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Details about  American Quater Horse Spode Plate Race Racing Grand National Aintree Decorative

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American Quater Horse Spode Plate Race Racing Grand National Aintree Decorative
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In Excellent Condition

14 Apr, 2013 20:42:25 BST
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Item location:
Salford, United Kingdom


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Item specifics

Condition: Used
Seller notes: In Excellent Condition
Manufacturer/ Type: Spode/ Copeland Use: Decorative
Sub-Type: Horses/ Foals Boxed/ Unboxed: Unboxed
Material: Porcelain/ China MPN: Spode
Date: 1980-Now Condition: Used
Product Type: Dinner Plates
American Quaterhorse
Spode Plate

This is Collectors Plate made by Spode in Staffordshire

Limited Edition uniquely numbered 7466F

It is signed by the artist Susie Whitcombe

The Back has the Spode Trade Mark Stamp

Plate No 7466F in the Limited Edition of
The American Quaterhore
by Susie Whitcombe

Third issue in The Nobel Horse Collection a series od Portraits of the worlds finest sporting breeds in their native countries
From a painting created exclusively for this edition by Susie Whitcombe
Hard Fired on Spode Earthenware in an edition strictly limited to 150 firing days

The American Quater Horse embodies the pionier spirit
Susie Whitcombe

Bradex Number 26 567 5 3"

Made in England
Dimensions 23 cm in Diameter

This is an excellent keepsake of a Great Jockey
It is in Excellent Condition

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For other uses, see Spode (disambiguation).
Spode Spode logo since 2010 small.jpg Spode logo since 2010
Type     Private
Industry     Pottery
Founded     1767
Founder(s)     Josiah Spode
Headquarters     Stoke-on-Trent, England

Spode is a well-known English brand of pottery and homewares based in Stoke-on-Trent.

The overview

Spode is a Stoke-on-Trent based pottery company that was founded by Josiah Spode (1733-1797) in 1770. Josiah Spode earned renown for perfecting under-glaze blue transfer printing in 1783-1784 – a development that led to the launch in 1816 of Spode’s Blue Italian range which has remained in production ever since.

Josiah Spode is also often credited with developing a successful formula for fine bone china. Whether this is true or not, his son, Josiah Spode II, was certainly responsible for the successful marketing of English bone china.

Today Spode is owned by Portmeirion Group, a pottery and homewares company based in Stoke-on-Trent. Many items in Spode’s Blue Italian and Woodland ranges are made at Portmeirion Group’s factory in Stoke-on-Trent.
Dish, 1831, manufactured by Spode Ceramic Works V&A Museum no. 566A-1902
Spode 1.JPG
Spode 3.JPG
The foundation

Josiah Spode is known to have worked for Thomas Whieldon from the age of 16 until he was 21. He then worked in a number of partnerships until he went into business for himself, renting a small potworks in the town of Stoke-on-Trent in 1767; in 1776 he completed the purchase of what became the current Spode factory. His early products comprised earthenwares such as creamware (a fine cream-coloured earthenware) and pearlware (a fine earthenware with a bluish glaze) as well as a range of stonewares including black basalt, caneware, and jasper which had been popularized by Josiah Wedgwood. The history and products of the Spode factory have inspired generations of historians and collectors, and a useful interactive online exhibition was launched in October 2010.[1]
Underglaze blue transfer printing

Josiah Spode I is credited[2] with the introduction of underglaze blue transfer printing on earthenware in 1783-84. The Worcester and Caughley factories had commenced transfer printing underglaze and over glaze on porcelain in the early 1750s, and from 1756 overglaze printing was also applied to earthenware and stoneware. The processes for underglaze and overglaze decoration were very different. Overglaze "bat printing" on earthenware was a fairly straightforward process, and designs in a range of colors including black, red, and lilac were produced. Underglaze "hot-press" printing was limited to the colors that would withstand the subsequent glaze firing, and a rich blue was the predominant color. To adapt the process from the production of small porcelain teawares to larger earthen dinnerwares required the creation of more flexible paper to transmit the designs from the engraved copper plate to the biscuit earthenware body, and the development of a glaze recipe that brought the color of the black-blue cobalt print to a brilliant perfection. When Spode employed the skilled engraver Thomas Lucas and printer James Richard, both of the Caughley factory, in 1783 he was able to introduce high quality blue printed earthenware to the market. Thomas Minton, another Caughley-trained engraver, also supplied copper plates to Spode until he opened his own factory in Stoke-on-Trent in 1796. [3]

This method involved the engraving of a design on a copper plate, which was then printed onto gummed tissue.[4] The colour paste was worked into the cut areas of the copper plate and wiped from the uncut surfaces, and then printed by passing through rollers. These designs, including edge-patterns which had to be manipulated in sections, were cut out using scissors and applied to the biscuit-fired ware (using a white fabric), itself prepared with a gum solution. The tissue was then floated off in water, leaving the pattern adhering to the plate. This was then dipped in the glaze and returned to the kiln for the glost firing. Blue underglaze transfer became a standard feature of Staffordshire pottery. Spode also used on-glaze transfers for other wares. The well-known Spode blue-and-white dinner services with engraved sporting scenes and Italian views were developed under Josiah Spode the younger, but continued to be reproduced into much later times.
The bone china formula

During the 18th century many English potters were striving and competing to discover the industrial secret of the production of fine translucent porcelain. The Plymouth and Bristol factories, and (from 1782-1810) the New Hall (Staffordshire) factory under Richard Champion's patent, were producing hard paste or true porcelain similar to Oriental china. In the artificial or soft-paste porcelain, imitating French production like Sèvres, silica or ground-up flint was used in the clay to give it strength and translucency. The technique was developed by adding calcined bone to this glassy frit, for example in the productions of Bow china works and Chelsea china works, and this was carried on from at least the 1750s onwards. Soapstone porcelains further added steatite, known as French chalk, for instance at Worcester and Caughley factories.[5]

The bone porcelains, especially those of Spode, Minton, Davenport and Coalport, eventually established the standards for soft-paste porcelain which were later (after 1800) maintained widely. Although the Bow porcelain factory, Chelsea porcelain factory, Royal Worcester and Royal Crown Derby factories had, before Spode, established a proportion of about 40-45 per cent calcined bone in the formula as standard, it was Spode who first abandoned the practice of calcining or fritting the bone-ash with some of the other ingredients, and used the simple mixture of bone-ash, petuntse (china stone) and china clay, which since his time has formed the technical body of English porcelain, and to many other parts of the world. A standard English paste may be taken as 6 parts bone-ash, 4 parts petuntse and 3.5 parts kaolin, all finely ground together. This is essentially the same as true porcelain but with the addition of a large proportion of bone-ash.

Josiah Spode I effectively finalized the formula, and appears to have been doing so between 1789 and 1793. It remained an industrial secret for some time. The importance of his innovations has been disputed, being played down by Professor Sir Arthur Church in his English Porcelain, estimated practically by William Burton, and being very highly esteemed by Spode's contemporary Alexandre Brongniart, director of the Sèvres manufactory, in his Traité des Arts Céramiques, and by M. L. Solon hailed as a revolutionary improvement.

Many fine examples of the elder Spode's productions were destroyed in a fire at Alexandra Palace, London in 1873, where they were included in an exhibition of nearly five thousand specimens of English pottery and porcelain. As the understanding of the work of the early potters depends in part on the study of actual specimens, the loss was both aesthetic and scientific.

The business was carried on through his sons at Stoke until April 1833. Spode's London retail shop in Portugal Street went by the name of Spode, Son, and Copeland.[6]

Among the many surviving Spode documents are two shape books dated to about 1820 which contain thumbnail sketches of bone china objects with instructions to throwers and turners about size requirements. One copy is in the Joseph Downes collection at Winterthur Museum, Gardens, and Library, Delaware, USA.[7]
Spode "Stone-China"

After some early trials Spode perfected a stoneware that came closer to porcelain than any previously, and introduced his "Stone-China" in 1813. It was light in body, grayish-white and gritty where it was not glazed and approached translucence in the early wares; later Stone-Ware became opaque. Spode pattern books, which record about 75000 patterns, survive from about 1800.

In Spode's similar "Felspar porcelain", introduced on the market in 1821, felspar was an ingredient, substituted for the Cornish stone in his standard bone china body, giving rise to his slightly misleading name "Felspar porcelain,"[8] to what is in fact an extremely refined stoneware comparable to the rival "Mason's ironstone", produced by Josiah II's nephew, Charles James Mason, and patented in 1813[9] Spode's "Felspar porcelain" continued into the Copeland & Garrett phase of the company (1833-1847).[10] Armorial services were provided for the Honourable East India Company, 1823, and the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, c1824.[11] Some of the ware employed underglaze blue and iron red with touches of gilding in imitation of "Imari porcelain" that had been introduced on Spode's bone china in the first decade of the century:[12] the most familiar "Tobacco-leaf pattern" (2061) continued to be made by Spode's successors, William Taylor Copeland, and then "W.T. Copeland & Sons, late Spode".
Later forms of the business

Messrs Spode were succeeded in the same business in c. 1833 by Copeland and Garrett, who often used the name Spode in their marks. In particular these are called 'Late Spode' and include productions of the so-called 'Felspar porcelain'. They also produced other kinds of bone china, earthenware, parian, etc. The partnership continued in this form until 1847.[13] After 1847 the business continued until 1970 as W.T. Copeland and sons, and again the term 'Spode' or 'Late Spode' continued in use alongside the name of Copeland. Under the name 'Spode Ltd' the same factories and business was continued after 1970.

In 2006, the business merged with Royal Worcester. The merged company entered administration on 6 November 2008. The brand names and intellectual property were acquired by Portmeirion Group on 23 April 2009.[14]

On 23 April 2009 Portmeirion Pottery purchased their rival Royal Worcester and Spode brands, together with some of the stock, after they had been placed into administration the previous November. The purchase did not include Royal Worcester or Spode manufacturing facilities.[15] Many items in Spode’s Blue Italian and Woodland ranges are now made at Portmeirion Group’s factory in Stoke-on-Trent

The Christmas Spode products have suffered a steep decline in quality since manufacturing was moved to China in 2009. Warnings about potential lead contamination are now posted according to California consumer protection laws.

American Quarter Horse
A palomino American Quarter Horse shown at halter.
Distinguishing features     Great sprinting speed over short distances; short, refined head; strong, well-muscled body, featuring a broad chest and powerful, rounded hindquarters
Alternative names     Quarter Horse
Country of origin     United States
Common nicknames     "America's Horse"
"World's Fastest Athlete"
Breed standards
American Quarter Horse Association     Breed standards

Horse (Equus ferus caballus)

The American Quarter Horse is an American breed of horse that excels at sprinting short distances. Its name came from its ability to outdistance other horse breeds in races of a quarter mile or less; some individuals have been clocked at speeds up to 55 mph (88.5 km/h). The American Quarter Horse is the most popular breed in the United States today, and the American Quarter Horse Association is the largest breed registry in the world, with more than 5 million American Quarter Horses registered.

The American Quarter Horse is well known both as a race horse and for its performance in rodeos, horse shows and as a working ranch horse. The compact body of the American Quarter Horse is well-suited to the intricate and speedy maneuvers required in reining, cutting, working cow horse, barrel racing, calf roping, and other western riding events, especially those involving live cattle. The American Quarter Horse is also shown in English disciplines, driving, and many other equestrian activities.

Breed history
Colonial era

In the 17th century, colonists on the eastern seaboard of what today is the United States began to cross imported English Thoroughbred horses with assorted "native" horses such as the Chickasaw horse, which was a breed developed by Native American people from horses descended from Spain, developed from Iberian, Arabian and Barb stock brought to what is now the Southeastern United States by the Conquistadors.[1]

One of the most famous of these early imports was Janus, a Thoroughbred who was the grandson of the Godolphin Arabian. He was foaled in 1746, and imported to colonial Virginia in 1756.[2] The influence of Thoroughbreds like Janus contributed genes crucial to the development of the colonial "Quarter Horse."[3][4] The breed is sometimes referred to as the "Famous American Quarter Running Horse."[5] The resulting horse was small, hardy, and quick, and was used as a work horse during the week and a race horse on the weekends.[6]

As flat racing became popular with the colonists, the Quarter Horse gained even more popularity as a sprinter over courses that, by necessity, were shorter than the classic racecourses of England, and were often no more than a straight stretch of road or flat piece of open land. When matched against a Thoroughbred, local sprinters often won.[citation needed] As the Thoroughbred breed became established in America, many colonial Quarter Horses were included in the original American stud books,[5] starting a long association between the Thoroughbred breed and what would later become officially known as the "Quarter Horse," named after the distance at which it excelled,[citation needed] with some individuals being clocked at up to 55 mph.[7]
Westward expansion

In the 19th century, pioneers heading West needed a hardy, willing horse. On the Great Plains, settlers encountered horses that descended from the Spanish stock Hernán Cortés and other Conquistadors had introduced into the viceroyalty of New Spain, which today includes the Southwestern United States and Mexico. These horses of the west included herds of feral animals known as Mustangs, as well as horses domesticated by Native Americans, including the Comanche, Shoshoni and Nez Perce tribes.[citation needed] As the colonial Quarter Horse was crossed with these western horses, the pioneers found that the new crossbred had innate "cow sense," a natural instinct for working with cattle, making it popular with cattlemen on ranches.[8]
Development as a distinct breed
See also: American Quarter Horse Association and American Quarter Horse Hall of Fame
A photograph of Peter McCue, taken in Oklahoma around 1905.

Early foundation sires of Quarter horse type included Steel Dust, foaled 1843; Shiloh (or Old Shiloh), foaled 1844; Old Cold Deck (1862); Lock's Rondo, one of many "Rondo" horses, foaled in 1880; Old Billy—again, one of many "Billy" horses—foaled circa 1880; Traveler, a stallion of unknown breeding, known to have been in Texas by 1889;[9] and Peter McCue, foaled 1895, registered as a Thoroughbred but of disputed pedigree.[6][9][10]

The main duty of the ranch horse in the American West was working cattle. Even after the invention of the automobile, horses were still irreplaceable for handling livestock on the range. Thus, major Texas cattle ranches, such as the King Ranch, the 6666 (Four Sixes) Ranch, and the Waggoner Ranch played a significant role in the development of the modern Quarter Horse. The skills needed by cowboys and their horses became the foundation of the rodeo, a contest which began with informal competition between cowboys and expanded to become a major competitive event throughout the west. To this day, the Quarter Horse dominates the sport both in speed events and in competition that emphasizes the handling of live cattle.[citation needed]

However, sprint races were also popular weekend entertainment and racing became a source of economic gain for breeders as well. As a result, more Thoroughbred blood was added back into the developing American Quarter Horse breed. The American Quarter Horse also benefitted from the addition of Arabian, Morgan and even Standardbred bloodlines.[citation needed]

In 1940, the American Quarter Horse Association (AQHA) was formed by a group of horsemen and ranchers from the southwestern United States dedicated to preserving the pedigrees of their ranch horses.[11] The horse honored with the first registration number, P-1, was Wimpy,[12] a descendant of the King Ranch foundation sire Old Sorrel. Other sires alive at the founding of the AQHA were given the earliest registration numbers Joe Reed P-3, Chief P-5, Oklahoma Star P-6, Cowboy P-12, and Waggoner's Rainy Day P-13.[13] The Thoroughbred race horse Three Bars, alive in the early years of the AQHA, is recognized by the American Quarter Horse Hall of Fame as one of the significant foundation sires for the Quarter Horse breed.[14] Other significant Thoroughbred sires seen in early AQHA pedigrees include Rocket Bar, Top Deck and Depth Charge.[15]
"Appendix" and "Foundation" horses

Since the American Quarter Horse formally established itself as a breed, the AQHA stud book has remained open to additional Thoroughbred blood via a performance standard. An "Appendix" American Quarter Horse is a first generation cross between a registered Thoroughbred and an American Quarter Horse or a cross between a "numbered" American Quarter Horse and an "appendix" American Quarter Horse. The resulting offspring is registered in the "appendix" of the American Quarter Horse Association's studbook, hence the nickname. Horses listed in the appendix may be entered in competition, but offspring are not initially eligible for full AQHA registration. If the Appendix horse meets certain conformational criteria and is shown or raced successfully in sanctioned AQHA events, the horse can earn its way from the appendix into the permanent studbook, making its offspring eligible for AQHA registration[16]

Since Quarter Horse/Thoroughbred crosses continue to enter the official registry of the American Quarter Horse breed, this creates a continual gene flow from the Thoroughbred breed into the American Quarter Horse breed, which has altered many of the characteristics that typified the breed in the early years of its formation. Some breeders, who argue that the continued infusion of Thoroughbred bloodlines is beginning to compromise the integrity of the breed standard, favor the earlier style of horse, have created several separate organizations to promote and register "Foundation" Quarter Horses.[17][18][19]
Quarter Horses today
The Quarter Horse is well-suited for the western disciplines.

