights from Mineralnyie Vody to 48 cities across the
Soviet Union, denoting the importance of the operation of holiday aircraft
services to Aeroflot.:26 Statistics for the same year showed
Aerfolot operating an all-Union route network extending over 400,000 kilometres
(250,000 mi), and carrying 36,800,000 passengers.:27
By 1966 Aeroflot carried 47,200,000 passengers over a domestic route network
of 474,600 kilometres (294,900 mi). For the period of the 8th Five-Year Plan,
which ran from 1966–1970, Aeroflot carried a total of 302,200,000 passengers,
6.47 billion tons of freight and 1.63 billion tons of mail.:27 During the Five-Year Plan period,
all-Union services were extended over an additional 350 routes; an additional
1,000 MVL routes were begun, and 40 new routes were opened up with all-cargo
flights.:27–28 The year 1967 saw the introduction
into service of the Ilyushin Il-62 and Tupolev Tu-134, and in September 1968 the Yakovlev Yak-40 regional jet began operations
on short-haul services. By 1970, the last year of the Five-Year Plan period,
Aeroflot was operating flights to over 3,500 destinations in the Soviet Union,
and at the height of the 1970 summer holidays season, the airline was carrying
approximately 400,000 passengers per day, and some ninety percent of passengers
were being carried on propeller-turbine and jet aircraft.:28
In January 1971 the Central Administration of International Air Traffic (Russian: Центральное управление международных воздушных
сообщений) (TsUMVS) was established within the framework of IATA, and became the sole
enterprise authorised to operate international flights. Abroad, the airline was
known as Aeroflot Soviet Airlines. In 1976 Aeroflot carried its 100 millionth
passenger. Its flights were mainly concentrated around the Soviet Union, but the
airline also had an international network covering five continents: North and
South America, Europe, Africa and Asia. The network included countries such as
the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Spain, Cuba, Mexico and the People's
Republic of China. Since the 1970s some transatlantic flights were flown using
Shannon Airport in
Ireland as an intermediate stop, as it was the westernmost non-NATO airport in Europe.[citation
Aeroflot service between the Soviet Union and the United States was
interrupted from 15 September 1983 until 2 August 1990, following an executive
order by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, revoking the Aeroflot's license to
operate flights into and out of the United States following the downing of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 by the
Soviet Air Force. At the start of the 1990s Aeroflot reorganised again giving
more autonomy to territorial divisions. REG Davies, former curator of the Smithsonian
Institution, claims that by 1992 Aeroflot had over 600,000 people operating
over 10,000 aircraft.:92,94 By 1967, Aeroflot amassed a fleet
equal to that of the largest American carriers combined.
Aeroflot also performed other functions, including aeromedical, crop-dusting, heavy lifting for the
Agency, offshore oil platform support, exploration for natural resources,
support for construction projects, transport of military troops and supplies (as
an adjunct to the Soviet Air Force), atmospheric research, and
remote area patrol. It operated hundreds of helicopters and cargo aircraft in
addition to civil airliners. It also operated the Soviet equivalent of a
presidential aircraft and other VIP transports of government and communist party
Aeroflot was also responsible for such services as ice patrol in the Arctic
Ocean and escorting of ships through frozen seas, oil exploration, power line
surveillance, and transportation and heavy lifting support on construction
projects. For the latter tasks, Aeroflot used, in addition to smaller
helicopters, the Mi-10 flying
crane capable of lifting 11,000 to 14,000 kilograms. Hauling of heavy cargo,
including vehicles, was performed by the world's largest operational helicopter,
the Mi-26. Its unusual
eight-blade rotor enabled it to lift a maximum payload of some twenty tons.
The close relationship between Aeroflot and the Soviet armed forces was
underscored by the fact that the minister of civil aviation has been a
high-ranking general or marshal of the Air Forces. Most Aeroflot pilots held
reserve commissions in the Air Forces. The medium and long-range passenger and
cargo aircraft of Aeroflot were also part of the strategic air transport
reserve, ready to provide immediate airlift support to the armed forces. Indeed,
many aircraft in Aeroflot's inventory were of the same basic design as military
aircraft and, even when loaded with bulky cargo and vehicles, were capable of
operating from unimproved fields. They were characterized by high wings, low
fuselages with cargo/vehicle loading ramps, and landing gear suitable for
unimproved or marshy terrain. Short-range airplanes and helicopters were
available for appropriate military support missions. Civil aviation also served
as a cover for military operations. According to a Western authority, military
aircraft belonging to the Military Transport Aviation (Voennaia transportnaia
aviatsiia) have been painted in Aeroflot colors for use as food relief and arms
or personnel transports to foreign countries.
In the early 1990s, the Soviet Union underwent massive political upheavals,
culminating in the dissolution of the country.
Countries declared their independence during January 1990 – December 1991,
resulting in the establishment of 15 republics. Up until that time,
Aeroflot had been the only establishment providing air services throughout the
CIS, but with the breakup of
the Soviet Union, Aeroflot branches of these countries began their own services,
and the airline itself came under control of Russia, the largest of the CIS
republics, and was renamed Aeroflot – Russian International
Airlines (ARIA). Actually,
it was in 1992 that Aeroflot was divided into a number of regional airlines,
whereas international routes were operated by ARIA. Smaller
regional airlines which emerged out of the old Aeroflot were sometimes referred
to as Babyflots;:2 Bashkirian Airlines, Krasnoyarsk Airlines, Moscow Airways and Tatarstan Airlines were among the carriers
that were formed from former Aeroflot directorates.
In 1994, Aeroflot was registered as a joint-stock company and the government sold
off 49% of its stake to Aeroflot employees. During the 1990s, Aeroflot was
primarily focused on international flights from Moscow. However, by the end of
the decade Aeroflot started an expansion in the domestic market. In 2000 the
company name was changed to Aeroflot – Russian Airlines to reflect the
change in the company strategy.
Since the dissolution, Aeroflot has been actively working towards promoting
and redefining itself as a safe and reliable airline.
In the early 2000s, the airline hired British consultants for rebranding.
From the start, plans were afoot to replace the old Soviet-era hammer and sickle
logo, which some people in the West viewed as a reminder of the Soviet communist
era; despite this the logo was not scrapped, as it was the most recognisable
symbol of the company for over 70 years.
A new livery and
uniforms for flight attendants were designed and a promotional campaign launched
in 2003. It carried 5.9 million passengers in 2003.[citation
Its fleet has undergone a major reorganisation during which most of the
Soviet aircraft were replaced by Western-built jets; costs over fuel consumption
rather than safety concerns were cited for such a movement.
short-haul flights in Europe and Boeing 767 and Airbus A330 for long-haul routes had been gradually
incorporated into the fleet. In the spring of 2004 an expansion on the domestic
market was undertaken, aiming to gain 30% share by 2010 (as of 2006 it held
approximately 9%). The first task was to outperform S7 Airlines, a major rival and the leader in the
domestic market. On 29 July 2004 a new corporate slogan was adopted: "Sincerely
As of November 2011 ,
another four Russian carriers
are owned by Aeroflot through its sister
On 14 April 2006 Aeroflot became the first air carrier in the former Soviet
Union to join a global alliance, SkyTeam. and occupied all
of terminal 3 at Sheremetyevo International
Airport in 2009.[citation
needed] The company has announced its plan to increase
cargo operations. It registered the Aeroflot-Cargo trademark in 2006. During that year
Aeroflot carried 7,290,000 passengers and 145,300 tons of mail and cargo to 89 destinations
in 47 countries. It saw
improvements in its earnings and number of passengers carried. The net profit reached $309.4 million
(RUB 7.98 billion) in 2006, a 32.3% increase from 2005 earnings of only
$234 million (RUB6.03 billion). The revenue for the same 2005–2006 period rose
by 13.5% to reach $2.77 billion with an 8.7% gain in passenger numbers.
Aeroflot became the only shareholder of Donavia —a domestic airline then-named
in December 2006 (2006-12), when it boosted
its stake in the company from 51% to 100%;
soon afterwards, Aeroflot-Nord was created following the buyout of
In February 2010 (2010-02), the Russian
government announced that all regional airlines owned by the state through the
holding company Rostechnologii would be consolidated with the national
carrier Aeroflot in order to increase the airlines' financial viability. The merger was
completed in late November 2011 (2011-11); in a deal worth
US$81 million, Aeroflot's sister
became the major shareholder of Vladivostok Avia, Saravia and Rossiya
Airlines, and the sole shareholder of both SAT Airlines and Orenair.
It was informed in January 2012 (2012-01) that Saravia was
sold to private investors, as the recent-acquired regional airline was not in
line with Aeroflot's business strategy.
As of March 2007Rosimushchestvo (51.17%), National Reserve
Corporation (27%) and employees and others (19%), and has 14,900 employees.
Aeroflot is owned by the Russian Government via
||Parts of this article (those
related to section) are outdated. (December 2010)
A map showing the countries served by Aeroflot, as
of January 2012 .
As of July 2012Sheremetyevo International
Airport to 52 countries, serving 116 destinations.[citation
Aeroflot operates scheduled passenger and cargo flights from its hub at
As of October 2012codeshare agreements with the following
airlines, which are the actual operators of the codeshared services Aeroflot
places its code on:
In 1993 Aeroflot began operating the Ilyushin Il-96-300 aircraft on the Moscow–New
York route. The company now flies six aircraft of the type – about one half of
all Il-96s in commercial service worldwide – and promised to buy six more if the
Russian State allowed it not to pay import duty on Western-built aircraft.
Industry experts claim the company is trying to terminate the deal with Ilyushin
as operating the Il-96 is not cost-effective.[citation
In 2006 it leased three used Boeing 767-300ER from ILFC for 5 years. The first two aircraft were
delivered in November 2006 and January 2007, the third one was delivered in
March 2007. The company had previously leased two Boeing 767-300ER from
As of 2007, Aeroflot is in the midst of an overhaul of its fleet structure.
The aging Tupolev Tu-134s used on the short- and mid-haul routes were phased out
by 2008 and were replaced by the Sukhoi Superjet 100 in 2011.[citation
For long-haul routes the company has ordered the Airbus A330, the Airbus A350 and the Boeing 787
Dreamliner. On 22 March 2007, Aeroflot signed an agreement with Airbus for
the acquisition of 22 Airbus
A350-800/900s, with deliveries starting in 2015. Aeroflot and
Boeing signed a deal for the 22 Dreamliners on the sidelines of Saint Petersburg
International Economic Forum, with deliveries starting in 2014. Aeroflot's CEO
Okulov confirmed that the existing Airbus order "would not be affected".
In May 2007, Finnair announced the
sale of its last two self-owned MD-11s to Aeroflot which are thus to
become part of the Russian airline cargo fleet in 2008 and 2009.
Matters came to a head in September 2006 as Aeroflot's Board of Directors
convened to vote on the Boeing contract. This coincided with the USA imposing
sanctions on various Russian companies (including a major aircraft maker, Sukhoi) for allegedly supplying Iran in violation of the US's Iran Nonproliferation Act of
2000 and with the Russian state-owned Vneshtorgbank buying 5% of
the stock in EADS, the corporation behind
Airbus. The State's representatives on the board abstained from the vote and
another round of lobbying ensued, with Russian news sources reporting Aeroflot's
efforts to placate the State by offering to order both 22 Boeing 787s and
22 Airbus 350s, effectively doubling its long-range fleet. Banker Alexander Lebedev,
the man behind National Reserve Corporation, reached a deal with Boeing to
prolong the deadline, using his corporation's money.
Ten Airbus A330s —five
A330-200s and five A330-300s— had also been ordered, scheduled to arrive on
operating lease starting in late 2008. Despite these aircraft having been
initially aimed at providing interim capacity ahead of the arrival of both the
Airbus A350s and the Boeing 787s the
company had previously ordered, the type has been gradually incorporated into
the fleet on a long-term basis. The first Airbus A330-200
effectively entered the fleet in late 2008, and was initially put into service
on the Moscow–St. Petersburg route for testing purposes.
In July 2010, Russian prime minister Vladimir Putin pressured Aeroflot to buy Russian-made aircraft for
future expansion and fleet renewal. On 1 September
2010, Aeroflot announced that it had plans to order a total of 126 Russian-built
aircraft by 2020. The aircraft to be purchased are Irkut MS-21s, Sukhoi Superjet 100s, Antonov An-140s, and Antonov An-148s. The
aircraft are to be used for fleet replacement in Aeroflot, as well as six other
airlines of which Aeroflot is taking control.
In early 2011, the carrier ordered eight Boeing
1] later that year the order was boosted to 16 aircraft,
adding eight more -300ERs.
The airline expects the first of these aircraft in 2013.
For most of its history, Aeroflot's fleet consisted entirely of planes built
by Soviet manufacturers Antonov, Ilyushin, and Tupolev. Following the Soviet Union's dissolution and
subsequent partition of the airline, Aeroflot has begun to replace its old
Soviet aircraft with Western and modern Russian models.