The American Quarter Horse is best-known today as a show horse, race horse, reining and cutting horse, rodeo competitor, ranch horse, and all-around family horse. Quarter horses compete well in rodeo events such as barrel racing, calf roping and team roping;[citation needed] and gymkhana or O-Mok-See.[20] Other stock horse events such as cutting and reining are open to all breeds but also dominated by American Quarter Horse. Large purses allow top competitors to earn over a million dollars in some of these events.[citation needed]

The breed is not only well-suited for western riding and cattle work. Many race tracks offer Quarter Horses a wide assortment of pari-mutuel horse racing with purses in the millions.[citation needed] Quarter Horses have also been trained to compete in dressage and can be good jumpers. They are also used for recreational trail riding and in mounted police units.[12]

The American Quarter Horse has also been exported worldwide. European nations such as Germany and Italy have imported large numbers of Quarter Horses. Next to the American Quarter Horse Association (which also encompasses Quarter Horses from Canada), the second largest registry of Quarter Horses is in Brazil, followed by Australia.[21] With the internationalization of the discipline of reining and its acceptance as one of the official seven events of the World Equestrian Games, there is a growing international interest in Quarter Horses. Countries like Japan, Switzerland and Israel that did not have traditional stock horse industries have begun to compete with American Quarter Horses in their own nations and internationally.[citation needed] The American Quarter Horse is the most popular breed in the United States today, and the American Quarter Horse Association is the largest breed registry in the world, with over 5 million American Quarter Horses registered worldwide.[22]
Breed characteristics
A halter-type Quarter Horse

The modern Quarter Horse has a small, short, refined head with a straight profile, and a strong, well-muscled body, featuring a broad chest and powerful, rounded hindquarters. They usually stand between 14 and 16 hands high, although some Halter-type and English hunter-type horses may grow as tall as 17 hands.[citation needed]

There are two main body types: the stock type and the hunter or racing type. The stock horse type is shorter, more compact, stocky and well muscled, yet agile. The racing and hunter type Quarter Horses are somewhat taller and smoother muscled than the stock type, more closely resembling the Thoroughbred.[citation needed]
Stock type
See also: Stock horse

Reining and cutting horses are smaller in stature, with quick, agile movements and very powerful hindquarters. Western pleasure show horses are often slightly taller, with slower movements,smoother gaits, and a somewhat more level topline – though still featuring the powerful hindquarters characteristic of the Quarter Horse.[citation needed]
Halter type

Horses shown in-hand in Halter competition are larger yet, with a very heavily muscled appearance, while retaining small heads with wide jowls and refined muzzles. There is controversy amongst owners, breeder and veterinarians regarding the health effects of the extreme muscle mass that is currently fashionable in the specialized halter horse, which typically is 15.2 to 16 hands and weighs in at over 1,200 pounds (540 kg) when fitted for halter competition. Not only are there concerns about the weight to frame ratio on the horse's skeletal system, but the massive build is also linked to HYPP.[citation needed] (See Genetic diseases below))
Racing and hunter type
A quarter horse competing in an open hunter show

Quarter Horse race horses are bred to sprint short distances ranging from 220 to 870 yards. Thus, they have long legs and are leaner than their stock type counterparts, but are still characterized by muscular hindquarters and powerful legs. Quarter horses race primarily against other Quarter horses, and their sprinting ability has earned them the nickname, "the world's fastest athlete." The show hunter type is slimmer, even more closely resembling a Thoroughbred, usually reflecting a higher percentage of appendix breeding. They are shown in hunter/jumper classes at both breed shows and in open USEF-rated horse show competition.[citation needed]
Main article: Equine coat color

Quarter Horses come in nearly all colors. The most common color is sorrel, a brownish red, part of the color group called chestnut by most other breed registries. Other recognized colors include bay, black, brown, buckskin, palomino, gray, dun, red dun, grullo (also occasionally referred to as blue dun), red roan, blue roan, bay roan, perlino, cremello, and white.[23] In the past, spotted color patterns were excluded, but now with the advent of DNA testing to verify parentage, the registry accepts all colors as long as both parents are registered.[24]
Genetic diseases

There are several genetic diseases of concern to Quarter Horse breeders:

    Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP), which is caused by an autosomal dominant gene linked to the stallion Impressive. It is characterized by uncontrollable muscle twitching and substantial muscle weakness or paralysis among affected horses. Because it is a dominant gene, only one parent has to have the gene for it to be transmitted to offspring. There is a DNA test for HYPP, which is required by the AQHA. Since 2007, the AQHA bars registration of horses who possess the homozygous form (H/H) of the gene,[25] and though heterozygous (H/N) horses, are still eligible for registration, altering that status is currently being discussed. Additionally all Quarter Horses born 2007 or later that are confirmed to be descendants of Impressive must carry a note about the risks of HYPP on their registration papers. Due to HYPP, the halter classes are undergoing significant changes. Halter classes are dominated by the Impressive bloodline. Impressive, a very prolific halter horse, brought to the stock breeds the muscle mass that is popular in halter competition today. This muscle mass is linked to HYPP, and as the condition is reduced within the breed, the style of horse in halter classes is also likely to change. Already there have been rule changes, including the creation of a "Performance Halter class" in which a horse must possess a Register of Merit in performance or racing before it can compete.[26]

    Malignant hyperthermia. A causative mutated allele, ryanodine receptor 1 gene (RyR1) at nucleotide C7360G, generating a R2454G amino acid substitution.[27] has been identified in the American Quarter Horse and breeds with Quarter Horse ancestry, inherited as an autosomal dominant[28][29] It can be caused by overwork, anesthesia, or stress.[30]

    Hereditary Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia (HERDA), also known as hyperelastosis cutis (HC). This is caused by an autosomal recessive gene, and thus, unlike HYPP, HERDA can only be transmitted if both parents carry the gene. When a horse has this disease, there is a collagen defect that results in the layers of skin not being held firmly together. Thus, when the horse is ridden under saddle or suffers trauma to the skin, the outer layer often splits or separates from the deeper layer, or it can tear off completely. It rarely heals without disfiguring scars. Sunburn can also be a concern. In dramatic cases, the skin can split along the back and even roll down the sides, with the horse literally being skinned alive. Most horses with HERDA are euthanized for humane reasons between the age of two and four years. The very hotly debated and controversial theory, put forth by researchers at Cornell University and Mississippi State University is that the sire line of the great foundation stallion Poco Bueno is implicated as the origin of the disease. As of May 9, 2007, Researchers working independently at Cornell University and at the University of California, Davis announced that a DNA test for HERDA has been developed. Over 1,500 horses were tested during the development phase of the test, which is now available to the general public through both institutions.[31]

    Glycogen Branching Enzyme Deficiency (GBED) is a genetic disease where the horse is lacking an enzyme necessary for storing glycogen, the horse's heart muscle and skeletal muscles cannot function, leading to rapid death. The disease occurs in foals who are homozygous for the lethal GBED allele, meaning both parents carry one copy of the gene. The stallion King P-234 has been linked to this disease. There is a DNA blood test for this gene.[32]

    Equine polysaccharide storage myopathy, also called EPSM or PSSM, is a metabolic muscular condition in horses that causes tying up, and is also related to a glycogen storage disorder.[33] While also seen in some draft horse breeds, PSSM has been traced to three specific but undisclosed bloodlines in Quarter Horses, with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern.[34] 48% of Quarter Horses with symptoms of neuromuscular disease have PSSM. To some extent it can be diet controlled with specialized low-starch diets, but genetic testing is advised before breeding, as the condition exists at a subclinical level in approximately 6% of the general Quarter Horse population.[35]

    Lethal White Syndrome. Although "cropout" Quarter Horses with Paint markings were not allowed to be registered for many years, the gene for such markings is a recessive and continued to periodically appear in Quarter Horse foals. Thus, it is believed that some Quarter Horses may carry the gene for Lethal White Syndrome. There is a DNA test for this condition.[36]

Equine science and

    Equine anatomy
    Equine nutrition
    Horse behavior
    Horse care
    Horse breeding
    Equine conformation
    Equine coat color
    Horse gait

Adult horse, presumably female, standing behind a baby horse. The adult horse is palomino, a golden color. The baby horse is chestnut, a light red-brown color.
and sport    

    Glossary of equestrian terms
    List of Equestrian Sports
    Horse tack
    English riding
    Western riding
    Horse training
    Horse racing
    Equestrian at the Summer Olympics (medalists, venues)
    Horse show

Evolution and history    

    Domestication of the horse
    Horses in warfare
    Horses in the Middle Ages
    Horses in East Asian warfare
    History of the horse in South Asia
    Horses in the Napoleonic Wars
    Horses in World War I
    Horses in World War II
    History of the horse in Britain
    Horse worship
    Horse burial

Horse breeds, types
and other Equidae    

    List of horse breeds
    Draft horse
    Feral horse
    Gaited horse
    Mountain and moorland pony breeds
    Sport horse
    Stock horse
    Wild horse

Other Equus

    List of donkey breeds





Selected Royal Warrant holders of the British Royal Family
By Appointment to
HM The Queen    

    Abels Moving Services
    Angostura Limited
    Axminster Carpets
    Bentley Motors
    Carphone Warehouse
    Charbonnel et Walker
    DHL Express
    Dollond & Aitchison
    Ede & Ravenscroft
    Fortnum & Mason
    Frank Smythson
    Gieves & Hawkes
    H. P. Bulmer
    Henry Poole & Co
    J. Barbour and Sons
    James Purdey and Sons
    Jaguar Cars
    John Lewis
    John Lobb
    Land Rover
    Louis Roederer
    Mappin & Webb
    Martini & Rossi
    Moët & Chandon
    Procter & Gamble UK
    Roberts Radio
    Steinway & Sons
    Unilever UK
    Vauxhall Motors
    Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin
    Wilkin & Sons
    William Drake
    Worcestershire Medal Service

Coat of arms of Her Majesty The Queen

Coat of arms of Her Majesty The Queen (Scotland)

Coat of arms of His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh

Badge of His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales
By Appointment to
HRH The Duke
of Edinburgh    

    Dollond & Aitchison
    Ede & Ravenscroft
    Frank Smythson
    Gieves & Hawkes
    Holland & Holland
    James Purdey and Sons
    John Lobb
    Land Rover
    Lyle & Scott
    Truefitt & Hill

By Appointment to
Prince of Wales    

    Aston Martin
    Bentley Motors
    Crabtree & Evelyn
    Ede & Ravenscroft
    Frank Smythson
    Gieves & Hawkes
    Holland & Holland
    Jaguar Cars
    James Purdey and Sons
    John Lobb
    Land Rover
    Linn Products
    Peter Jones
    Ritz Hotel
    Roberts Radio
    Shepherd Neame
    Taylors of Harrogate
    Turnbull & Asser
    Vauxhall Motors
    Winsor & Newton

    Category Category



City and Unitary Authority area of Stoke-on-Trent
Areas, towns and wards.    

    Abbey Green ward
    Abbey Hulton
    Banky Brook
    Birches Head
    Blythe Bridge
    Cliffe Vale
    Heron Cross
    Norton le Moors
    Sneyd Green
    Weston Coyney


    Ceramic and Allied Trades Union
    Darwin–Wedgwood family
    Federation of Stoke-on-Trent
    History of Port Vale F.C.
    History of Stoke City F.C.
    Staffordshire Potteries
    Wedgwood Pottery In Stoke-on-Trent
    1842 Pottery Riots

Parliamentary constituencies    

    Stoke-on-Trent North
    Stoke-on-Trent Central
    Stoke-on-Trent South




    Bottle ovens
    Etruria Hall
    Ford Green Hall
    Stoke Minster
    The Villas
    Wedgwood Institute
    Water World


    Regent Theatre
    Victoria Hall

Museums and libraries

    Burslem School of Art
    Chatterley Whitfield
    Etruria Industrial Museum
    Gladstone Pottery Museum
    Montagu C. Butler Library
    Potteries Museum & Art Gallery
    Spode Museum


    City Sentral
    Potteries Shopping Centre

Parks and Countryside

    Berryhill Fields
    Hanley Park
    Hartshill Park
    Stoke-on-Trent Garden Festival
    Trentham Gardens

Sport and music venues

    Britannia Stadium
    Longton Cricket Club Ground
    Meir Heath Cricket Club
    Shelley's Laserdome
    The Sugarmill
    The Underground
    Vale Park


    List of schools
    Stoke-on-Trent College
    City of Stoke-on-Trent Sixth Form College
    Staffordshire University
    University Hospital of North Staffordshire


    Cross Rhythms
    Pits n Pots
    The Oatcake
    The Sentinel


    BBC Radio Stoke
    Cross Rhythms City Radio
    Signal 1
    Signal 2
    UCB UK
    Stoke & Stafford (DAB Multiplex)


    Aynsley China
    Beswick Pottery
    Burleigh Pottery
    Carlton Ware
    Caverswall China Co
    Churchill China
    Clayburn Pottery
    Emma Bridgewater
    Etruria Works
    Gray's Pottery
    James Sadler and Sons Ltd
    J. & G. Meakin
    Midwinter Pottery
    Paragon China
    Portmeirion Pottery
    Royal Doulton
    Royal Winton
    Shelley Potteries
    W H Grindley


    Armitage Shanks
    Clay Records
    Dechra Pharmaceuticals
    Goodwin Steel Castings
    Hanley Economic Building Society
    Shelton Bar
    Sons Ltd.
    Titanic Brewery
    Twyford Bathrooms
    Wrights Pies

Association football teams

    Dresden United
    Eastwood Hanley
    Hanley Town
    Meir KA
    Norton United
    Port Vale
    Stoke City

Speedway teams

    Stoke Potters
    Stoke Spitfires


    Caldon Canal
    Trent and Mersey Canal

Public Transport

    Blue Bus of Staffordshire
    First Potteries
    Stoke Streetcar


    Longport railway station
    Longton railway station
    North Staffordshire Railway
    Stafford-Manchester Line
    Stoke-on-Trent railway station
    Stoke railway works

Major Roads

    Longton Interchange


    List of people
    May un Mar Lady
    Owd Grandad Piggott
    Potteries derby
    Potteries dialect
    River Trent
    Sanity Fair
    Start Up Citywide
    ST postcode area

List of pottery terms

    Ball clay
    Ironstone china
    Ash glaze


    Wheel throwing


    RAM pressing
    Bisque firing
    Saggar firing
    Pit firing


    Studio pottery
    Salt glaze pottery
    Ceramics of indigenous peoples of the Americas
    Harvest jug
    Poole Pottery
    Korean ceramics
    Mexican ceramics
    Rockingham Pottery
    Restaurant ware
    Sea pottery

Notable potters    

    Potters by nationality



Decorative arts and handicrafts

    Canvas work
    Friendship bracelet
    Ribbon embroidery
    Rug hooking
    Rug making
    Spinning (textiles)
    String art

Wood intarsia

    Altered books
    Cast paper
    Iris folding
    Paper cutting
    Paper toys
    Pop-up book


    Cabinet making
    Chip carving
    Wood burning
    Wood carving


    Bone china
    Cameo glass
    Stained glass




    Bone carving
    Doll making
    Egg decorating
    Engraved gems
    Hardstone carving
    Pietra dura
    Pressed flower craft
    Straw marquetry, Wall decals



Prehistoric technology

    Outline of prehistoric technology
    History of technology

Ceremonial structures

    Earliest religious structure


    Neolithic architecture
    Cliff dwelling
    Great house
    Neolithic long house
    Rock shelter
    Stilt house

Water management

    Check dam
    Water well


    Archaeological features
    Burnt mound
    Causewayed enclosure
    Mead hall
    Megalithic architectural elements
    Timber trackway


    Neolithic Revolution
    Ard / plough
    Digging stick

Food processing

    Grinding slab
    Ground stone
    Mortar and pestle
    Storage pit


    Bow and arrow
    Projectile point
    Snare trap


    Earliest toolmaking
    Hand axe
    Lithic core
    Lithic reduction
    Prepared-core technique
    Striking platform
    Tool stone

Other tools

    Bone tool
    Bow drill
    Denticulate tool
    Fire plough
    Hand axe
    Stone tool
    Ancient maritime history

Arts and culture    
Material goods

    Basket weaving
    Clothing and textiles

Prehistoric art

    Earliest art
    Cave painting
    List of prehistoric artworks
    Megalithic art
    Rock art
    Stone circle


    Burial mounds
    Chamber tomb
    Funeral pyre
    Jar burial
    Megalithic tomb
    Stone box grave

Other cultural

    Behavioral modernity
    Evolutionary origin of religions
    Music archaeology
    Prehistoric music


    Aller Vale Pottery
    Armitage Shanks
    Ashby Potters' Guild
    Ashtead potters
    Aynsley China


    Beswick Pottery
    Bow porcelain factory
    Brannam Pottery
    Bretby Art Pottery
    Briglin Pottery
    Burleigh Pottery


    Carlton Ware
    Caverswall China Co
    Chelsea porcelain factory
    Churchill China
    Clayburn Pottery
    Eleanor Coade
    Coalport porcelain
    William Cookworthy
    Craven Dunnill


    Davenport Pottery
    Della Robbia Pottery
    Denby Pottery Company
    Derby Porcelain

D cont.