As of October 2012
the Aeroflot fleet includes the following aircraft, with an average age of 5.5
An Aeroflot Tupolev Tu-134 at Sheremetyevo
International Airport. (2003)
During the Soviet era, almost all Aeroflot's airliners were built by Soviet
manufacturers. During the 1940s and the early 1950s, the main aircraft was a
licensed version of the Douglas DC-3. Soviet-made, modified versions of
this airliner were named the PS-84 and the Lisunov Li-2. The first to be produced in the
Soviet Union was completed in 1939. The Li-2 would be replaced by the Ilyushin Il-12, which
entered service in 1947, and the Ilyushin Il-14, which entered service in 1954.
Aeroflot also operated large numbers of the Antonov An-2 STOL biplane (first flying in 1947),
in passenger and cargo roles. The An-2 remained in service until the 1980s.
On 15 September 1956 Aeroflot began to operate the Tupolev Tu-104, the USSR's first jet airliner in
regular service. The first passenger-carrying flight was from Moscow to Irkutsk, Russia. The first international
route was Moscow–Prague, Czech Republic
In 1962 Aeroflot began operating the Tupolev Tu-124, the smaller version of the
Tu-104, on regional routes. These were later replaced by the Tupolev Tu-134, which
entered service in 1967. Upgraded versions of the Tu-134 still make up much of
the Russian regional fleet today.
The Tupolev Tu-114,
originally used to transport Soviet leaders and once the world's largest
commercial aircraft, came into service on 24 April 1961 on the Moscow–Khabarovsk route. It also
served international routes, such as Moscow–Tokyo in conjunction with Japan Airlines, as
well as the Moscow–Havana route, which
started on 7 January 1963—the airline's longest non-stop service at that
The first Ilyushin
Il-62 long-range four-engined airliner entered service with Aeroflot in
1967, with an inaugural flight from Moscow to Montreal on 15 September. It was
complemented, in 1972, by medium-range Tupolev Tu-154. This jet is the most popular
Russian airliner, with more than 1,000 made. The latest modification, Tu-154M,
still operates on Russian domestic routes.
The carrier started flying the supersonic Tupolev Tu-144 on freighter services in
1975. On 1
November 1977, the aircraft was deployed on the 1,750-nautical-mile (3,240 km;
2,010 mi) long Moscow-Domodedovo–Alma-Ata route on a regular basis,
yet these services were discontinued in May 1978 (1978-05).
That month, an aircraft of the type resulted written off on an emergency
landing following an electrical failure, withdrawing political support to the
project and putting an end to the production. Despite
official versions indicating the indefinite suspension of supersonic flights
within the Soviet Union, a re-engined version of the aircraft was put on a test
flight between Moscow and Khabarovsk in June 1979 (1979-06),
and the 3,750-mile (6,040 km) long route was later covered with scheduled
it was not a nonstop flight, however, since the aircraft had to make a
refuelling stop, as the engines consumed more fuel than expected.
In 1980, the Ilyushin
Il-86, the first Russian-made wide-body aircraft, joined the fleet, reaching
a total of 11. These aircraft were phased out by the end of 2006.
The first Western-made aircraft, the Airbus A310, was acquired in 1992. The company also
became a Boeing customer, acquiring new
Boeing 767 jets in 1994. Since
then Aeroflot has also operated Boeing 737s, Airbus A320s, and the cargo version of the
From 1998 to 2005, Aeroflot leased two Boeing 777s, using the type on routes to the
On 31 December 2007, Aeroflot retired the last Tupolev Tu-134 after 40 years in service; the last flight
flew the Kaliningrad–Moscow
route. Aeroflot was
forced to withdraw these aircraft from service due to noise restrictions.
Fourteen airplanes comprised the type's fleet by that time; they were offered
for sale to the sister companies.
The retirement of the last Tupolev Tu-154 occurred on 14 January 2010,
after 40 years of service. The last flight the type operated was the Yekaterinburg–Moscow, taking
place on 31 December 2009.
Aeroflot uses Aeroflot Bonus as their frequent-flyer program. It has three
Aeroflot Bonus Levels
- No benefits on Regular Level
|Travelers can start their participation in Aeroflot Bonus Programme from the
age of 2 (Aeroflot Junior)
- Tier Bonus Miles – 25% of the flown distance
- Preferred Seating
- Priority Check-In
- Extra 10 kg baggage allowance or 1 piece on routes where piece concept
systems is applicable (Only on Aeroflot regular flights)
- Boarding with first and business class passengers
- Priority reservation waitlisting
|25,000 miles (40,000 km) or
25 flight segments during calendar year
- Tier Bonus Miles – 50% of the flown distance
- Priority Check-In
- The opportunity "Comfort +" is given free of charge
- Extra 20 kg baggage allowance or 2 piece on routes where piece concept
systems is applicable (Only on Aeroflot regular flights)
- Preferred Seating
- Lounge Access
- Invite a traveling companion to Business Class lounges
- Priority Airport Standby
- High priority waitlisting (above Silver)
- Boarding with first and business class passengers
- Priority Baggage Handling
|50,000 miles (80,000 km) or
50 flight segments during calendar year
- ^ Despite some
sources informed the order consisted of six Boeing 777-300ERs and two Boeing
according to Boeing the airline
has no -200ERs on order.
article incorporates public domain
material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country
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Aeroflot". Centre for Aviation. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6BI4zLE0Q. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
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Thomas, Geoffrey (22 June
2011). "Boeing orders keep coming in Paris". Air Transport World.
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- ^ Federal
State Unitary Enterprise "State Air Traffic Management Corporation", Airline
Reference, Vol. 1, Russian Federation, 20 February 2007, p. 125
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"Ask the pilot". Salon.com. http://dir.salon.com/story/tech/col/smith/2004/09/03/askthepilot101/index2.html. Retrieved 21 August 2007.
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- ^ "Thousands
of Firms in Russia to Be Re-Named". Kommersant. 10 January 2008.
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Zaitsev, Tom (30 June
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Intelligence news. Moscow: Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6AYqUHoyI. Retrieved 9 September 2012. "Vice premier
and finance minister Alexei Kudrin said the 51% state-owned airline had been put
on the extended list of strategically important enterprises scheduled for
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Russian). Department of Public Relations. http://aeroflot.ru/news.asp?ob_no=142&d_no=24338. Retrieved 23 April 2007.
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01/12/2007". Air Transport World. 15 January 2007.
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Aeroflot-Don at Rostov in the south by taking over Donavia, acquiring full
control in December 2006, and then setting up Aeroflot-Nord in the north by
acquiring the assets of Arkhangelsk Airlines."
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to corporatize Rossiya air carrier, merge with Aeroflot | Business | RIA
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2012). "Aeroflot sells regional subsidiary". Air Transport
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Nicholson, Alex (9 June
2007). "Boeing, Aeroflot sign 'Dreamliner' deal". Associated Press. USA Today. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6AV3eSfFQ. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
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Boeing MD-11 aircraft" (Press release). Finnair. 15 May 2007. Archived from
the original on 7 September 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6AV4O0wvO. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- ^ "Aeroflot to buy 22
Boeing planes, 22 from Airbus". The Associated
Press. Hearst Communications Inc.. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6AV4UWeDU. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
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Boeing jets". International Herald Tribune. The New York
Times. 19 September 2006. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6AV4l2KyJ. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
- ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (10 December 2008). "PICTURE: Aeroflot tests first A330 on local route ahead of Asia
entry". Air Transport Intelligence news. Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/698bNUjNs. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
- ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (10 July 2010). "Putin pressures Aeroflot to take Russian-built aircraft". Flightglobal.com.
Archived from the original on 14 July 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/698bfImZN. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
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Russia's airliner industry". Flight International. 1 September 2010.
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September 2012). "Aeroflot to take
delivery of first 777 in 2013". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6AREBBh3g. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
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Aeroflot Russian Airlines". AeroTransport Data Bank. 18 October 2012.
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Andrea (22 March 2007). "Airbus Wins Aeroflot
A350 Order, Offers Russia Role (Update2)". Bloomberg L.P.. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6AV2KJ05z. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
finalizes big 737 buy". Air Transport World. 1 November 2010.
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2010). "Russian Technologies inks deal for 50 737NGs to be leased to
Aeroflot". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/6AV3IOrOm. Retrieved 7 September 2012.
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present operated with Aeroflot aircraft (Tu-114) and flight crews."
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press reports. The Tu-144 went into service as a cargo aircraft at the end of
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"LHT" redirects here. For information about Left-hand
traffic, see Left-hand traffic
Deutsche Lufthansa AG (FWB: LHA, OTCQX: DLAKY)
(German pronunciation: [ˈdɔʏt͡ʃə
ˈlʊfthanza]) is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in
terms of overall passengers carried and fleet size. The German government had a
35.68% stake in Lufthansa until 1997, but the company is now owned by private
investors (88.52%), MGL Gesellschaft für Luftverkehrswerte (10.05%), Deutsche
Postbank (1.03%), and Deutsche Bank (0.4%) and has 119,084 employees (as of
2011). The name of the
company is derived from Luft (the German word for "air"), and
Hansa (after the Hanseatic League).
The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of
overall passengers carried, operating services to 18 domestic destinations and
197 international destinations in 78 countries across Africa, Americas, Asia and
Europe. Together with its partners, Lufthansa services around 410
destinations. With over 870
aircraft it has the largest passenger
airline fleet in the world when combined with its subsidiaries.
Lufthansa's registered office and corporate headquarters
is in Deutz, Cologne, Germany, with its main
operations base (Lufthansa Aviation Center (LAC) and primary traffic hub at Frankfurt Airport
in Frankfurt am Main with a second hub at Munich Airport. The majority of
Lufthansa's pilots, ground staff, and flight attendants are based in Frankfurt.
Lufthansa is a founding member of Star Alliance, the world's largest airline alliance,
formed in 1997. The Lufthansa Group employs 117,000 people worldwide of 146
nationalities. In 2010, over 90 million passengers flew with Lufthansa (not
including Germanwings and Brussels
||This section requires expansion.
Lufthansa's first aircraft, a Convair 340
, was delivered in
Lufthansa traces its history back to 1926 when the Deutsche Luft
Hansa was formed in Berlin, an airline that served as flag carrier of the country
until 1945 when all services were suspended following the defeat of Germany in
World War II. The new Lufthansa was formed on January 6, 1953 as
Aktiengesellschaft für Luftverkehrsbedarf, a company for air traffic
demand, and was renamed Deutsche Lufthansa Aktiengesellschaft and relaunched as an
airline on August 6, 1954. While Lufthansa claims DLH's history as its own, it
is important to note that it is not the legal successor of the company founded
in 1926. On April 1, 1955 Lufthansa launched scheduled service within Germany
using the Convair 340. International operations started on
May 15, 1955, with flights to points in Europe, followed by services to New York
City from June 8 of that year using Lockheed Super Constellations aircraft,
and on South Atlantic routes from August 1956.
East Germany attempted
to establish its own airline in 1955 using the Lufthansa name, but this resulted
in a dispute with West Germany, where the airline was already in operation. East
Germany created its national airline Interflug in 1958, and the East German Lufhansa
ceased to exist and merged into Interflug in 1963. Lufthansa (and all
other West German airlines) were banned from flying into West Berlin until the demise of the GDR regime.
Lufthansa was the launch customer for the Boeing
737, and operated variants including the 737–300
In 1958 Lufthansa placed an order for four Boeing 707s and started jet flights from Frankfurt to New York City in March
1960. Boeing 720Bs were later
bought to back up the 707 fleet. In February 1961 Far East routes were extended
beyond Bangkok, Thailand, to Hong Kong
and Tokyo. The cities of Lagos, Nigeria
and Johannesburg, South
Africa were added in 1962.
Lufthansa introduced the Boeing
727 into service in 1964 and in May of that year began the Polar route from Frankfurt to
Tokyo. In February 1965 the company ordered twenty-one Boeing 737 medium-haul jets which went into service
Lufthansa was the first customer for the Boeing 737, and was one of only four
buyers of the 737-100s (the others were NASA, Malaysia-Singapore Airlines and Avianca – while the NASA airframe was
technically the first constructed, it was the last delivered and originally
intended for delivery to Lufthansa). In doing so, Lufthansa became the first
foreign launch customer for a Boeing commercial plane.
The wide-body era
The beginning of the wide-body era for Lufthansa was marked with the
inaugural Boeing 747 flight on
April 26, 1970. In 1971, Lufthansa began service to South America. In 1979,
Lufthansa and Swissair were launch
customers for the advanced new Airbus A310, with an order for twenty-five
The company's fleet modernisation programme for the 1990s began on June 29,
1985 with an order for fifteen Airbus A320s and seven Airbus A300-600s. Ten Boeing 737-300s
were ordered a few days later. All of the aircraft were delivered between 1987
and 1992. Lufthansa also bought Airbus A321, Airbus A340 and the Boeing 747-400.
In 1987, Lufthansa, together with Air France, Iberia and SAS, founded Amadeus, an IT company (also known as a GDS) that would enable travel agencies to sell
the founders and other airlines' products from a single system.