    Sir Edmund Elton, 8th Baronet
    Emma Bridgewater
    Etruria Works


    Fielding Majolica
    Thomas Frye


    Gibbs and Canning Limited
    Goss crested china
    Gray's Pottery


    Halcyon Days Ltd
    Henry Watson Potteries
    Herculaneum Pottery
    Honiton pottery
    Hornsea Pottery


    James Sadler and Sons Ltd
    Johnson Brothers


    Langley Mill Pottery
    Leach Pottery
    Liverpool porcelain


    Mason Cash
    J. & G. Meakin
    Midwinter Pottery


    North Shields Pottery


    Paragon China
    Pilkington's Group
    Plymouth porcelain
    Poole Pottery
    Portmeirion Pottery


    Rockingham Pottery
    Royal Crown Derby
    Royal Doulton
    Royal Winton
    Royal Worcester
    Ruskin Pottery


    Salopian Art Pottery
    Scarborough Pottery
    Shelley Potteries


    The Tabletop Group
    Tremaen pottery
    Troika Pottery
    Twyford Bathrooms


    W H Grindley
    Wade Ceramics
    Josiah Wedgwood
    Wetheriggs Pottery

The Derby Stakes, popularly known as The Derby, internationally as the Epsom Derby, and under its present sponsor as the Investec Derby, is a Group 1 flat horse race in England open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies. It is run at Epsom Downs over a distance of one mile, four furlongs and 10 yards (2,423 metres), and is scheduled for early June each year.[1]

It is Britain's richest horse race, and the most prestigious of the country's five Classics. It is sometimes referred to as the "Blue Riband" of the turf. The race serves as the middle leg of the Triple Crown, preceded by the 2,000 Guineas and followed by the St Leger, although the feat of winning all three is now rarely attempted. The name "Derby" has become synonymous with great races all over the world, and as such has been borrowed many times, notably by the "Kentucky Derby". However, the Epsom Derby is the original. It is one of Britain's great national events transcending its own field of interest, and has a huge world-wide TV audience.

In Great Britain the name "Derby" is pronounced ['dɑːbɪ], while in the United States it is rendered as ['dɜɹbi] (a case of spelling pronunciation).

Amato, 1838 Derby winner by John Frederick Herring, Sr

    1805: One of the horses was brought down by a spectator.
    1825: Middleton didn't start before or after winning the Derby.
    1838: Amato never raced before or after winning the Derby.
    1844: The original winner Running Rein was disqualified as he was actually an ineligible four-year-old horse named Maccabeus.[11]
    1881: Iroquois became the first American-bred to win a leg of the British triple crown.
    1884: The race finished with a dead-heat between Harvester and St. Gatien.
    1887: Merry Hampton is the most recent horse to win the Derby with no previous victories.
    1894: The winner was owned by the Prime Minister at the time, the 5th Earl of Rosebery.
    1901: The first year in which a mechanical starting gate was used.
    1909: Minoru was the first Derby winner owned by a reigning monarch, King Edward VII, who had previously won twice as Prince of Wales.
    1913: The 6/4 favourite Craganour, owned by Charles B. Ismay, brother of J. Bruce Ismay of the Titanic, was controversially disqualified, and the race was awarded to the 100/1 outsider Aboyeur. Suffragette Emily Davison was struck by King George V's horse, Anmer, she died three days later.
    1916: Fifinella, who also won the Oaks, is the most recent (as of 2012) of six fillies to win the race. The previous five were Eleanor (1801), Blink Bonny (1857), Shotover (1882), Signorinetta (1908), Tagalie (1912).
    1921: The winner Humorist died two weeks after the race.
    1927: The first Derby to be broadcast by the BBC.
    1932: April the Fifth is the most recent winner trained at Epsom.
    1946: Airborne is the most recent (as of 2012) of four grey horses to win the Derby.
    1953: Pinza was the first winner in the race for the jockey Sir Gordon Richards, after 27 unsuccessful attempts.
    1960: Although there had been an experimental TV transmission of the race in the early 1930s, regular television coverage of the Derby began this year, initially on both BBC and ITV.
    1989: The runner-up Terimon is the longest-priced horse to finish placed in the Derby, at odds of 500/1.
    1996: Alex Greaves became the first lady jockey to ride in the race. She finished last of the 20 runners on the filly Portuguese Lil.
    1998: The most recent (as of 2012) filly to take part, the 1,000 Guineas winner Cape Verdi, started as 11/4 favourite but could only finish ninth.
    2006: Martin Dwyer's winning ride on Sir Percy subsequently won the Lester Award for "Flat Ride of the Year".
    2007: Authorized provided jockey Frankie Dettori with his first winner in the Derby after 14 previous attempts.
    2008: Jim Bolger, the trainer of the winner New Approach, had left the horse entered for the race "by mistake", having not initially intended to run.
    2009: Sea The Stars became the second Epsom Derby winner by the Dam Urban Sea only ever done once before.
    2010: Workforce broke the Epsom track record winning in the time 2m 31.33s previously held by Lammtarra who set it in 1995 at 2m 32.31s.
    2011: Pour Moi Jockey Mickael Barzalona celebrated before the finishline winning by just a head.
    2012: Aidan O'Brien and his 19-year-old son Joseph became the first father-son/trainer-jockey combination to win the race.[12] Hayley Turner became the second lady jockey to ride in the race on Cavaleiro. Only nine horses went to post, lowest number since 1907.

Odds for the 2013 Grand National

Selection Previous Odds

Current Odds

 On His Own

12/1 10/1 9/1




16/1 14/1 12/1



 Prince De Beauchene

12/1 11/1 10/1



 Cappa Bleu

20/1 16/1




20/1 16/1 18/1



 Colbert Station




 Chicago Grey

25/1 20/1 18/1



 Join Together

25/1 16/1 20/1









 Balthazar King

33/1 40/1





 Tofino Bay

50/1 33/1



 Rare Bob

66/1 33/1



 Wyck Hill

50/1 33/1 20/1



 Roberto Goldback

25/1 16/1 25/1



 Across The Bay

33/1 40/1



 Imperial Commander


 Quel Esprit






 Harry The Viking


 Lion Na Bearnai






 Big Fella Thanks

40/1 25/1 33/1





 Weird Al


 Oscar Time


 Always Waining




 Any Currency


 Poker de Sivola


 Quiscover Fontaine


 Saint Are


 What A Friend











33/1 50/1



 Auroras Encore


 Bob Lingo




 Bostons Angel


















 Lost Glory


 Mr Moonshine


 Mumbles Head


 Ninetieth Minute




 Swing Bill


 The Rainbow Hunter


 Viking Blond


 Cloudy Lane


 Gullible Gordon


 Major Malarkey




 Mortimers Cross


Each Way Odds » 1/4 Places 1,2,3,4,5

Price Movement Shortening  Shortening Drifting  Drifting

BETSLIPSelections: 0Help

Cheltenham Gold Cup winners

1924 Red Splash 1925 Ballinode 1926 Koko 1927 Thrown In 1928 Patron Saint 1929 Easter Hero 1930 Easter Hero 1931 no race 1932 Golden Miller 1933 Golden Miller 1934 Golden Miller 1935 Golden Miller 1936 Golden Miller 1937 no race 1938 Morse Code 1939 Brendan's Cottage 1940 Roman Hackle 1941 Poet Prince 1942 Medoc II 1943 no race 1944 no race 1945 Red Rower 1946 Prince Regent 1947 Fortina 1948 Cottage Rake 1949 Cottage Rake 1950 Cottage Rake 1951 Silver Fame 1952 Mont Tremblant 1953 Knock Hard 1954 Four Ten 1955 Gay Donald 1956 Limber Hill 1957 Linwell 1958 Kerstin 1959 Roddy Owen 1960 Pas Seul 1961 Saffron Tartan 1962 Mandarin 1963 Mill House 1964 Arkle 1965 Arkle 1966 Arkle 1967 Woodland Venture 1968 Fort Leney 1969 What a Myth 1970 L'Escargot 1971 L'Escargot 1972 Glencaraig Lady 1973 The Dikler 1974 Captain Christy 1975 Ten Up 1976 Royal Frolic 1977 Davy Lad 1978 Midnight Court 1979 Alverton 1980 Master Smudge 1981 Little Owl 1982 Silver Buck 1983 Bregawn 1984 Burrough Hill Lad 1985 Forgive 'n Forget 1986 Dawn Run 1987 The Thinker 1988 Charter Party 1989 Desert Orchid 1990 Norton's Coin 1991 Garrison Savannah 1992 Cool Ground 1993 Jodami 1994 The Fellow 1995 Master Oats 1996 Imperial Call 1997 Mr Mulligan 1998 Cool Dawn 1999 See More Business 2000 Looks Like Trouble 2001 no race 2002 Best Mate 2003 Best Mate 2004 Best Mate 2005 Kicking King 2006 War Of Attrition 2007 Kauto Star 2008 Denman 2009 Kauto Star 2010 Imperial Commander 2011 Long Run 2012 Synchronised

The Grand National is a National Hunt horse race at Aintree Racecourse near Liverpool, England. First held in 1839, it is a handicap steeplechase run over 4 miles and 4 furlongs with horses jumping 30 fences over two circuits.[3] The next Grand National will be held on 6 April 2013.[4]

The Grand National is the most valuable National Hunt event in Britain with a prize fund of £975,000 in 2012[5] and is popular amongst people who do not normally watch or bet on horse racing at other times of the year.[6]

The racecourse is triangular in shape with sixteen fences,[3] all jumped twice except The Chair and the Water Jump. The course has a reputation as the ultimate test of horse and jockey. Most starters fail to complete the two circuits with many falling at Becher's Brook, The Chair and the Canal Turn.

The Grand National has been broadcast live on free-to-air terrestrial television in the United Kingdom since 1960.[7] An estimated 500 to 600 million people watch the Grand National in over 140 countries.[7][8][9]

The last Grand National, in 2012, was won by Neptune Collonges ridden by jockey Daryl Jacob for trainer Paul Nicholls and owner John Hales.

Location Aintree Racecourse

Liverpool, England

Inaugurated 1839

Race type Steeplechase

Sponsor John Smith's


Race information

Distance 4 mi, 3 f, 110 yd

Track Turf, left-handed

Qualification Seven-years-old and up

Rated 120 or more by BHA

Previously placed in a recognised chase of 3 miles or more

Weight Handicap

Maximum: 11 st 10 lb

Purse £975,000 (2012)[1]

Winner: £547,267.50[2]

Grand National Legends

In 2009 the race sponsors John Smith's launched a poll to determine five personalities to be inducted into the inaugural Grand National Legends initiative.[74] The winners were announced on the day of the 2010 Grand National and inscribed on commemorative plaques at Aintree. They were:[75]

Ginger McCain and his record three-time winning horse Red Rum;

John Buckingham and Foinavon, the unlikely winners in 1967;

Manifesto, who holds the record for most runs in the race, eight including two victories;

Jenny Pitman, the first woman to train the winner of the race in 1983; and

Sir Peter O'Sullevan, the commentator who called home the winners of fifty Grand Nationals on radio and television from 1947 to 1997.

A panel of experts also selected three additional legends:[75]

George Stevens, the record five-time winning rider between 1856–1870;

Captain Martin Becher, who played a major part in bringing the National to Liverpool, rode the winner of the first precursor to the National in 1836 and was the first rider to fall into the brook at the sixth fence, which forever took his name after 1839; and

Edward Topham, who was assigned the task of framing the weights for the handicap from 1847 and whose descendants played a major role in the race for the next 125 years.

In 2011, nine additional legends were added:[75]

Bob Champion and Aldaniti, the winners of the 1981 Grand National;

West Tip, who ran in six consecutive Nationals and won once in 1986;

Richard Dunwoody, the jockey who rode West Tip and Miinnehoma to victory and who competed in 14 Grand Nationals, being placed in eight;

Brian Fletcher, a jockey who won the race three times (including Red Rum's first victory in 1973, and finished second once and third three times;

Vincent O'Brien, who trained three consecutive winners of the race in the 1950s;

Tom Olliver, who rode in nineteen Nationals, including seventeen consecutively, and won three times, as well as finishing second three times and third once;

Count Karl Kinsky, the first international winner of the race, and at his first attempt, on board the mare Zoedone in 1883;

Jack Anthony, three-time winning jockey in 1911, 1915 and 1920; and

Peter Bromley, the BBC radio commentator who covered 42 Nationals until his retirement.

John Smith's also added five "people's legends" who were introduced on Liverpool Day, the first day of the Grand National meeting. The five were:[76]

Arthur Ferrie, who worked as a groundsman during the 1970s and 1980s;

Edie Roche, a Melling Road resident, who opened her home to jockeys, spectators and members of the media when the course was evacuated following a bomb threat in 1997;

Ian Stewart, a fan who had travelled from Coventry every year to watch the race and was attending his fiftieth National in 2010;

Police Constable Ken Lawson, who was celebrating thirty-one years of service in the mounted section of Merseyside Police and was set to escort his third National winner in 2010; and

Tony Roberts, whose first visit to the National had been in 1948 and who had steadily spread the word to family and friends about the race, regularly bringing a party of up to thirty people to the course.

A public vote announced at the 2012 Grand National saw five more additions to the Legends hall:

Fred Winter, who rode two National winners and trained two more;

Carl Llewellyn, jockey who won two Nationals including on Party Politics in 1992, and Earth Summit (horse) in 1998, the latter being the only horse to have won the Grand National and the Scottish and Welsh Nationals;

Fred Rimell, the trainer of four different National winning horses, including Nicolaus Silver, one of only three greys to have ever won the race;

Michael Scudamore, rider in sixteen consecutive Grand Nationals from 1951, finishing first in 1959 and also achieving a second and a third place;

Tommy Carberry, the jockey who stopped Red Rum's attempt at a third success in 1975 by winning on L'Escargot, also finished second and third before going on to train the winner in 1999.

The selection panel also inducted three more competitors:

Tommy Pickernell, who rode in seventeen Grand Nationals in the 19th century and won three. He allegedly turned down a substantial bribe during the 1860 race from the second-placed jockey and instead rode on to win;

Battleship, the only horse to have won both the Grand National and the American Grand National, and his jockey Bruce Hobbs, who remains the youngest jockey to win the Aintree race;

George Dockeray, who alongside Ginger McCain and Fred Rimell trained four National winners, starting with Lottery in the first official Grand National in 1839.

Races by year

1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013


Aintree Racecourse Becher's Brook Canal Turn The Chair

Famous horses

Aldaniti Battleship Crisp Devon Loch The Duke E.S.B. Foinavon Golden Miller L'Escargot Lord Gyllene Lottery Peter Simple Red Rum West Tip

Famous jockeys

Jack Anthony Martin Becher Tommy Carberry Bob Champion Richard Dunwoody Brian Fletcher Dick Francis Josh Gifford Bruce Hobbs Count Karl Kinsky Jem Mason Tony McCoy Tom Olliver Ernest Piggott Richard Pitman Ruby Walsh Fred Winter

Other people

Peter Bromley Ginger McCain Vincent O'Brien Michael O'Hehir Peter O'Sullevan Jenny Pitman Fred Rimell Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Lord Oaksey Lord Sefton


List of Grand National winners List of Grand National first four placings List of equine fatalities in the Grand National

The horse (Equus ferus caballus)[2][3] is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus, or the wild horse. It is a single-hooved (ungulate) mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began to domesticate horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. These feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's Horse, a separate subspecies, and the only remaining true wild horse. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, size, colors, markings, breeds, locomotion, and behavior.

Horses' anatomy enables them to make use of speed to escape predators and they have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight instinct. Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for approximately 11 months, and a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training under saddle or in harness between the ages of two and four. They reach full adult development by age five, and have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years.

Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance; "cold bloods", such as draft horses and some ponies, suitable for slow, heavy work; and "warmbloods", developed from crosses between hot bloods and cold bloods, often focusing on creating breeds for specific riding purposes, particularly in Europe. There are over 300 breeds of horses in the world today, developed for many different uses.

Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture, entertainment, and therapy. Horses were historically used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control. Many products are derived from horses, including meat, milk, hide, hair, bone, and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food, water and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers.

The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses, known for their agility, speed and spirit.

The Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian, Barb, and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions originally imported into England in the 17th century and 18th century, and to a larger number of foundation mares of mostly English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world; they were imported into North America starting in 1730 and into Australia, Europe, Japan and South America during the 19th century. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, and more than 118,000 foals are registered each year worldwide.

Thoroughbreds are used mainly for racing, but are also bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage, polo, and fox hunting. They are also commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, and have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Standardbred, Anglo-Arabian, and various warmblood breeds.

Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs, low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof to body mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, and research continues.

Horse breeds


Abaco Barb, see Barb horse


Abyssinian horse



Albanian horse

Altai horse

Altèr Real, see Lusitano

American Cream Draft

American Indian Horse

American Paint Horse

American Quarter Horse

American Saddlebred

American Warmblood

Andalusian horse some bloodlines also called Pura Raza Española (PRE) or Pure Spanish-bred

Andravida horse


Anglo-Arabo-Sardo, see Sardinian Anglo-Arab



"Appendix," see American Quarter Horse

AraAppaloosa, also called Ara-Appaloosa, Arappaloosa or Araloosa

Arabian horse

Ardennes horse, or Ardennais


Argentine Criollo, see Criollo horse


Australian Brumby, see Brumby

Australian Draught Horse

Australian Stock Horse

Austrian Warmblood

Auvergne horse


Avelignese, see Haflinger

Azerbaijan horse

Azteca horse

Baise horse, also known as Guangxi

Balearic horse, see Mallorquín and Menorquín

Balikun horse

Baluchi horse


Banker Horse

Barb horse


Bashkir Curly, see Curly horse

Basque Mountain Horse

Bavarian Warmblood

Belgian (horse)

Belgian Warmblood (includes Belgian Half-blood)

Black Forest Horse, also called Black Forest cold blood or Schwarzwälder Kaltblut

Blazer horse

Boulonnais horse

Brabant, see Belgian (horse)


Brazilian Sport Horse (Brasileiro de Hipismo)

Breton horse, or Trait Breton


Budyonny horse or Budenny

Burguete horse

Byelorussian Harness

Calabrese horse

Camargue horse

Camarillo White Horse


Canadian horse

Canadian Pacer

Carolina Marsh Tacky

Carthusian horse, see Andalusian horse

Caspian horse

Castilian horse


Catria horse

Cavallo Romano della Maremma Laziale

Chickasaw Horse, see Florida Cracker Horse

Chilean Corralero

Chilean Horse

Choctaw Horse

Cleveland Bay

Clydesdale horse

Colonial Spanish Horse, see Types of Horse, below

Colorado Ranger

Coldblood trotter

Comtois horse

Costa Rican Saddle Horse

Cretan horse, see Messara

Criollo horse, also spelled Crioulo

Cuban Criollo horse

Curly Horse

Czech warm blood


Daliboz, see Azerbaijan horse

Danish Warmblood

Danube Delta horse

Dole Gudbrandsdal, also called Dole,

or Dølahest

Don, see Russian Don

Draft Trotter, also called Light Dole, Dole Trotter, see Coldblood trotter

Dutch harness horse

Dutch Heavy Draft

Dutch Warmblood

East Bulgarian

East Friesian horse, see Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger

Estonian Draft

Estonian horse


Faroese or Faroe horse, see Faroe pony in pony section

Finnhorse, or Finnish Horse

Fleuve, see Fouta

Fjord horse also called Norwegian Fjord Horse

Florida Cracker Horse

Fouta or Foutanké

Frederiksborg horse


French Trotter

Friesian cross (includes Friesian Sport Horses)

Friesian horse

Friesian Sporthorse (a type of Friesian cross)

Furioso-North Star

Galiceno or Galiceño

Galician Pony (Caballo de pura raza Gallega)

Gelderland horse

Georgian Grande Horse

German Warmblood or ZfDP, see Types section, below

Giara Horse


Groningen Horse

Gypsy Vanner horse, sometimes called "Gypsy Horse," "Vanner Horse," "Gypsy Cob" or "Coloured Cob"

Hackney horse


Hanoverian horse

Heck horse

Heihe horse



Hispano-Árabe also known as Hispano or Spanish Anglo-Arab

Holsteiner horse

Hungarian Warmblood

Icelandic horse

Indian Half-Bred


Irish Draught, also spelled Irish Draft

Irish Sport Horse sometimes called Irish Hunter

Italian Heavy Draft

Italian Trotter

Jaca Navarra

Jutland horse

Kabarda horse, also known as Kabardian or Kabardin

Kaimanawa horses


Karabakh horse also known as Azer At

Karossier see Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger


Kazakh Horse

Kentucky Mountain Saddle Horse

Kiger Mustang

Kinsky horse

Kisber Felver






Latvian horse

Lipizzan or Lipizzaner

Lithuanian Heavy Draught


Losino horse


Lyngshest, see Nordlandshest/ Lyngshest

M'Bayar, see Fouta




Mangalarga Marchador


Marismeño horse

Marsh Tacky, see Carolina Marsh Tacky

Marwari horse



Mérens horse


Mezőhegyesi sport-horse (sportló), or

Mezőhegyes felver, see Hungarian Warmblood

Metis Trotter, see Russian Trotter

Miniature horse

Misaki, see pony section

Missouri Fox Trotter


Mongolian Horse



Morgan horse

Moyle horse

Murakoz horse, Muräkozi, or Muraközi ló (Hungary)


Mustang horse

Namib Desert Horse

Nangchen horse

National Show Horse

Nez Perce Horse


Nokota horse

Noma, see Noma pony, in Pony section

Nonius horse

Nordlandshest/ Lyngshest

Noriker horse, also called Pinzgauer

Norman Cob

Norsk Kaldblodstraver (Norwegian coldblood trotter), see Coldblood trotter

North Swedish Horse

Norwegian Fjord, see Fjord horse


Oberlander Horse

Oldenburg horse, also spelled Oldenburgh, Oldenburger

Orlov trotter

Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger

Paint, see American Paint Horse

Pampa horse

Paso Fino

Pentro horse


Persano horse

Peruvian Paso, sometimes called Peruvian Stepping Horse


Pleven horse

Poitevin horse also called Mulassier

Pottok, see pony section

Pryor Mountain Mustang

Przewalski's Horse, also known as Takhi, Mongolian Wild Horse or Asian Wild Horse. (Species, not a "breed" but listed here for convenience)

Purosangue Orientale



Quarter Horse, see American Quarter Horse

Racking horse

Retuerta horse

Rhenish-German Cold-Blood also known as Rhineland

Heavy Draft

Rhinelander horse

Riwoche horse

Rocky Mountain Horse

Romanian Sporthorse

Rottaler, see Heavy warmblood

Russian Don

Russian Heavy Draft

Russian Trotter


Saddlebred, see American Saddlebred

Salerno horse

Samolaco horse

San Fratello horse

Sarcidano horse

Sardinian Anglo-Arab, also known as Sardinian Horse

Sella Italiano

Selle Français

Shagya Arabian

Shire horse

Siciliano indigeno

Silesian horse


Sokolsky horse

Soviet Heavy Draft

Spanish Jennet Horse, modern, not to be confused with the historic Jennet or Spanish Jennet (see Archaic types, below)

Spanish Mustang

Spanish-Norman horse

Spanish Tarpan, see Sorraia

Spotted Saddle horse

Standardbred horse

Suffolk Punch

Svensk Kallblodstravare (Swedish coldblood trotter), see Coldblood trotter

Swedish Ardennes

Swedish Warmblood

Swiss Warmblood



Tchernomor, see Budyonny horse

Tennessee Walking Horse

Tersk horse


Tinker horse, see Gypsy Vanner horse

Tiger Horse


Tori horse

Trait Du Nord


Tuigpaard, see Dutch harness horse

Ukrainian Riding Horse

Unmol Horse


Ventasso horse (Cavallo Del Ventasso)

Virginia highlander


Vladimir Heavy Draft

Vyatka, see pony section

Waler horse, also known as Waler or Australian



Warmblood, see "Types of horse" below, or

individual warmblood breed articles


Welsh Cob (Section D), see Welsh pony

Westphalian horse


Württemberger or Württemberg

Xilingol horse

Yakutian horse

Yili horse

Yonaguni horse


Žemaitukas, also known as Zemaituka, Zhumd,

Zhemaichu, or Zhmudk, see Pony section.

Pony breeds

Main article: Pony

Ponies are usually classified as members of Equus caballus that mature at less than 14.2 hands. However, some pony breeds may occasionally have individuals who mature over 14.2 but retain all other breed characteristics. There are also some breeds that now frequently mature over 14.2 hands due to modern nutrition and management, yet retain the historic classification "pony." For the purposes of this list, if a breed registry classifies the breed as a "pony," it is listed here as such, even if some individuals have horse characteristics.

(Please note: Because of this designation by the preference of a given breed registry, most miniature horse breeds are listed as "horses," not ponies)


American Shetland, see Shetland pony

American Walking Pony

Anadolu pony also called Anadolu Ati

Ariegeois Pony see Mérens horse in horse section

Assateague Pony, see Chincoteague Pony

Asturian pony, see Asturcon in horse section

Australian Pony

Australian Riding Pony

Bali Pony

Bashkir Pony

Basque Pony, see Pottok

Basuto pony, also spelled Basotho pony

Batak Pony

Bhutia Pony, also Bhotia, Bhote ghoda, Bhutan, Bhutani, Bhutua see Indian Country Bred

Boer Pony

Bosnian Pony

British Riding Pony, see Riding Pony in "types of horse" section

British Spotted Pony

Burmese Pony

Carpathian Pony, see Hucul Pony

Canadian rustic pony

Caspian pony, see Caspian horse

Chincoteague Pony

Chinese Guoxia

Coffin Bay Pony

Connemara pony

Czechoslovakian Small Riding Pony

Dales Pony

Danish Sport Pony

Dartmoor pony

Deli pony

Deutsches Reitpony see German Riding Pony

Dülmen Pony

Eriskay pony

Esperia Pony

Exmoor pony

Falabella, see Falabella in horse section

Faroe pony

Fell Pony

Flores pony, see Timor Pony

French Saddle Pony

Galician Pony



German Riding Pony, also called Deutsche Reitpony

or Weser-Ems Pony

Gotland Pony

Guizhou pony

Guangxi, see Baise horse

Gǔo-xìa pony, see Chinese Guoxia

Hackney pony

Highland Pony, see also Garron

Hokkaido Pony

Hucul Pony

Hunter Pony, see "types of horse" section

Icelandic pony, see Icelandic horse in horse section

Indian Country Bred

Java Pony

Kerry bog pony


Landais Pony

Lijiang pony

Lundy Pony

Manipuri Pony

Merens Pony, see Ariegeois pony

Miniature horse, see horse section


Miyako Pony

Narym Pony

New Forest Pony

Newfoundland pony

Noma pony

Nooitgedacht pony

Northlands Pony, see Nordlandshest in the horse section

Ob pony also called Priob pony

Peneia Pony

Petiso Argentino

Pindos Pony

Poney Mousseye

Pony of the Americas


Quarter pony

Riding Pony, see "types of

horses" section

Sable Island Pony

Sandalwood Pony

Sardinian Pony, see Sardinian horse

Shetland pony

Skogsruss, see Gotland Pony

Skyros Pony

Spiti Pony, see Indian Country Bred

Sumba and Sumbawa Pony

Tibetan Pony

Timor Pony

Tokara Pony

Virginia highlander, see horse section

Vyatka horse


Welsh pony

Welsh mountain pony (Section A), see

Welsh Pony

Welsh pony (Section B), see Welsh Pony

Welsh pony of cob type (Section C),

see Welsh Pony

Western Sudan pony

Yakut Pony, see Yakutian horse

Yonaguni, see horse section

Zaniskari pony

Žemaitukas, also known as Zemaituka,

Zhumd, Zhemaichu, or Zhmudka

Basic coat colors

Bay (left) and chestnut (right) mustangs.

Genetically, all horses start out as either chestnut, called "red" by geneticists, represented by the absence of the extension gene ("e"); or black based on the presence of the extension gene ("E"). Therefore, red ("ee") and black ("EE" or "Ee") are the two base colors. The Bay color is expressed when the common genetic modifier, the Agouti gene works on the Black. The vast range of all other coat colors are created by additional genes action upon one of these three coat colors.

Statistically, the most commonly seen horse color phenotypes are identified by the following terms:

Bay: Body color ranges from a light reddish-brown to very dark brown with "black points." (Points refer to the mane, tail, and lower legs). The main color variations are:

Dark bay: very dark red or brown hair, difficult to distinguish from seal brown. Sometimes also called "black bay," "mahogany bay," or "brown."

Blood bay: bright red hair; often considered simply "bay."

Brown: The word "brown" is used by some breed registries to describe dark bays. There is a distinct allele that darkens a bay coat to seal brown (At), but it is not the cause of all forms of dark bay. Informally, "brown" is applied to many distinct coat colors. Most often, horses described by casual observers as "brown" are actually bay or chestnut. In the absence of DNA testing, chestnut and bay can be distinguished from each other by looking at the mane, tail and legs for the presence of black points.

Chestnut: A reddish body color with no black. Mane and tail are the same shade or lighter than the body coat. The main color variations are:

Liver chestnut: very dark brown coat. Sometimes a liver chestnut is also simply called "brown."

Sorrel: Reddish-tan to red coat, about the color of a new penny. The most common shade of chestnut.

Blond or light chestnut: seldom-used term for lighter tan coat with pale mane and tail that is not quite a dun.

A dapple gray

Gray: A horse with black skin but white or mixed dark and white hairs. Gray horses can be born any color, and lighten as they age. Most will eventually gray out to either a complete white or a "fleabitten" hair coat. Most "white" horses are actually grays with a fully white hair coat. A gray horse is distinguished from a white horse by dark skin, particularly noticeable around the eyes, muzzle, flanks, and other areas of thin or no hair. Variations of gray that a horse may exhibit over its lifetime include:

Salt and Pepper or "steel" gray: Usually a younger horse, an animal with white and dark hairs evenly intermixed over most of the body.