Lufthansa adopted a new corporate identity in 1988. The fleet was given a new
livery while cabins, city offices and airport lounges were redesigned.[citation
On October 28, 1990, 25 days after reunification, Berlin became a Lufthansa
destination again. On May 18, 1997, Lufthansa, Air Canada, Scandinavian Airlines, Thai
Airways and United
Airlines formed the Star
Alliance, the world's first multilateral airline alliance.
Former Lufthansa headquarters in Cologne
In 2000, Air One became a partner
airline of Lufthansa and nearly all Air One flights were code-shared with
Lufthansa until the purchase of Air One by Alitalia. Lufthansa has a good track record for
posting profits, even in 2001, after 9/11, the airline suffered a significant
loss in profits but still managed to stay 'in the black'. While many other
airlines announced layoffs (typically 20% of their workforce), Lufthansa
retained its current workforce.
On December 6, 2001, Lufthansa announced an order for 15 Airbus A380 superjumbos with 10
more options, which was confirmed on December 20. The A380 fleet will be used
for long-haul flights from Frankfurt exclusively.
In June 2003, Lufthansa opened Terminal 2 at Munich's Franz Josef Strauß Airport to
relieve its main hub, Frankfurt,
which was suffering from capacity constraints. It is one of the first terminals in Europe
partially owned by an airline.
On May 17, 2004, Lufthansa became the launch customer for the Connexion by
Boeing in-flight online connectivity service.
On March 22, 2005, SWISS was purchased by Lufthansa
Airlines. The acquisition included the provision that the majority shareholders
(the Swiss government and large Swiss
companies) be offered payment if Lufthansa's share price outperforms an airline
index during the years following the merger. The two companies will continue to
be run separately.
On December 6, 2006, Lufthansa placed an order for 20 Boeing 747-8I airliners, becoming
the launch customer of the type. The airline is also the second European airline
to operate the Airbus A380
(after Air France). Their
first A380 was delivered on May 19, 2010.
On June 11, 2010, the Airbus A380 service was operated between Frankfurt and
Tokyo. On May 3, 2012,
Lufthansa Chief Executive Christoph Franz announced the airline's plans
to slash 3,500 administrative jobs around the world as it tries to return to
After Q1 2012 loss of 381 million euro and 13 million euro loss in year 2011
due to economies slowed and the cost of restructuring and fuel weighed on
earnings, Deutsche Lufthansa AG will cut 3,500 administrative positions or
around 20 percent of the clerical total of 16,800.
Corporate affairs and
Lufthansa's corporate headquarters are located in Cologne, Germany.
In 1971, Lawrence Fellows of The New York Times described the
then-new headquarters building that Lufthansa occupied in Cologne as
"gleaming". In 1986,
terrorists bombed the headquarters of Lufthansa. No people received
injuries as a result of the bombing.
In 2006, the builders laid the first stone to the new Lufthansa headquarters
in Deutz, Cologne. By
the end of 2007 Lufthansa planned to move 800 employees, including the company's
finance department, to the new building.
Several Lufthansa departments are not located in the headquarters; instead
they are located in the Lufthansa Aviation Center at Frankfurt Airport.
The departments include Corporate Communications, Investor
Relations, and Media
Lufthansa and an Air Canada
aircraft at Munich
In addition to its main operation, Lufthansa has several subsidiaries,
- Air Dolomiti, an
airline headquartered in Villafranca di Verona, Italy, wholly
owned by Lufthansa.
Airlines, the national airline of Austria, based in Schwechat, Austria, wholly owned by Lufthansa.
Airlines: On July 1, 2009, Lufthansa acquired a 45% stake in the Belgian
airline with an option to acquire the remaining shares in 2011.
- Edelweiss Air, the
charter arm of Swiss International.
- Eurowings a regional carrier,
wholly owned by Lufthansa.
- Germanwings, wholly owned
by Lufthansa, Germanwings was previously the low-cost subsidiary of
- JetBlue Airways,
an airline headquartered in New York City, 19% owned by Lufthansa.
- Lufthansa Cargo,
an air cargo company, wholly owned by Lufthansa.
CityLine, a regional carrier, wholly owned by Lufthansa.
- Luxair – Lufthansa holds a 13%
- SunExpress, airline based in
Antalya, Turkey; 50% owned by
Lufthansa (The remainder is owned by Turkish Airlines).
- Swiss International Air Lines, an
airline based at Basel Airport, wholly owned by
- Delvag, an insurance company specialising in air transport.
Load Control, a world leader in remote weight and balance services.
- LSG Sky Chefs, the
world's largest airline caterer, which accounts for one third of the world's airline meals.
- Lufthansa Commercial Holding, in which Lufthansa holds a 19% stake. LCH
contains over 400 service and finance companies of which Lufthansa holds
Consulting, an international aviation consultant for airlines, airports and
- Lufthansa Flight Training, a provider
of flight crew training services to various airlines and the main training arm
for the airline's own pilots.
Regional, a brand operated by an alliance of several small regional
airlines, including Lufthansa CityLine.
Systems, the largest European aviation IT provider.
Technik, aircraft maintenance providers.
The Lufthansa logo, an encircled stylized crane in flight, was created in 1918 by Otto
Firle. It was part of the livery of the first German airline, Deutsche
Luft-Reederei (abbreviated DLR), which began air service on February 5,
1919. In 1926, Deutsche Luft Hansa adopted this symbol,
and in 1954, Lufthansa expressed continuity by adopting it, too.
The original creator of the name Lufthansa is believed to be F.A.
Fischer von Puturzyn. In 1925, he published a book entitled "Luft-Hansa"
which examined the options open to aviation policymakers at the time. Luft Hansa
was the name given to the new airline which resulted from the merger of Junkers
Luftverkehr AG and Deutscher
Lufthansa is owned by private investors (88.52%), MGL Gesellschaft für
Luftverkehrswerte (10.05%), Deutsche Postbank (1.03%) and Deutsche Bank (0.4%) and
has 37,042 employees (at March 2007).
On December 13, 2007, Lufthansa and U.S.-based low-cost airline Jetblue announced the
beginning of a partnership initiated through the 19% stake purchase in Jetblue
shares by Lufthansa. This is the first major ownership investment by a European
carrier in an American carrier since the EU–U.S. Open Skies
Agreement became effective in 2008.
In late 2007, the Lufthansa cargo hub dispute was
started by Russia. Lufthansa was forced to relocate its cargo hub from Kazakhstan to Russia.
On August 28, 2008, Lufthansa and Brussels Airlines announced that they were
negotiating joining together.
On September 15, 2008, it was jointly announced by both airlines that
Lufthansa will acquire a 45% stake in Brussels Airlines with an option to
acquire the remaining 55% from 2011. As a part of this deal Brussels Airlines
will join Star Alliance.