Dapple gray: a dark-colored horse with lighter rings of graying hairs, called dapples, scattered throughout.

Fleabitten gray: an otherwise fully white-haired horse that develops red hairs flecked throughout the coat.

Rose gray: a gray horse with a reddish or pinkish tinge to its coat. This color occurs with a horse born bay or chestnut while the young horse is "graying out."

[edit]Other coat colors

A black horse

Black: Black is relatively uncommon, though not "rare." There are two types of black, fading black and non-fading black. Most black horses will fade to a brownish color if the horse is exposed to sunlight on a regular basis. Non-fading black is a blue-black shade that does not fade in the sun. Genetically, the two cannot yet be differentiated, and some claim the difference occurs due to management rather than genetics, though this claim is hotly disputed. Most black foals are usually born a mousy grey or dun color. As their foal coat begins to shed out, their black color will show through, though in some breeds black foals are born jet black. For a horse to be considered black, it must be completely black except for white markings. A sun-bleached black horse is still black, even though it may appear to be a dark bay or brown. A visible difference between a true black and a dark chestnut or bay is seen in the fine hairs around the eyes and muzzle; on a true black these hairs are black, even if the horse is sun-bleached, on other colors, they will be lighter.

Brindle - One of the rarest colors in horses, possibly linked to chimerism. Characteristics are any color with "zebra-like" stripes, but most common is a brown horse with faint yellowish markings.

A buckskin

Buckskin- A bay horse with one copy of the cream gene, a dilution gene that 'dilutes' or fades the coat color to a yellow, cream, or gold while keeping the black points (mane, tail, legs).

Champagne: Produced by a different dilution gene than the cream gene. It lightens both skin and hair, but creates a metallic gold coat color with mottled skin and light colored eyes. Champagne horses are often confused with palomino, cremello, dun, or buckskins.

Cream dilution, an incomplete dominant gene that produces a partially diluted coat color with one copy of the allele and a full dilution with two copies. Colors produced include Palomino, Buckskin, Perlino, Cremello and Smoky Cream or Smoky black.

Cremello - A horse with a chestnut base coat and two cream genes that wash out almost all color until the horse is a pale cream or light tan color. Often called "white," they are not truly white horses, and they do not carry the white (W) gene. A cremello usually has blue eyes.

Dun: Yellowish or tan coat with primitive markings, sometimes called "dun factors:" a darker-colored mane and tail, a dorsal stripe along the back and occasionally faint horizontal zebra stripings on the upper legs and a possible transverse stripe across the withers. There are several variations of dun:

Grullo, Grulla, or Blue Dun: A horse with a black base color and the dun gene. Coat is solid "mouse-colored" gray or silver with black or dark gray primitive markings.

Red dun: A chestnut base coat with dun factors. Coat is usually pale yellow or tan with chestnut (red) primitive markings.

"Bay dun" or "Zebra dun" are terms sometimes used to describe the classic dun color of yellow or tan with black primitive markings, used when necessary to distinguish it from red duns or grullos.

"Buckskin dun" or "Yellow dun" describes a dun that also carries the cream gene dilution and has a coat of pale gold with black mane, tail, legs and primitive markings.

Leopard: There are a group of coat patterns caused by the leopard gene complex. It should be noted that not every horse with leopard genetics will exhibit hair coat spotting. However, even solid individuals will exhibit secondary characteristics such as vertically striped hooves, mottled skin around the eyes, lips, and genitalia, plus a white sclera of the eye. Several breeds of horse can boast leopard-spotted (a term used collectively for all patterns) individuals including the Knabstrupper, Noriker, and the Appaloosa. There are several distinct leopard patterns:

blanket: white over the hip that may extend from the tail to the base of the neck. The spots inside the blanket (if present) are the same color as the horse's base coat.

varnish roan: a mix of body and white hairs that extends over the entire body—no relation to true roan

snowflake: white spots on a dark body. Typically the white spots increase in number and size as the horse ages.

leopard: dark spots of varying sizes over a white body.

few spot leopard: a nearly white horse from birth that retains color just above the hooves, the knees, 'armpits', mane and tail, wind pipe, and face

frost: similar to varnish but the white hairs are limited to the back, loins, and neck.

A palomino

Palomino: chestnut horse that has one cream dilution gene that turns the horse to a golden, yellow, or tan shade with a flaxen or white mane and tail. Often cited as being a color "within three shades of a newly minted gold coin," palominos range in shades from extremely light, almost cremello, to deep chocolate, but always with a white or flaxen mane and tail.

Pearl: Also called the "barlink factor," A dilution gene that when homozygous, lightens red coats to a uniform apricot-like color, often also resulting in horses with blue eyes. When combined with cream dilution, may produce horses that appear to be cremello or perlino.

Perlino: similar to a cremello, but is genetically a bay base coat with two dilute genes. Eyes are blue. Mane, tail and points are not black, but are usually darker than the body coat, generally a reddish or rust color, not to be confused with a red dun.

Pinto: a multi-colored horse with large patches of brown, white, and/or black and white. Variations include:

Piebald: a black and white spotting pattern (term more commonly used in the UK than the USA)

Skewbald: a spotting pattern of white and any other color other than black, or a spotting pattern of white and two other colors, which may include black. (term more commonly used in the UK than the USA).

Overo: Describes a group of spotting patterns genetically distinct from one another, characterized by sharp, irregular markings with a horizontal orientation, usually more dark than white. In some cases, the face is usually white, often with blue eyes. The white rarely crosses the back, and the lower legs are normally dark. Variations include "Frame Overo" and "Splashed white." Sometimes Sabino below is also classified in the overo family.

Sabino: Often confused with roan or rabicano, a slight spotting pattern characterized by high white on legs, belly spots, white markings on the face extending past the eyes and/or patches of roaning patterns standing alone or on the edges of white markings

Tobiano: Spotting pattern characterized by rounded markings with white legs and white across the back between the withers and the dock of the tail, usually arranged in a roughly vertical pattern and more white than dark, with the head usually dark and with markings like that of a normal horse. i.e. star, snip, strip, or blaze.

Tovero: spotting pattern that is a mix of tobiano and overo coloration, such as blue eyes on a dark head. May also refer to horses with Tobiano coloring that carry a recessive overo gene.

Paint: pinto horses with known Quarter Horse and/or Thoroughbred bloodlines. This is a separate breed of horse.

Left to right: A young gray (with few white hairs), a chestnut, and a bay roan

Rabicano: A roan-like effect that is caused by a genetic modifier that creates a mealy, splotchy, or roaning pattern on only part of the body, usually limited to the underside, flanks, legs, and tail head areas. Unlike a true roan, much of the body will not have white hairs intermingled with solid ones, nor are the legs or head significantly darker than the rest of the horse.

Roan: a color pattern that causes white hairs to be evenly intermixed within the horse's body color. Roans are distinguishable from greys because roans typically do not change color in their lifetimes, unlike gray that gradually gets lighter as a horse ages. Roans also have heads that are either solid-colored or much darker than their body hair, and do not lighten. Variations of roan include:

Red Roan: A chestnut base coat with roaning pattern with the mane and tail being the same red as the body. Red roans are also commonly referred to as a Strawberry Roan, and the term Red Roan is occasionally is used to describe a Bay Roan.[1]

Bay Roan: A Bay base coat with roaning pattern (the mane and tail of the Bay Roan will be Black). Bay roans are sometimes also called Red Roans.[1]

Blue Roan: A black with roaning pattern, not to be confused with a gray or a blue dun/grullo. A roan tends to have a darker head, while grays not only lighten with age, but their heads tend to lighten before the rest of their bodies. A blue roan has mixed-color hairs, a blue dun will usually be a solid color and have dun striping.

Silver dapple horses

Silver dapple: Caused by a dilution gene that only acts upon black hair pigment, it lightens black body hair to a chocolate brown and the mane and tail to silver. The gene may be carried but will not be visible on horses with a red base coat. Silver dapple horses may also be called Chocolate, Flax, or Taffy.

Smoky black: Horse visually appears to be either a black with a mildly bleached-out coat or a dull dark bay, but is actually has a black base coat and one copy of the cream gene.

Smoky Cream: Virtually indistinguishable from a cremello or perlino without DNA testing, a horse with a black base coat and two copies of the cream gene.

White : One of the rarest colors, a white horse has white hair and fully or largely unpigmented (pink) skin. These horses are born white, with blue or brown eyes, and remain white for life. The vast majority of so-called "white" horses are actually grays with a fully white hair coat. A truly white horse that lives to adulthood occurs one of two ways: either by inheriting one copy of a dominant white ("W") gene, of which several have been identified, or is a particular type of sabino that is homozygous for the "SB-1" gene. However, a foal with the genetic disease known as Lethal white syndrome dies shortly after birth.[2] There are no "albinos" in the horse world. Albino, defined as animals with a white coat with pink skin and reddish eyes, is created by genetic mechanisms that do not exist in horses.[3] In some cases, homozygous dominant white is thought to be an embryonic lethal, though this has not been established for all white horses.

List of British National Hunt races

A list of notable National Hunt horse races which take place annually in Great Britain, under the authority of the British Horseracing Authority, including all races which currently hold Grade 1, 2 or 3 status.

November Betfair Chase Chase Haydock  3m 5yo +

November Fighting Fifth Hurdle Hurdle Newcastle  2m 4yo +

December Tingle Creek Chase Chase Sandown  2m 4yo +

December Long Walk Hurdle Hurdle Ascot  3m 1f 4yo +

December Christmas Hurdle Hurdle Kempton  2m 4yo +

December King George VI Chase Chase Kempton  3m 4yo +

December Feltham Novices' Chase Chase Kempton  3m 4yo +

December Finale Juvenile Hurdle Hurdle Chepstow  2m ½f 3yo

Dec / Jan Challow Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Newbury  2m 5f 4yo +

January Tolworth Hurdle Hurdle Sandown  2m ½f 4yo +

January Victor Chandler Chase Chase Ascot  2m 1f 5yo +

Jan / Feb Scilly Isles Novices' Chase Chase Sandown  2m 4½f 5yo +

February Ascot Chase Chase Ascot  2m 5½f 5yo +

March Supreme Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  2m ½f 4yo +

March Arkle Challenge Trophy Chase Cheltenham  2m 5yo +

March Champion Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  2m ½f 4yo +

March Neptune Investment Management Hurdle 


Cheltenham  2m 5f 4yo +

March RSA Chase Chase Cheltenham  3m ½f 5yo +

March Queen Mother Champion Chase Chase Cheltenham  2m 5yo +

March Champion Bumper Flat Cheltenham  2m ½f  4–6yo

March Ryanair Chase Chase Cheltenham  2m 5f 5yo +

March World Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  3m 4yo +

March Triumph Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  2m 1f 4yo

March Spa Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  3m 4yo +

March Cheltenham Gold Cup Chase Cheltenham  3m 2½f 5yo +

April Liverpool Hurdle Hurdle Aintree  3m ½f 4yo +

April Anniversary 4-Y-O Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Aintree  2m ½f 4yo

April Totesport Bowl Chase Aintree  3m 1f 5yo +

April Melling Chase Chase Aintree  2m 4f 5yo +

April Sefton Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Aintree  3m ½f 4yo +

April Maghull Novices' Chase Chase Aintree  2m 5yo +

April Aintree Hurdle Hurdle Aintree  2m 4f 4yo +

Grade 2

October Persian War Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Chepstow  2m 4f 4yo +

October Old Roan Chase Chase Aintree  2m 4f 4yo +

Oct / Nov West Yorkshire Hurdle Hurdle Wetherby  3m 1f 4yo +

Oct / Nov Charlie Hall Chase Chase Wetherby  3m 1f 5yo +

Oct / Nov Haldon Gold Cup Chase Exeter  2m 1½f 4yo +

November Rising Stars Novices' Chase Chase Wincanton  2m 5f 4yo +

November Elite Hurdle Hurdle Wincanton  2m 4yo +

November Sharp Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  2m ½f 4yo +

November Prestbury Juvenile Novices' Hurdle 


Cheltenham  2m ½f 3yo

November November Novices' Chase Chase Cheltenham  2m 4yo +

November Hyde Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  2m 5f 4yo +

November Amlin 1965 Chase Chase Ascot  2m 3f 4yo +

November Ascot Hurdle Hurdle Ascot  2m 3½f 4yo +

Nov / Dec Worcester Novices' Chase Chase Newbury  3m 4yo +

Nov / Dec Berkshire Novices' Chase Chase Newbury  2m 4f 4yo +

Nov / Dec Long Distance Hurdle Hurdle Newbury  3m ½f 4yo +

Nov / Dec Peterborough Chase Chase Huntingdon  2m 4½f 4yo +

December Winter Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Sandown  2m 4½f 4yo +

December Henry VIII Novices' Chase Chase Sandown  2m 4yo +

December Relkeel Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  2m 4½f 4yo +

December International 


Cheltenham  2m 1f 4yo +

December Bristol Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  3m 4yo +

December December Novices' Chase Chase Lingfield  3m 4yo +

December Summit Junior Hurdle Hurdle Lingfield  2m ½f 3yo

December Kennel Gate Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Ascot  2m 4yo +

December Noel Novices' Chase Chase Ascot  2m 3f 4yo +

December Championship Standard Open NHF Race Flat Ascot  2m  4–6yo

December Wayward Lad Novices' Chase Chase Kempton  2m 4yo +

December Desert Orchid Chase Chase Kempton  2m 4yo +

January Dipper Novices' Chase Chase Cheltenham  2m 5f 5yo +

January Leamington Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Warwick  2m 5f 4yo +

January Warfield Mares' Hurdle Hurdle Ascot  3m 4yo +

January Holloway's Hurdle Hurdle Ascot  2m 3½f 4yo +

January Rossington Main Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Haydock  2m ½f 4yo +

January Altcar Novices' Chase Chase Haydock  2m 4f 5yo +

January Champion Hurdle Trial Hurdle Haydock  2m ½f 4yo +

January Peter Marsh Chase Chase Haydock  3m 5yo +

January Finesse Juvenile Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  2m 1f 4yo

January Cotswold Chase Chase Cheltenham  3m 1½f 5yo +

January Classic Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  2m 4½f 4yo +

January Cleeve Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  3m 5yo +

Jan / Feb River Don Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Doncaster  3m ½f 4yo +

Jan / Feb Lightning Novices' Chase Chase Doncaster  2m ½f 5yo +

Jan / Feb Doncaster Mares' Hurdle Hurdle Doncaster  2m ½f 4yo +

Jan / Feb Towton Novices' Chase Chase Wetherby  3m 1f 5yo +

February Kingmaker Novices' Chase Chase Warwick  2m 5yo +

February Aon Chase Chase Newbury  3m 5yo +

February Game Spirit Chase Chase Newbury  2m 1f 5yo +

February Winter Bumper Flat Newbury  2m ½f  4–6yo

February Reynoldstown Novices' Chase Chase Ascot  3m 5yo +

February Rendlesham Hurdle Hurdle Haydock  3m 1f 4yo +

February Prestige Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Haydock  3m 1f 4yo +

February Kingwell Hurdle Hurdle Wincanton  2m 4yo +

February Adonis Juvenile Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Kempton  2m 4yo

February Pendil Novices' Chase Chase Kempton  2m 4½f 5yo +

February Dovecote Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Kempton  2m 4yo+

February National Spirit Hurdle Hurdle Fontwell  2m 4f 4yo +

Feb / March Premier Kelso Hurdle Hurdle Kelso  2m 2f 4yo +

March David Nicholson Mares' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  2m 4f 4yo +

March Jewson Novices' Chase Chase Cheltenham  2m 4f 5yo +

April Manifesto Novices' Chase Chase Aintree  2m 4f 5yo +

April Top Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Aintree  2m ½f 4yo +

April Mildmay Novices' Chase Chase Aintree  3m 1f 5yo +

April Mersey Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Aintree  2m 4f 4yo +