Brussels entered into the Star Alliance in December 2009.
On October 28, 2008, Lufthansa exercised its option to purchase a further 60%
share in BMI (additionally to the 20% Lufthansa already
owned), this resulted in a dispute with former owner Sir Michael Bishop, though.
Both parties reached an agreement at the end of June 2009, so the acquisition
could take place with effect from July 1, 2009. By acquiring the
remaining 20% from Scandinavian Airlines Lufthansa has full control over BMI
since November 1, 2009.
In November 2008, Lufthansa and Austrian Airlines announced a deal in which
Lufthansa will buy the majority stock from the Austrian government. The deal was
completed in January 2009. At the same time, Lufthansa announced that they are
in serious talks with Scandinavian Airlines System about a
merger between the two airlines but Lufthansa would have to make great changes
to SAS before this is viable because of the financial state of Scandinavian
Airlines System over the last few years. In May 2009, it announced that talks
are occurring between about a "closer commercial co-operation" between the two
companies, but that a takeover is not in Lufthansa's plans. Additionally, it
announced that if British Airways was unable to complete its
merger with Iberia, it would attempt to begin talks with
the Spanish airline itself.
In 2010, Lufthansa was named in a European Commission investigation into
price-fixing, but was not fined due to acting as a whistleblower.
In November 2011, Lufthansa agreed to sell its subsidiary, BMI Airlines to
the IAG group (Owner of British Airways and Iberia), pending approvals, for
172.5 million pounds
In July, 2012, a Qantas–Lufthansa Technik maintenance deal for Tullamarine
airport fell through due to having insufficient engine maintenance work to
support the partnership. This resulted in 164 engineers becoming redundant. This
follows just months after the closing of heavy maintenance operations, which
resulted in 400 additional job losses. It was announced that the Lufthansa
Technik–Qantas partnership would end in September.
Until April 2009 Lufthansa inventory and departure control systems, based on
Unisys were managed by LH Systems.
Lufthansa reservations systems were outsourced to Amadeus in the early 1990s.
Following a decision to outsource all components of the Passenger
Service System, the functions were outsourced to the Altéa platform managed
Lufthansa built up a worldwide partner network, offering coordinated
connections, common frequent-flyer programmes and code
sharing. After the liquidation of Team Lufthansa, some of the former Team
Lufthansa members were integrated into the partner programme. All airlines
remain independent and keep their own corporate identity. Lufthansa partners
around the world are:
Hubs and focus
Lufthansa Group have this hubs with following :
Berlin Brandenburg Airport Berlin, Germany = originally scheduled to
open in June 2012 but delayed to October 2013.
Lufthansa Group also have focus cities with following :
Besides fellow Star
Alliance members, Lufthansa has codeshare agreements with the following
airlines (as of November 2012):
As of November 2012, the Lufthansa fleet consists of the following aircraft
with an average age of 12.6 years:
Over the years, Lufthansa has operated the following aircraft types:
In September 1960, the Lufthansa Boeing 707 (D-ABOC), which would serve the
Frankfurt-New York intercontinental route, was christened Berlin after
the divided city of Berlin by then-mayor Willy Brandt. Following the Berlin, other
Lufthansa 707 planes were named "Hamburg", "Frankfurt", "München" and "Bonn."
With these names, the company established a tradition of naming the planes in its fleet after
German cities and towns or federal states, with a general rule of thumb that the
airplane make, size, or route would correspond roughly to the relative size or
importance of the city or town it was named after.
This tradition has continued to this day, with two notable exceptions until
2010. The Airbus A340-300 (D-AIFC Gander/Halifax) was named after Gander and Halifax, two Canadian cities
along the standard flight path from Europe to North America. It became the first
Lufthansa airplane named after a non-German city. The name is meant to
commemorate the hospitality of the communities of Gander and Halifax, which
served as improvised safe havens for the passengers and crew of the multitude of
international aircraft unable to return to their originating airports after the
closing of the North American airspace in the days following the terror attacks
of September 11, 2001.
The other aircraft not named after a German city was the Airbus A321-100
(D-AIRA), which was designated Finkenwerder in honour of the
collaborative Airbus facility in the borough of Hamburg-Finkenwerder, where most Airbus narrowbody
models are manufactured.
In February 2010, Lufthansa announced that the first two Airbus A380 in its
fleet would be named Frankfurt am Main and München, following its
naming tradition. However, the subsequent A380 aircraft are named after Star
Alliance hub cities.
Technik, the airline's maintenance arm, restored a Junkers Ju 52/3m
built in 1936 to airworthiness; this aircraft was in use on the
10-hour Berlin to Rome route, across the Alps, in the 1930s. Lufthansa is now restoring a Lockheed Super Constellation,
using parts from three such aircraft bought at auction. Lufthansa's Super
Constellations and L1649 "Starliners" served routes such as Hamburg-Madrid-Dakar-Caracas-Santiago. Lufthansa
Technik recruits retired employees and volunteers for skilled labour. Lufthansa sells
aviation enthusiasts rides on the restored aircraft.
Lufthansa First Class is offered on most long-haul aircraft (Airbus A330-300,
A340-300, A340-600, A380-800, Boeing 747–400 and Boeing 747–8). Each seat
converts to a two-metre bed, includes laptop power outlets, as well as
entertainment facilities. Meals are available on demand. Lufthansa offers
dedicated First Class check-in counters at most airports, and offers dedicated
First Class lounges in Frankfurt
and Munich, as well as a dedicated First
Class Terminal in Frankfurt. Arriving passengers have the option of using
Lufthansa's First Class arrival facilities, as well as the new Welcome Lounge.
Lufthansa has introduced a new First Class product aboard the Airbus A380 and
plans to gradually introduce it on all of its long-haul aircraft. With the new
programme SCORE, introduced to boost profits by 1.5 billion over the following
years, LH will stop route expansion and extensively decrease its First Class
offerings on most routes.
Lufthansa's long-haul Business Class is offered on all long-haul aircraft.
Each seat converts to a two-metre angled lie-flat bed, includes laptop power
outlets and entertainment facilities. Lufthansa offers dedicated Business Class
check-in counters at all airports, as well as dedicated Business Class lounges
at most airports, or contract lounges at other airports, as well as the
Lufthansa Welcome Lounge upon arrival in Frankfurt. A new Business Class was
introduced in 2012 in the Boeing 747-8.
It has fully flat seats, instead of the former angled lie-flat seats, and a
larger seat-back entertainment screen.
The seats will be introduced across Lufthansa's wide-body fleet.
Lufthansa's long-haul Economy Class is offered on all long-haul aircraft. All
have a 31" seat pitch except the Airbus A340s, which have a 32" seat pitch.
Passengers receive meals, as well as free drinks. In 2007, Lufthansa began
installing personal Audio-Video-On-Demand (AVOD) screens in Economy Class. The Airbus A340s and A330s
have been completely refitted with AVOD, while the 747-400s are in the process
of being refitted. The Airbus A380s and Boeing 747-8s are being delivered with
AVOD systems already installed.
||Access – Class
||Access – Status
||Number on Network|
|First Class Terminal
|First Class Lounge
||FRA and MUC only
||Senator (or higher)
Star Alliance Gold
||Business Class (or higher)
||Frequent Traveller (or higher)
||Business Class (or higher)
||Frequent Traveller (or higher)
Intercontinental passengers on LH, LX, OS and UA only
Lufthansa operates four types of lounges: First Class, Senator, Business, and
Welcome Lounges. Each departure lounge is accessible both through travel class,
or Miles and More/Star Alliance status; the Welcome Lounge is limited to
arriving premium Lufthansa passengers only.
First Class Terminal
Lufthansa operates a First Class Terminal at Frankfurt Airport. The first
terminal of its kind; access is limited only to departing Lufthansa First Class,
and HON Circle members. Approximately 200 staff care for approximately 300
passengers per day in the terminal, which features a full-service restaurant,
full bar, cigar lounge, relaxation rooms and offices, as well as bath
facilities. Guests are driven directly to their departing flight by Mercedes-Benz
Panamera or Mercedes-Benz Viano.
Miles & More
Main article: Miles & More
Lufthansa's frequent-flyer programme is called
Miles & More, and is shared among several European airlines,
Airlines, LOT Polish Airlines, Luxair, Swiss International Air Lines,
Airlines. Miles & More members may earn miles on Lufthansa flights and
Star Alliance partner flights, as well as through Lufthansa credit cards, and
purchases made through the Lufthansa shops. Status within Miles & More is
determined by miles flown during one calendar year with specific partners.
Membership levels include: Basic (no minimal threshold), Frequent Traveller
(Silver, 35,000 mile threshold), Senator (Gold, 100,000 mile threshold, 130,000
for German residents), and HON Circle (Black, 600,000 mile threshold over two
calendar years). All non-basic Miles & More status levels offer lounge
access and executive bonus miles, with the higher levels offering more exclusive
This is a list of accidents and incidents involving Lufthansa mainline
aircraft since 1954. For earlier occurrences, refer to Deutsche Luft
Hansa. For accidents and incidents on Lufthansa-branded flights which were
operated by other airlines, see the respective articles (Lufthansa CityLine,
Lufthansa Cargo, Contact Air and Air Dolomiti).
- On January 11, 1959, Lufthansa Flight 502, a Lufthansa Lockheed Super Constellation (registered
D-ALAK) crashed onto a beach shortly off Galeão Airport
in Rio de Janeiro following a scheduled passenger flight from Hamburg, Germany. Of the 29 passengers and 10 crew
members on board, only three flight attendants survived. Investigation into the
accident resulted in blaming the pilots for having executed a too low approach,
which may have been caused by fatigue.
- On December 4, 1961, a Lufthansa Boeing 720 (registered D-ABOK) crashed of unknown
causes near Mainz during a training flight
from Frankfurt to Cologne, killing the three occupants. It was the first
crash involving an aircraft of that type.
- On July 15, 1964, another Boeing 720 (registered D-ABOP) crashed during a
training flight, with the three people on board losing their lives (in what was
only the second crash for this aircraft type). The accident occurred near Ansbach after the pilots had lost control
of the aircraft when executing an aileron roll.
- On January 28, 1966 at 17:50 local time, Lufthansa Flight 5 from Frankfurt to Bremen, which was operated using a Convair CV-440
Metropolitan registered D-ACAT, crashed 0.5 kilometres short of Bremen Airport, killing
all 42 passengers and 4 crew members on board. The pilots had tried to execute a
go-around when approaching the
airport, during which the aircraft stalled and went out of control, possibly due to
- On November 20, 1974 at 07:54 local time, Lufthansa Flight 540, a Boeing 747–100 (registered
D-ABYB), crashed shortly after take-off at Jomo Kenyatta International
Airport in what was the first air accident involving a Boeing 747. 55 of the
140 passengers and 10 out of the 17 crew lost their lives, making it the worst
accident in the history of the airline.
- On July 26, 1979 at 21:32 UTC, a cargo-configured Boeing 707 (registered D-ABUY)
that was en route Lufthansa Flight 527 from Rio de Janeiro to Dakar and onwards to Germany (at that time cargo flights
were operated in-house, the German Cargo subsidiary had not been founded yet)
crashed into a mountain 25 kilometres off Galeão Airport
during initial climb, killing the three crew members on board. A flawed
communication between the pilots and the air traffic controller had resulted in
the aircraft flying on a wrong path.
- On September 14, 1993, Lufthansa Flight 2904, an Airbus A320-200
(registered D-AIPN) flying from Frankfurt to Warsaw with 64 passengers and 4 crew members on board,
overran the runway upon landing at Warsaw-Okecie Airport and crashed into an
earth embankment, resulting in the death of the co-pilot and one passenger.
- On December 20, 1973 at 00:33 local time, a Lufthansa Boeing 707 (registered D-ABOT) with 98 passengers
and 11 crew members on board collided with a middle marker shack upon approaching Palam Airport in Delhi following a scheduled passenger flight
from Bangkok (as part of a multi-leg
flight back to Germany). There were no injuries, but the aircraft was damaged
beyond repair. At the time of the incident, there had been poor visibility
- On October 18, 1983, a Lufthansa cargo-configured Boeing 747-200
(registered D-ABYU) was severely damaged when it overran the runway at Kai Tak Airport in Hong
Kong, following an aborted take-off due to an engine failure. The 3 crew members
on board survived without any notable injuries.
- On March 1, 2008, Lufthansa Flight 44, an Airbus A320-200 (registered D-AIQP) flying
from Munich to Hamburg experienced a wingstrike during a high crosswind landing at Hamburg Airport. The left wingtip struck the
ground during the attempt, and the crew successfully executed a go-around. At
the time, winds at the airport were gusting up to 49 knots due to Windstorm Emma. There were no injuries to the
- In 1972, the year of the Munich Summer Olympics, there were four
reported hijackings involving Lufthansa aircraft:
- On February 22, a Boeing 747-200 (registered D-ABYD) with 172
passengers and 15 crew members on board was hijacked en route from Delhi to Athens (as part of a multi-leg flight back to Germany)
by 5 people who thus wanted to press money from the German government. The
aircraft diverted to Aden, where the demands
of the perpetrators were accepted.