April Champion Standard Open NH Flat Race Flat Aintree  2m 1f  4–6yo

April Silver Trophy Chase Chase Cheltenham  2m 5f 5yo +

April Future Champion Novices' Chase Chase Ayr  2m 4f 5yo +

April Scottish Champion Hurdle Hurdle Ayr  2m 4yo +

April Celebration Chase Chase Sandown  2m 5yo +

Grade 3

November Morson Group Handicap Chase Chase Cheltenham  3m 3½f 4yo +

November Paddy Power Gold Cup Chase Cheltenham  2m 4½f 4yo +

November Greatwood Handicap Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham  2m ½f 4yo +

Nov / Dec Hennessy Gold Cup Chase Newbury  3m 2½f 4yo +

December Gold Cup Chase Cheltenham  2m 5f 4yo +

December Rowland Meyrick Handicap Chase Chase Wetherby  3m 1f 4yo +

December Welsh National Chase Chepstow  3m 5½f 4yo +

January Chase Chase Cheltenham  2m 5f 5yo +

January Classic Chase Chase Warwick  3m 5f 5yo +

January Betfair Trophy Chase Chase Cheltenham  2m 5f 5yo +

Jan / Feb Heroes Handicap Hurdle Hurdle Sandown  2m 6f 4yo +

February Totesport Trophy Hurdle Newbury  2m ½f 4yo +

February Grand National Trial Chase Haydock  3m 4f 5yo +

February Racing Post Chase Chase Kempton  3m 5yo +

Feb / March Greatwood Gold Cup Chase Newbury  2m 4f 5yo +

March Paddy Power Novices' Handicap Hurdle 


Sandown  2m 4f  4–7yo

March Festival Trophy Handicap Chase Chase Cheltenham  3m ½f 5yo +

March Coral Cup Hurdle Cheltenham  2m 5f 4yo +

March Fred Winter Juvenile Novices' Hurdle 


Cheltenham  2m ½f 4yo

March Byrne Group Plate Chase Cheltenham  2m 5f 5yo +

March Vincent O'Brien County Handicap Hurdle 


Cheltenham  2m 1f 5yo +

March Johnny Henderson Grand Annual Chase 


Cheltenham  2m ½f 5yo +

April Red Rum Handicap Chase Chase Aintree  2m 5yo +

April John Smith's Handicap Hurdle Hurdle Aintree  3m ½f 4yo +

April Grand National Chase Aintree  4m 4f 6yo +

April Scottish Grand National Chase Ayr  4m 1f 5yo +

April Bet365 Gold Cup Chase Sandown  3m 5½f 5yo +

May Swinton Handicap Hurdle Hurdle Haydock  2m 4yo +

Selected other races


November Becher Chase Chase Aintree  3m 2f 5yo +

December Castleford Chase Chase Wetherby  2m 5yo +

January Lanzarote Hurdle Hurdle Kempton  2m 5f 4yo +

Jan / Feb Contenders Hurdle Hurdle Sandown  2m ½f 5yo +

February Eider Chase Chase Newcastle  4m 1f 5yo +

March Imperial Cup Hurdle Sandown  2m 4yo +

March Glenfarclas Cross Country Chase Chase Cheltenham  3m 7f 5yo +

March Centenary Novices' Handicap Chase 


Cheltenham  2m 5f 5yo +

March National Hunt Chase Challenge Cup 



4m 5yo +

March Pertemps Final Hurdle Cheltenham  3m 5yo +

March Fulke Walwyn Kim Muir Challenge Cup 


Cheltenham  3m 1½f 5yo +

March Christie's Foxhunter Chase Chase Cheltenham  3m 2½f 5yo +

March Martin Pipe Conditional Jockeys' Hurdle 


Cheltenham  2m 4½f 4yo +

March Midlands Grand National Chase Uttoxeter  4m 1f 5yo +


Last Run

Jan 2006 Churchill Road Hurdle Hurdle Lingfield  2m 3½f 4yo +

March 2004 Cathcart Challenge Cup Chase Cheltenham  2m 5f 5yo +

List of historical horses


Adios, leading sire of harness racehorses

Adios Butler, famous harness racer

Affirmed, last horse to win the U.S. Triple Crown (1978)

Ajax, 18 consecutive race wins, before he was defeated at 1/40.

Albatross, harness racer who won 59 of 71 races, and as a sire produced winners of over $130 million, including Niatross

Allez France, French Arc winner and first filly to win a million dollars

Alydar, finished second to Affirmed in all three Triple Crown races, and one of the great sires in North American history

Aristides, winner of the first Kentucky Derby

Arkle, reckoned the greatest steeplechaser of all time

Assault, U.S. Triple Crown winner (1946)

Best Mate, 2002, 2003 and 2004 Cheltenham Gold Cup winner, often given title 'Greatest Steeplechaser' since Arkle, and an equal to him

Big Brown, 2008 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes winner, first horse since Clyde Van Dusen to win the Kentucky Derby from the 20th post position


Bret Hanover one of only nine pacers to win the Triple Crown of Harness Racing for Pacers and he had 62 wins from 68 starts. The only horse to have even been made Harness Horse of the Year three times.

Buckpasser, won 15 consecutive races, and one of the greatest broodmare sires in history

Bulle Rock in 1730 was the first Thoroughbred imported into America.

Carbine, outstanding racehorse and sire. Winner of the Melbourne Cup

Cardigan Bay, New Zealand's "million dollar pacer", the first to win a million in the US; appeared on the Ed Sullivan Show

Cigar, a great champion in the 1990s who won 16 consecutive races

Citation, U.S. Triple Crown winner (1948)

Crisp, remembered for his epic race in the Grand National with Red Rum

Curlin, the richest North American-based horse of all time

Dan Patch, America's greatest pacer

Dawn Run, great racemare and the only horse ever to complete Champion Hurdle, Cheltenham Gold Cup double

Deep Impact, Japanese horse who smashed the world record over 3200 metres

Desert Gold, racemare who won 19 races successive races during World War I.

Desert Orchid, won King George four times and Cheltenham Gold Cup; national icon and beautiful grey loved by children

Easy Goer, Hall of Fame champion who ran the fastest mile of all time on dirt by any three year old thoroughbred in 1:32.2, and ran the second fastest Belmont Stakes of all time behind Secretariat. Great rivalry with Sunday Silence

Eight Belles, the first filly to win the Martha Washington Stakes, by a record 13½ lengths.

Eclipse, celebrated 18th century racehorse that won 18 races in 18 starts and was a very influential sire

Exterminator exceedingly popular, "iron horse" of American racing history

Funny Cide, first gelding since Clyde Van Dusen to win the Kentucky Derby

Genuine Risk, the second filly to win the Kentucky Derby (1980)

Gloaming, won 19 successive races in New Zealand and Australia.

Goldsmith Maid, famous harness racing mare of the 19th century[1]

Go Man Go, a Champion Running Quarter Horse

Greyhound, named trotting horse of the century in the US

Hambletonian 10, known as the "father of American trotting"

Iroquois was the first American-bred racehorse to win the prestigious Epsom Derby

John Henry, U.S. Champion Turf Horse (1980, 1981, 1983, 1984)

Kelso, only five-time winner of U.S. Horse of the Year

Kincsem, Hungarian racemare and most successful racehorse ever, winning all 54 starts in five countries

Kindergarten, weighted more than Phar Lap in the Melbourne Cup

Kingston Town, "the King", won three Cox Plates

Kissin George one of America's premier sprinting Thoroughbred racehorses.

Lady Suffolk, the "old gray mare", the first horse to beat the 2.5 minute mile[2][3]

La Troienne, most important broodmare of the twentieth century

Lexington, America's leading 19th Century sire

Longfellow, 19th century's great runner and great stallion

Lottery, winner of the Grand National steeplechase in 1839

Makybe Diva, won Melbourne Cup three successive times

Master Charlie, winner 1924 Remsen Stakes, Tijuana Futurity, Hopeful Stakes, Kentucky Jockey Club Stakes, awarded 1924 American Champion Two-Year-Old-Male/Colt

Man o' War, often considered America's greatest racehorse; won 20 of 21 career starts

Might and Power World Champion Stayer (1997); Australian Horse of the Year (1998, 1999)

Mr. Prospector, one of the great U.S. sires of the late 20th century

Nasrullah, one of the great Thoroughbred sires of the 20th century

Native Dancer,won 21 of 22 career races, with only loss in the Kentucky Derby, and sire whose descendants have come to dominate modern Triple Crown racing

Niatross, pacer who won 37 of his 39 races and broke many records, considered to be one of the greatest harness racers of all time

Nijinsky II, last horse to win the English Triple Crown (1970)

Northern Dancer, Canada's champion on the racetrack; most successful sire of the 20th Century

Phar Lap, Australia and New Zealand's most famed thoroughbred racehorse; won 37 of his 51 career starts

Rachel Alexandra, filly and winner of the 2009 Preakness Stakes.

Red Rum, only horse in the history of the Aintree Grand National to win the race three times (and place second on two other occasions)

Regret, the first filly to win the Kentucky Derby (1915)

Rock Sand, English Triple Crown winner (1903) and sire of the dam of Man o' War

Ruffian, the great filly champion who won every race she started until her final (and fatal) race

Sadler's Wells, one of Europe's greatest sires of the late 20th century

Sea Bird II, highest ever Timeform rated horse (rated 145)

Sea the Stars, first horse ever to win the 2,000 Guineas, Epsom Derby, and Arc de Triomphe in the same year (2009)

Seabiscuit, beat War Admiral in a match race; like Phar Lap, raced during the Depression.

Seattle Slew, U.S. Triple Crown winner (1977), one of the greatest sires in history

Secretariat, U.S. Triple Crown winner (1973), and one of North America's greatest broodmare sires of all time

Shergar, the kidnapped winner of the 1981 Epsom Derby

Silky Sullivan, arguably the fastest closer of all time

Smarty Jones became the first unbeaten Kentucky Derby winner since Seattle Slew in 1977.

Spectacular Bid, Hall of Fame champion who went undefeated as a four year old, and won 26 of 30 career starts.

Steel Dust, 19th Century quarter-mile racing horse[4]

Skewball, (sometimes called "Stewball") immortalized in 18th century poetry as a sku-ball winning against a Thoroughbred

Storm Cat, one of the great U.S. sires of the late 20th century

Sunday Silence, big winner in the US and champion sire in Japan

Varenne Italy most famous harness horse

War Admiral, the fourth U.S. Triple Crown winner (1937)

Winning Colors, the third (and currently last) filly to win the Kentucky Derby (1988)

Zenyatta, undefeated in 19 starts and the first mare to win the Breeders' Cup Classic (2009), plus the first to win two different Breeders' Cup races (2008, 2009).

Competition horses

Arko, an Olympic level show jumping horse

Big Ben, a Canadian international show jumper and Olympian

Milton, a British international show jumper and Olympian ridden by John Whitaker

Noble Flaire, a Morgan horse who was the first to win three Park Harness World Championships at the American Morgan Horse World Championship Horse Show

Radium, outstanding campdrafter and a very influential sire in Australia.

The Golden Machine, also called "Medicine Man", Owned by Heather Parish – Vernon was the first Palomino Quarter Horse to compete at the Olympics. Ridden by Richard Phelps of Great Brittan Modern Pentathlon 1996 Olympics . The Golden Machine was featured with Phelps on the cover of the August 1996 issue of the Quarter Horse Journal.

Military horses

See also: List of horses of the American Civil War.

Babieca, horse of El Cid

Bijou, horse of Count Johan Augustus Sandels, Swedish Fieldmarshall, Finnish War 1808-1809

Black Jack, the last Quartermaster-issued U.S. Army horse, died February 6, 1976

Blackie, belonged to Chief Sitting Bull

Blueskin, one of General Washington's horses

Bucephalus, Alexander the Great's horse

Chetak, war horse of Rana Pratap of Mewar in India

Cincinnati, one of Ulysses S. Grant's horses

Comanche, only documented survivor of General Custer's 7th Cavalry detachment at the Battle of Little Big Horn

Copenhagen, the Duke of Wellington's favourite horse, which he rode at the Battle of Waterloo

Dhūljānāḥ, the horse of Husayn ibn Ali in the Battle of Karbala

Dilu, the personal steed of Liu Bei which was said to have a hex and marking on his face which would bring misfortune upon its rider

Gazala, horse of Baldwin I of Jerusalem

Kasztanka, horse of Józef Piłsudski, likely the most famous Polish horse

Kitty, horse belonging to Marshal of Finland Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim

Little Sorrel, Stonewall Jackson's horse

Llamrei, steed of King Arthur

Magnolia, one of General Washington's horses

Marengo, Napoleon's horse which was captured by the British, and outlived Napoleon by eight years

Matsukaze, personal horse of Maeda Keiji

(Old) Nelson, one of General Washington's horses

Palomo, the main horse of Simon Bolivar

Reckless was a small mare that became a decorated Marine for carrying ammunition into battle for the US Marine platoon[5]

Red Hare, also known as Chitu, was Lü Bu's horse from the Three Kingdoms; inspired the phrase "Among men: Lü Bu. Among horses: Red Hare."

Shadowless, the personal steed of Cao Cao

Rienzi, Philip H. Sheridan's horse

Roger Leo, one of General Washington's horses at Valley Forge

Streiff, the horse of Gustavus Adolphus at the battle of Lützen 1632. The hide was mounted on a wooden frame and can still today be seen at the Royal Armoury in Stockholm.

Traveller, Robert E. Lee's horse

Warrior, called "Old Warrior", the mount of General Jack Seely which led many charges "over the top" in WW1.

Horses of various other fames

Black Bess, highwayman Dick Turpin's horse

Brown Beauty, the horse Paul Revere borrowed for his famous ride.

Burmese, the favourite mount of Queen Elizabeth II, which was a gift from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Buttermilk, Dale Evans' horse

Champion, Gene Autrey's horse

Chetak, horse of Rana Pratap Rana Pratap

Clever Hans, a smart horse

Cloud, the wild mustang stallion documented from birth for a PBS Nature series

Darley Arabian, Godolphin Arabian and Byerly Turk, stallions from whom all Thoroughbreds are descended

Diablo, The Cisco Kid's horse

Figure (also known by the name of one of his owners, Justin Morgan) – the foundation sire of the Morgan horse breed

Grated Coconut Calgary Stampede’s six-time world champion bucking horse

Gun Rock, the offspring of Man O' War used in the 1920s at UC Davis to breed horses for the U.S. Army Cavalry

Halla, the famed show jumping champion, with two world championships (1954 and 1955) and three Olympic gold medals (1956 and 1960)

Hollywood Dun It, the all-time leading reining sire and Quarter Horse

Huaso, Chilean bred horse, holder of the high jump world record set in Chile on February 5 of 1949, one of the world's longest unbroken sport records.

Incitatus, Emperor Caligula's favorite horse, may have been made a Senator

Jim Key, "Smartest Horse in the World," a star attraction at 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis

Jim, a former milk cart horse used to produce diphtheria antitoxin; contamination of this antitoxin inspired the Biologics Control Act of 1902

King, a foundation sire of the Quarter Horse breed

Marocco or Bankes's Horse, a late 16th- and early 17th-century English performing horse

Muhamed, the German horse allegedly capable of solving cubic roots

Papoose, Little Beaver's horse Red Ryder's Navajo Ward Sidekick

Prince and Lady, Almanzo Wilder's Morgan horse driving team of Laura Ingalls Wilder's Little House books

Prometea, born May 28, 2003, the first cloned horse and the first to be born from and carried by its cloning mother

Red Buck, the horse of Emmett Dalton

Red Fox, a horse of Jesse James

Rocinante, Don Quixote's horse

Sampson, the tallest horse ever recorded; he was a Shire and stood 21.2½ hands high

Scout, Tonto's horse

Silver, The Lone Ranger's horse

Sportsman, John Mytton's horse, died when forced to drink a bottle of port wine

Tarzan, white stallion of actor Ken Maynard

Thunder, Red Ryder's horse

Tony, horse of actor Tom Mix

Trigger, Roy Rogers' Palomino

Zippo Pine Bar

Horse trainer

In horse racing, a trainer prepares a horse for races, with responsibility for exercising it, getting it race-ready and determining which races it should enter. Leading horse trainers can earn a great deal of money from a percentage of the winnings that they charge the owner for training the horse.

Outside horse racing, most trainers specialize in a certain equestrianism discipline, such as show jumping, reining, rodeo, sport horse disciplines, training of a specific horse breed, starting young horses, or working with problem horses. There are a wide variety of horse training methods used to teach the horse to do the things humans want them to do. Some fields can be very lucrative, usually depending on the value of the horses once trained or prize money available in competition. However, as a rule, most horse trainers earn, at best, a modest income which often requires supplementation from a second job or additional horse-related business, such as horse boarding or riding lessons.

Prominent race horse trainers

United Kingdom & Ireland

John Gosden

Michael Stoute

Henry Cecil

Mick Channon

Luca Cumani

Aidan O'Brien

Dick Hern

Mark Johnston

Henrietta Knight

Paul Nicholls

Vincent O'Brien

Ted Walsh

United States

Steve Asmussen

Bob Baffert

Patrick L. Biancone

Christophe Clement

Michael Dickinson

Robert J. Frankel

H. Allen Jerkens

D. Wayne Lukas

Richard Mandella

Michael R. Matz

Ron McAnally

Shug McGaughey

William I. Mott

Todd Pletcher

Monty Roberts

Barclay Tagg

Stacy Westfall

Charlie Whittingham

According to The American Racing Manual, the thoroughbred horse racing trainers who have led the annual money-earning list more than twice since 1908 are:

D. Wayne Lukas (14)

Sam Hildreth (9)

Charlie Whittingham (7)

Sunny Jim Fitzsimmons, Horace A. "Jimmy" Jones (5)

Bob Baffert, Laz Barrera, Ben A. Jones, William Molter (4)

Hirsch Jacobs, Edward A. Neloy, James G. Rowe, Sr. (3)


Bart Cummings

Tommy Smith

Colin Hayes

Gai Waterhouse

Lee Freedman

David A. Hayes

See also

In horse racing, a trainer prepares a horse for races, with responsibility for exercising it, getting it race-ready and determining which races it should enter. Leading horse trainers can earn a great deal of money from a percentage of the winnings that they charge the owner for training the horse.

Outside horse racing, most trainers specialize in a certain equestrianism discipline, such as show jumping, reining, rodeo, sport horse disciplines, training of a specific horse breed, starting young horses, or working with problem horses. There are a wide variety of horse training methods used to teach the horse to do the things humans want them to do. Some fields can be very lucrative, usually depending on the value of the horses once trained or prize money available in competition. However, as a rule, most horse trainers earn, at best, a modest income which often requires supplementation from a second job or additional horse-related business, such as horse boarding or riding lessons.


Timeform Ltd

Type Private company

Industry Publisher

Founded 1948

Headquarters Halifax, West Yorkshire

Timeform Publications is a publishing company in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England founded in 1948 to provide information to fans, bettors, and others involved in the horse racing industry. The company was purchased by the sports betting exchange Betfair in December 2006.


Portway Press Ltd was formed in 1948 by Phil Bull, who wanted to establish a mathematical link to a horse's performance, based on the time the horse recorded. At a time when such data were virtually unheard of, Bull started publishing a racing annual, which evolved into the "Racehorses Of.." series. The company was purchased for a reputed £15 million by the sports betting exchange Betfair in December 2006.[1]

Data system

According to the publishers, a Timeform rating represents "the merit of the horse expressed in pounds and is arrived at by careful examination of its running against other horses using a scale of weight for distance beaten which ranges from around 3 lb a length at five furlongs and 2 lb a length at a mile and a quarter to 1 lb a length at two miles".

The Beyer Speed Figure used in the United States is similar to a Timeform rating. The popular rule of thumb for comparing these two numbers is to add 12-14 points to the Beyer score to estimate the Timeform number.

Timeform ratings for 3-year-olds & up are as follows:

140+ - An outstanding horse

130-135 - Above average Group 1 winner

125-129 - Average Group 1 winner

115-120 - Average Group 2 winner

110-115 - Average Group 3 winner

100-105 - Average listed race winner

Timeform states that 2-year-old averages are slightly lower.

The Daily Racing Form gives an example of the evolution of ratings for horses from age two upwards in the American Grade I Arlington Million.[2]

Flat vs Hurdle vs Steeplechase

Timeform maintains different scales for horses racing on the flat, over hurdles and over fences. The scores cannot be compared for the obvious differences between the race types. For instance Arkle at 212, Flyingbolt at 210, Mill House and Kauto Star both at 191 are the highest rated steeplechasers ever, whilst the highest rated horses over hurdles are Night Nurse at 182, Istabraq and Monksfield both at 180 and Persian War at 179. The table below lists scores for flat horses only starting with the highest, rated at 145 which is the legendary French horse Sea Bird.[3]


Annually in March, the company puts out its book Racehorses of .... which currently contains more than 1,200 pages and provides information and ratings on the top flat horses in Australasia, Dubai, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, North America and Scandinavia. Also, annually in October the company publishes Chasers and Hurdlers, a thorough review of every horse that ran under National Hunt rules in Britain, as well as the best National Hunt horses to have run in Ireland and France.

Timeform publishes a number of other books. Its Horses to Follow: Flat Season is composed of short essays on fifty horses deemed worthy of following in the upcoming year's classics. The horses are selected by Timeform's own team of experts along with five leading broadcasters. The book also provides a guide to the most significant two-year-old performances from the previous year.

Timeform also compiles a system based on speed and class which appears in the Daily Racing Form for all horse racing events run in the United Kingdom, Ireland, France and the United Arab Emirates.

Top-rated Thoroughbreds on Flat Courses

Steven A. Roman, Ph.D., a professor at Columbia University created the Chef-de-Race website, a resource that contains significant information on speed ratings for Thoroughbred racehorses. The figures below are official All-Time Highweights for horses who raced in Australasia, Dubai, Europe, Hong Kong, Japan, and Scandinavia as supplied by Mr. Neil O'Connor of Timeform. Until very recently (generally after 2000), notable post-war horses who raced in America were never given Timeform ratings, so they can not be compared directly to their European counterparts. The most notable of these would be Secretariat.

Horse Born Rating

Sea Bird 1962 145

Brigadier Gerard 1968 144

Tudor Minstrel 1944 144

Abernant 1946 142

Ribot 1952 142

Frankel 2008 142

Mill Reef 1968 141

Dancing Brave 1983 140

Dubai Millennium 1996 140

Harbinger 2006 140

Sea The Stars 2006 140

Shergar 1978 140

Vaguely Noble 1965 140

Generous 1988 139

Pappa Fourway 1952 139

Reference Point 1984 139

Alleged 1974 138

Alycidon 1945 138

Celtic Swing 1992 138

Cigar 1990 138

Daylami 1994 138

Exbury 1959 138

Nijinsky 1967 138

Star of India 1953 138

Tulloch 1954 138

Easy Goer 1986 137

Sunday Silence 1986 137

Apalachee 1971 137

Dayjur 1987 137

Ghostzapper 2000 137

Grundy 1972 137

Kingston Town 1976 137

Mark of Esteem 1993 137

Molvedo 1958 137

Montjeu 1996 137

Moorestyle 1977 137

Never Say Die 1951 137

Peintre Celebre 1994 137

Pinza 1950 137

Princely Gift 1951 137

Ragusa 1960 137

Rheingold 1969 137

Reliance 1962 137

Right Boy 1954 137

Troy 1976 137

Zilzal 1986 137

Alcide 1955 136

Allez France 1970 136

Ballymoss 1954 136

Bering 1983 136

Black Tarquin 1945 136

Bustino 1971 136

Crepello 1954 136

El Condor Pasa 1995 136

El Gran Senor 1981 136

Floribunda 1958 136

Gentlemen 1992 136

Habibti 1980 136

Hafiz 1952 136

Hawk Wing 1999 136

Helissio 1993 136

Herbager 1956 136

My Babu 1945 136

Manikato 1975 136

Northjet 1977 136

Old Vic 1986 136

Relko 1960 136

Slip Anchor 1982 136

Suave Dancer 1988 136

Sakhee 1997 136

Tantieme 1947 136

Texana 1955 136

Thatch 1970 136

Warning 1985 136

All Along 1979 135

Arazi 1989 135

Arbar 1944 135

Arctic Prince 1948 135

Chanteur 1942 135

Charlottesville 1957 135

Coronation 1946 135

Dahlia 1970 135

Intikhab 1994 135

Known Fact 1977 135

Kris 1976 135

La Tendresse 1959 135

Le Moss 1975 135

Match II 1958 135

Nashwan 1986 135

Never So Bold 1980 135

Pebbles 1981 135

Petingo 1965 135

Petoski 1982 135

Right Royal 1958 135

Royal Anthem 1995 135

Sagace 1980 135

Sassafras 1967 135

Shadeed 1982 135

Shahrastani 1983 135

Shareef Dancer 1980 135

Sicambre 1948 135

Sir Ivor 1965 135

Souverain 1943 135

St Jovite 1989 135

Supreme Court 1948 135

Teenoso 1980 135

Tenerani 1944 135

The Bug 1943 135

The Minstrel 1974 135

Trempolino 1984 135

Youth 1973 135

Horseracing in Great Britain

Horse racing is a popular spectator sport in Great Britain, with hundreds of years of unique heritage. Gambling on horseraces is also considered the cornerstone of the British betting industry.

The two main forms of horse racing in Great Britain are unobstructed distances races, known as flat racing, and races over fences or over hurdles, known as National Hunt racing. Additionally there is another form of racing which is run on an altogether more informal and ad hoc basis, known as point to point racing. Point to point is a form of steeplechasing for amateur riders. It, like professional racing, is nevertheless run under the auspices of the governing and regulatory body for horse-racing in Great Britain, the British Horseracing Authority.[1]

The UK has produced some of the greatest jockeys, including Sir Gordon Richards, usually considered the greatest ever jockey. There are between four and five hundred professional jockeys based in the United Kingdom.[2]

It is thought that the first races to take place in Britain were organised by soldiers of the Roman Empire in Yorkshire around 200 AD, although the first recorded race meeting was during the reign of Henry II at Smithfield, London in 1174 during a horse fair.

It is believed that the first occurrence of a trophy being presented to the winner of a race was in 1512 by organisers of a fair in Chester and was a small wooden ball decorated with flowers.

Early in the 16th century Henry VIII imported a large number of stallions and mares for breeding although it was not until the 17th and 18th centuries that the breeding of Thoroughbreds began as we know it now.

Newmarket is known as the home of horse racing in England and James I was prominent in introducing racing there after discovering the little village in 1605 whilst out hawking or riding. He spent so much time there that the House of Commons petitioned him to concentrate more of his time on running the country. This region had a long association with horses going back to the time of Boudica and the Iceni. Around the time that Charles I of England came to the throne, Spring and Autumn race meetings were introduced to Newmarket and in 1634 the first Gold Cup event was held.

All horse racing was then banned in 1654 by Oliver Cromwell, and many horses were requisitioned by the state. Despite this Cromwell himself kept a stud running of his own.

Jockey, Edwardian painting by the famous Irish artist William Orpen

With the restoration of Charles II racing flourished and he instituted the Newmarket Town Plate in 1664, writing the rules himself:

Articles ordered by His Majestie to be observed by all persons that put in horses to ride for the Plate, the new round heat at Newmarket set out on the first day of October, 1664, in the 16th year of our Sovereign Lord King Charles II, which Plate is to be rid for yearly, the second Thursday in October for ever.

In the early 18th century, Queen Anne kept a large string of horses and was instrumental in the founding of Royal Ascot where the opening race each year is still called the Queen Anne Stakes. This has now stopped since the Queen Anne Stakes was elevated to Group 1 status in 2004 and therefore the Coventry Stakes is the first race on the first day of Royal Ascot.

In 1740, Parliament introduced an act "to restrain and to prevent the excessive increase in horse racing", though this was largely ignored, but in the 1752 the Jockey Club was formed to create and apply the Rules of Racing.

The Jockey Club governed the sport from 1752 until its governance role was handed to the British Horseracing Board, (formed in June 1993) and while the BHB became responsible for strategic planning, finance, politics, race planning, training and marketing, the Jockey Club continued to regulate the sport. In 2006 it formed the Horseracing Regulatory Authority to carry out the regulatory process whilst it focused on owning 13 racecourses and the gallops in Newmarket and Lambourn. In July 2007 the HRA merged with the BHB to form the British Horseracing Authority.

Key data

Key data for 2005 (2004 in brackets) extracted from the British Horseracing Board's annual reports for 2004 and 2005:

2004 2005

Fixtures 1,299 1,300

Races 8,757 8,588

Runners 92,761 94,659

Prize Money (Total) £101.3 million 99.3 million

Prize Money (Flat) £65.4 million 63.9 million

Prize Money (Jump) £35.9 million 35.4 million

Racegoers (Total) 6,048,517 5,896,922

Racegoers (Flat) 3,873,508 3,704,567

Racegoers (Jump) 2,175,009 2,192,435

Monthly average horses in training 13,914 14,388

Monthly average owners with horses in training 



British racing is going through a period of growth, but the Chief Executive of the BHB states in the 2005 annual report that in 2005, as in other recent years, "Success was achieved in an environment of great uncertainty." The sport is struggling to adapt to the loss of income from pre-race data following court ruling prohibiting the practice of charging for such in 2004 and 2005, to which the BHB attributes the fall in prize money in 2005. The data charges were themselves designed to replace income lost when a statutory levy was abolished. In 2004 attendances exceeded 6 million for the first time since the 1950s (2004 annual report). The decrease in 2005 is attributable to the closure of Ascot Racecourse for redevelopment for the entire year. With Ascot reopened the BHB estimates that 2006 attendances will exceed 6.5 million.


There are 60 licenced racecourses in Great Britain, with a further two in Northern Ireland (Down Royal and Downpatrick). Apart from Great Leighs and Ffos Las (which opened in 2009), all the courses date back to 1927 or earlier. The oldest is Chester Racecourse, which dates to the early 16th century.[3]

Aintree Racecourse in Merseyside - (national hunt)

Ascot Racecourse in Berkshire -(mixed)

Ayr Racecourse in Ayrshire - (mixed)

Bangor on Dee Racecourse in Wrexham - (national hunt)

Bath Racecourse in Somerset - (flat)

Beverley Racecourse in the East Riding of Yorkshire - (flat)

Brighton Racecourse in East Sussex - (flat)

Carlisle Racecourse in Cumbria - (mixed)

Cartmel Racecourse in Cumbria - (national hunt)

Catterick Bridge in North Yorkshire - (mixed)

Cheltenham Racecourse in Gloucestershire - (national hunt)

Chepstow Racecourse in Monmouthshire - (mixed)

Chester Racecourse in Cheshire - (flat)

Doncaster Racecourse in South Yorkshire - (mixed)

Epsom Downs Racecourse in Surrey - (flat)

Exeter Racecourse in Devon - (national hunt)

Fakenham Racecourse in Norfolk - (national hunt)

Ffos Las Racecourse in Carmarthenshire - (mixed)

Folkestone Racecourse in Kent - (mixed)

Fontwell Park Racecourse in West Sussex - (national hunt)

Goodwood Racecourse in West Sussex - (flat)

Great Yarmouth Racecourse in Norfolk - (flat)

Hamilton Park in South Lanarkshire - (flat)

Haydock Park Racecourse in Merseyside - (mixed)

Hereford Racecourse in Herefordshire - (national hunt)

Hexham Racecourse in Northumberland - (national hunt)

Huntingdon Racecourse in Cambridgeshire - (national hunt)

Kelso Racecourse in the Scottish Borders - (national hunt)

Kempton Park in Surrey - (mixed)

Leicester Racecourse in Leicestershire - (mixed)

Lingfield Park Racecourse in Surrey - (mixed)

Ludlow Racecourse in Shropshire - (national hunt)

Market Rasen Racecourse in Lincolnshire - (national hunt)

Musselburgh Racecourse in East Lothian - (mixed)

Newbury Racecourse in Berkshire - (mixed)

Newcastle Racecourse in Tyne and Wear - (mixed)

Newmarket Racecourses in Suffolk - (flat)

Newton Abbot Racecourse in Devon - (national hunt)

Nottingham Racecourse in Nottinghamshire - (flat)

Perth Racecourse in Perth and Kinross - (national hunt)

Plumpton Racecourse in East Sussex - (national hunt)

Pontefract Racecourse in West Yorkshire - (flat)

Redcar Racecourse in North Yorkshire - (flat)

Ripon Racecourse in North Yorkshire - (flat)

Salisbury Racecourse in Wiltshire - (flat)

Sandown Park Racecourse in Surrey - (mixed)

Sedgefield Racecourse in County Durham - (national hunt)

Southwell Racecourse in Nottinghamshire - (mixed)

Stratford-on-Avon Racecourse in Warwickshire - (national hunt)

Taunton Racecourse in Somerset - (national hunt)

Thirsk Racecourse in North Yorkshire - (flat)

Towcester Racecourse in Northamptonshire - (national hunt)

Uttoxeter Racecourse in Staffordshire - (national hunt)

Warwick Racecourse in Warwickshire - (mixed)

Wetherby Racecourse in West Yorkshire - (national hunt)

Wincanton Racecourse in Somerset - (national hunt)

Windsor Racecourse in Berkshire - (flat)

Wolverhampton Racecourse in the West Midlands - (flat)

Worcester Racecourse in Worcestershire - (national hunt)

York Racecourse in Yorkshire - (flat)

Former race courses

Between 1900 and 1981, 97 racecourses closed their doors. [4]

Alexandra Park Racecourse - north London; closed in 1970.