- On July 10, a similar hijacking attempt occurred on board a Lufthansa Boeing
737-100 during a flight from Cologne to Munich.
- October 11 saw a Boeing
727 being hijacked on a flight from Lisbon to Frankfurt. Upon landing at Frankfurt Airport,
the perpetrator tried to flee but was captured by police forces.
- On October 29, two men hijacked another 727 (registered D-ABIG) with 11
other passengers and 7 crew members on board during a flight from Beirut to Ankara (and onwards to Germany), in order to liberate
prisoners in exchange for the hostages. During negotiations with the German
authorities, the aircraft was flown to Nicosia, Zagreb, and finally to Nuremberg (rather than Munich as the hijackers had
demanded), where the perpetrators learned that their demands would not be
fulfilled. They forced the pilots to return to Zagreb. Upon arrival there, the
Germans had changed their minds and the prisoners were released, thus ending the
- On December 17, 1973, in the wake of the events surrounding Pan Am Flight
110, a parked Lufthansa Boeing 737–100 (registered D-ABEY) was hijacked at
Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino
Airport in Rome. 10 Italian hostages that had been taken by Palestinian terrorists at the airport
were forced into the aircraft by 5 perpetrators, and the German crew (2 pilots
and 2 flight attendants) that was on board preparing the departure to Munich had to fly the aircraft instead
first to Athens and then to several
other airports, until the ordeal ended at Kuwait International Airport the
next day, where the hijackers surrendered.
- On June 28, 1977, a Lufthansa Boeing 727 was hijacked during a flight from Frankfurt to Istanbul and forced to divert to Munich.
- The Hijacking of the Landshut occurred on
October 13, 1977, at a time when West Germany had come under intense terroristic
pressure known as German
Autumn. The Boeing 737–200
(registered D-ABCE) was hijacked en route Flight 181 from Palma
de Mallorca to Frankfurt by 4
terrorists of the Popular Front for the
Liberation of Palestine, who thus wanted to force the German government to
release several RAF terrorists. The crew had to divert the
aircraft with 87 other passengers first to Rome, and then onwards to Larnaca, Bahrain, Dubai, Aden (where
the captain was killed after he had abandoned the aircraft for negotiations with
the local authorities) and finally to Mogadishu in an ordeal that took several days. At Mogadishu Airport, the German
GSG 9 special forces stormed the
aircraft in the early hours of October 18 local time, killing 3 terrorists and
freeing all hostages (though it triggered the death of Hanns-Martin
Schleyer, the President of the Confederation of
German Employers' Associations, who had been kidnapped in a separate
- On September 12, 1979, a hijacking attempt occurred on board a Lufthansa
Boeing 727 on a flight from Frankfurt to Cologne, but the perpetrator quickly surrendered.
- Three hijackings occurred in due course in early 1985:
- On February 27, a Boeing 727 was hijacked en route a Lufthansa flight from
Frankfurt to Damascus. Two
perpetrators forced the pilots to divert the aircraft (with 35 other passengers
on board) to Vienna International Airport,
where they surrendered.
- On March 27, another 727 was hijacked, this time on a flight from Munich to
Athens. A man demanded the pilots to
divert to Libya. During a fuel stop at Istanbul, the aircraft was stormed and
the perpetrator arrested.
- Only two days later, a mentally ill person on board a Lufthansa Boeing 737–200 on a flight from
Hamburg to London demanded to be taken
to Hawaii instead.
- On February 11, 1993, Lufthansa Flight 592 from Frankfurt to Addis Abeba via Cairo with 94 passengers and 10 crew members was hijacked
during the first leg by 20-year-old Nebiu Zewolde Demeke, who forced the pilots
to divert the Airbus A310
(registered D-AIDM) to the United States, with the intent of securing the right of asylum there.
Demeke, who had been on the flight in order to be deported back to his native Ethiopia, surrendered to authorities upon arrival at
John F. Kennedy International
Airport in New York City. No passengers or crew members were harmed during
the 12-hour ordeal.
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office building here, and at many other offices and factories around West
Germany, men and women now go to work when they want and stay as long as they
want – within reason."
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Konzernzentrale gefeiert. Ende 2007 werden rund 800 Kölner Lufthanseaten, vor
allem aus dem Konzernressort Finanzen, das Hochhaus am Rhein verlassen und in
den nur wenige hundert Meter entfernten Neubau umziehen, erklärte das
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Number of commercial aircraft and fleet orders: http://reports.lufthansa.com/2011/ar/combinedmanagementreport/assetsandfinancialposition/fleet.html?cat=m
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Lufthansa". Airfleets.net. http://www.airfleets.net/flottecie/Lufthansa.htm. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
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- ^ Lufthansa Fleet of A300 (History) | Airfleets
- ^ Lufthansa's
Labor of Love: Restoring Some Really Old Junkers, Wall Street
Journal, June 16, 2008
- ^ Engineering
Veteran Plays a Vital Role in Plane's Rebirth
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Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ Lufthansa 1961 accidents at the Aviation Safety Network.
Aviation-safety.net (December 4, 1961). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ Lufthansa Flight 5 at the Aviation Safety Network.
Aviation-safety.net (January 28, 1966). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ Flight 540 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net.
Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ Flight 527 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net.
Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ Universität Bielefeld (German)
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(September 14, 1993). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ 1973 incident at the Aviation Safety Network.
Aviation-safety.net (December 20, 1973). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ 1983 incident at the Aviation Safety Network.
Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
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3, 2008. http://www.plane-crash-videos.net/2008/03/lufthansa-a320-has-close-call-in.html.
- ^ February 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network.
Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ July 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network.
Aviation-safety.net (July 10, 1972). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ October 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network.
Aviation-safety.net (October 11, 1972). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ 29 October 1972 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network.
Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ 1973 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network.
Aviation-safety.net. Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ Arab Hijackers
Land in Kuwait; Hostages Freed," The New York Times, December 19, 1973. Page
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Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ 1979 hijacking attempt at the Aviation Safety Network.
Aviation-safety.net (September 12, 1979). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ February 1985 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network.
Aviation-safety.net (February 27, 1985). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ March 1985 hijacking at the Aviation Safety Network.
Aviation-safety.net (March 27, 1985). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ March 1985 hijacking attempt at the Aviation Safety Network.
Aviation-safety.net (March 29, 1985). Retrieved on July 8, 2011.
- ^ Flight 595 at the Aviation Safety Network. Aviation-safety.net.
Retrieved on July 8, 2011.