Atherstone Racecourse - Warwickshire

Banbury Racecourse - Oxfordshire

Bromford Bridge Racecourse - Birmingham

Buckfastleigh Racecourse - Devon; held its first race on 21 June 1883 and its final race on 27 August 1960. The dilapidated main grandstand survives, and is a well known local landmark, and the fields around it are still in use for point-to-point races.[5]

Chelmsford Racecourse - Essex

Croxton Racecourse - Leicestershire

Durham Racecourse

Eglinton Racecourse - County Londonderry, Northern Ireland

Eridge Racecourse - East Sussex

Gatwick Racecourse - West Sussex; in use from 1891 to 1940 and the land is now part of London Gatwick Airport.

Great Leighs Racecourse in Essex - opened in 2008, racing licence suspended in 2009.

Harpenden Racecourse - Hertfordshire; closed before 1914, the land is now the site of Bamville Cricket Club.

Hurst Park Racecourse - Surrey; in use from 1890 to 1962.

Lanark Racecourse - Lanarkshire, Scotland

Lewes Racecourse - East Sussex; closed in September 1964 after some 200 years of racing.

Lincoln Racecourse - Lincolnshire

Maghull Racecourse - Sefton, Merseyside

Manchester Racecourse - Greater Manchester

Mansfield racecourse. Little is known but Old Mansfield Society is likely to have information

Melton Racecourse - Leicestershire

Northampton Racecourse - Northampton; closed 1904

Plymouth Racecourse - Devon; in use from about 1827 until the last race on 4 September 1930.

Portsmouth Racecourse - Farlington, Portsmouth; opened 1891 and closed at the outbreak of World War 1 and turned into an ammunition dump for the War Office.

Portsmouth Racecourse - Paulsgrove, Portsmouth; opened in the 1920s and closed shortly after the end of World War 2. The land was redeveloped as a housing estate.

Rugby Racecourse - Clifton-upon-Dunsmore, Warwickshire; still used annually for point-to-point races

Shincliffe Racecourse - Durham; in use from 1895 until about 1913.

Shirley Racecourse - West Midlands; the land is now the home of Shirley Golf Club.

South Brent Racecourse - Devon

Teesside Park, Stockton

Torquay Racecourse - Devon

Totnes Racecourse - Devon; closed in 1939 and requisitioned by the Admiralty, it was sold in the early 1950s. At this course long distance steeplechases involved crossing the River Dart and the Totnes-Newton Abbot road.

Wrexham Racecourse - north Wales

Wye Racecourse- Kent; in use from 1881 to 1975.


The three main operators of British racecourses are Jockey Club Racecourses, which owns fourteen courses, Northern Racing with ten, and Arena Leisure with seven.

List of British flat horse races

Group 1

April / May 2,000 Guineas Stakes Newmarket  1m 3yo c&f

April / May 1,000 Guineas Stakes Newmarket  1m 3yo f

May Lockinge Stakes Newbury  1m 4yo+

June Coronation Cup Epsom  1m 4f 10y 4yo+

June Oaks Stakes Epsom  1m 4f 10y 3yo f

June Derby Stakes Epsom  1m 4f 10y 3yo c&f

June Queen Anne Stakes Ascot  1m 4yo+

June King's Stand Stakes Ascot  5f 3yo+

June St. James's Palace Stakes Ascot  1m 3yo c

June Prince of Wales's Stakes Ascot  1m 2f 4yo+

June Gold Cup Ascot  2m 4f 4yo+

June Coronation Stakes Ascot  1m 3yo f

June Golden Jubilee Stakes Ascot  6f 3yo+

July Eclipse Stakes Sandown  1m 2f 7y 3yo+

July Falmouth Stakes Newmarket  1m 3yo+ f

July July Cup Newmarket  6f 3yo+

July King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes Ascot  1m 4f 3yo+

July / Aug Sussex Stakes Goodwood  1m 3yo+

July / Aug Nassau Stakes Goodwood  1m 1f 192y 3yo+ f

August International Stakes York  1m 2f 88y 3yo+

August Yorkshire Oaks York  1m 4f 3yo+ f

August Nunthorpe Stakes York  5f 2yo+

September Sprint Cup Haydock  6f 3yo+

September St. Leger Stakes Doncaster  1m 6f 132y 3yo c&f

September Fillies' Mile Newmarket  1m 2yo f

September Cheveley Park Stakes Newmarket  6f 2yo f

September Sun Chariot Stakes Newmarket  1m 3yo+ f

Sept / Oct Middle Park Stakes Newmarket  6f 2yo c

October Dewhurst Stakes Newmarket  7f 2yo c&f

October Queen Elizabeth II Stakes Ascot  1m 3yo+

October Champion Stakes Ascot  1m 2f 3yo+

October Racing Post Trophy Doncaster  1m 2yo c&f

Group 2

April Sandown Mile Sandown  1m 14y 4yo+

April / May Jockey Club Stakes Newmarket  1m 4f 4yo+

May Duke of York Stakes York  6f 3yo+

May Middleton Stakes York  1m 2f 88y 4yo+ f

May Dante Stakes York  1m 2f 88y 3yo

May Yorkshire Cup York  1m 6f 4yo+

May Temple Stakes Haydock  5f 3yo+

May Henry II Stakes Sandown  2m 78y 4yo+

June Coventry Stakes Ascot  6f 2yo

June Windsor Forest Stakes Ascot  1m 4yo+ f

June Queen Mary Stakes Ascot  5f 2yo f

June Norfolk Stakes Ascot  5f 2yo

June Ribblesdale Stakes Ascot  1m 4f 3yo f

June King Edward VII Stakes Ascot  1m 4f 3yo c&g

June Hardwicke Stakes Ascot  1m 4f 4yo+

July Lancashire Oaks Haydock  1m 3f 200y 3yo+ f

July July Stakes Newmarket  6f 2yo c&g

July Princess of Wales's Stakes Newmarket  1m 4f 3yo+

July Cherry Hinton Stakes Newmarket  6f 2yo f

July Superlative Stakes Newmarket  7f 2yo

July Summer Mile Stakes Ascot  1m 4yo+

July York Stakes York  1m 2f 88y 3yo+

July / Aug Lennox Stakes Goodwood  7f 3yo+

July / Aug Vintage Stakes Goodwood  7f 2yo

July / Aug King George Stakes Goodwood  5f 3yo+

July / Aug Goodwood Cup Goodwood  2m 3yo+

July / Aug Richmond Stakes Goodwood  6f 2yo c&g

August Hungerford Stakes Newbury  7f 3yo+

August Great Voltigeur Stakes York  1m 4f 3yo c&g

August Lonsdale Cup York  2m 88y 3yo+

August Gimcrack Stakes York  6f 2yo c&g

August Lowther Stakes York  6f 2yo f

August Celebration Mile Goodwood  1m 3yo+

September Park Hill Stakes Doncaster  1m 6f 132y 3yo+ f

September Flying Childers Stakes Doncaster  5f 2yo

September Doncaster Cup Doncaster  2m 2f 3yo+

September May Hill Stakes Doncaster  1m 2yo f

September Champagne Stakes Doncaster  7f 2yo c&g

September Park Stakes Doncaster  7f 3yo+

September Mill Reef Stakes Newbury  6f 8y 2yo

Sept / Oct Joel Stakes Newmarket  1m 3yo+

September Royal Lodge Stakes Newmarket  1m 2yo c&g

October Challenge Stakes Newmarket  7f 3yo+

October Rockfel Stakes Newmarket  7f 2yo f

October British Champions Sprint Stakes Ascot  6f 3yo+

October British Champions Fillies & Mares Stakes Ascot  1m 4f 3yo+ f

Group 3

March Winter Derby Lingfield  1m 2f 4yo+

April Nell Gwyn Stakes Newmarket  7f 3yo f

April Craven Stakes Newmarket  1m 3yo c&g

April Earl of Sefton Stakes Newmarket  1m 1f 4yo+

April John Porter Stakes Newbury  1m 4f 5y 4yo+

April Fred Darling Stakes Newbury  7f 3yo f

April Greenham Stakes Newbury  7f 3yo c&g

April Gordon Richards Stakes Sandown  1m 2f 7y 4yo+

April Sandown Classic Trial Sandown  1m 2f 7y 3yo

April / May Sagaro Stakes Ascot  2m 4yo+

April / May Palace House Stakes Newmarket  5f 3yo+

April / May Dahlia Stakes Newmarket  1m 1f 4yo+ f

May Huxley Stakes Chester  1m 2f 75y 4yo+

May Chester Vase Chester  1m 4f 66y 3yo c&g

May Dee Stakes Chester  1m 2f 75y 3yo c&g

May Ormonde Stakes Chester  1m 5f 89y 4yo+

May Chartwell Fillies' Stakes Lingfield  7f 3yo+ f

May Lingfield Derby Trial Lingfield  1m 3f 106y 3yo c&g

May Musidora Stakes York  1m 2f 88y 3yo f

May / June Brigadier Gerard Stakes Sandown  1m 2f 7y 4yo+

May / June John of Gaunt Stakes Haydock  7f 4yo+

June Princess Elizabeth Stakes Epsom  1m 114y 3yo+ f

June Diomed Stakes Epsom  1m 114y 3yo+

June Jersey Stakes Ascot  7f 3yo

June Tercentenary Stakes Ascot  1m 2f 3yo

June Albany Stakes Ascot  6f 2yo f

June Queen's Vase Ascot  2m 3yo

June / July Chipchase Stakes Newcastle  6f 3yo+

June / July Criterion Stakes Newmarket  7f 3yo+

July Sprint Stakes Sandown  5f 6y 3yo+

July Bahrain Trophy Newmarket  1m 5f 3yo

July Summer Stakes York  6f 3yo+ f

July Hackwood Stakes Newbury  6f 8y 3yo+

July Princess Margaret Stakes Ascot  6f 2yo f

July / Aug Gordon Stakes Goodwood  1m 4f 3yo

July / Aug Molecomb Stakes Goodwood  5f 2yo

July / Aug Lillie Langtry Stakes Goodwood  1m 6f 3yo+ f

July / Aug Glorious Stakes Goodwood  1m 4f 4yo+

July / Aug Oak Tree Stakes Goodwood  7f 3yo+ f

August Rose of Lancaster Stakes Haydock  1m 2f 95y 3yo+

August Sweet Solera Stakes Newmarket  7f 2yo f

August Sovereign Stakes Salisbury  1m 3yo+ c&g

August Geoffrey Freer Stakes Newbury  1m 5f 61y 3yo+

August Acomb Stakes York  7f 2yo

August Strensall Stakes York  1m 208y 3yo+

August Solario Stakes Sandown  7f 16y 2yo

August Prestige Stakes Goodwood  7f 2yo f

August Winter Hill Stakes Windsor  1m 2f 7y 3yo+

Aug / Sept Supreme Stakes Goodwood  7f 3yo+

September September Stakes Kempton  1m 4f 3yo+

September Sirenia Stakes Kempton  6f 2yo

September Sceptre Stakes Doncaster  7f 3yo+ f

September Select Stakes Goodwood  1m 1f 192y 3yo+

September Arc Trial Newbury  1m 3f 5y 3yo+

September Firth of Clyde Stakes Ayr  6f 2yo f

September World Trophy Newbury  5f 34y 3yo+

Sept / Oct Somerville Tattersall Stakes Newmarket  7f 2yo c&g

Sept / Oct Oh So Sharp Stakes Newmarket  7f 2yo f

October Cornwallis Stakes Ascot  5f 2yo

October Cumberland Lodge Stakes Ascot  1m 4f 3yo+

October Bengough Stakes Ascot  6f 3yo+

October Autumn Stakes Newmarket  1m 2yo

October Darley Stakes Newmarket  1m 1f 3yo+

October British Champions Long Distance Cup Ascot  2m 3yo+

October Horris Hill Stakes Newbury  7f 2yo c&g

October St. Simon Stakes Newbury  1m 4f 5y 3yo+

Notable Handicaps

March / April Lincoln Handicap Doncaster  1m 4yo+

March / April Rosebery Stakes Kempton  1m 2f 4yo+

April European Free Handicap Newmarket  7f 3yo

April / May Victoria Cup Ascot  7f 4yo+

May Chester Cup Chester  2m 2f 147y 4yo+

May Silver Bowl Haydock  1m 30y 3yo

May / June Zetland Gold Cup Redcar  1m 2f 3yo+

June Royal Hunt Cup Ascot  1m 3yo+

June Wokingham Stakes Ascot  6f 3yo+

June / July Northumberland Plate Newcastle  2m 19y 3yo+

July Old Newton Cup Haydock  1m 3f 200y 3yo+

July Bunbury Cup Newmarket  7f 3yo+

July John Smith's Cup York  1m 2f 88y 3yo+

July / Aug Stewards' Cup Goodwood  6f 3yo+

August Great St. Wilfrid Stakes Ripon  6f 3yo+

August Ebor Handicap York  1m 6f 3yo+

September Portland Handicap Doncaster  5f 140y 3yo+

September Ayr Gold Cup Ayr  6f 3yo+

Sept / Oct Cambridgeshire Handicap Newmarket  1m 1f 3yo+

October Cesarewitch Handicap Newmarket  2m 2f 3yo+

November November Handicap Doncaster  1m 4f 3yo+

Selected other races

March / April Easter Stakes Kempton  1m 3yo c&g

April Feilden Stakes Newmarket  1m 1f 3yo

April Abernant Stakes Newmarket  6f 3yo+

April Leicestershire Stakes Leicester  7f 9y 4yo+

April Investec Derby Trial Epsom  1m 2f 18y 3yo

April / May Newmarket Stakes Newmarket  1m 2f 3yo c

April / May Pretty Polly Stakes Newmarket  1m 2f 3yo f

May Cheshire Oaks Chester  1m 3f 79y 3yo f

May Lingfield Oaks Trial Lingfield  1m 3f 106y 3yo f

May Fillies' Trial Stakes Newbury  1m 2f 6y 3yo f

May Cocked Hat Stakes Goodwood  1m 3f 3yo c&g

May Height of Fashion Stakes Goodwood  1m 1f 192y 3yo f

May Heron Stakes Sandown  1m 14y 3yo

May Fairway Stakes Newmarket  1m 2f 3yo

June Chesham Stakes Ascot  7f 2yo

June Queen Alexandra Stakes Ascot  2m 5f 159y 4yo+

July Glasgow Stakes Hamilton  1m 3f 16y 3yo

July Weatherbys Super Sprint Newbury  5f 34y 2yo

July Winkfield Stakes Ascot  7f 2yo

August Washington Singer Stakes Newbury  7f 2yo

August March Stakes Goodwood  1m 6f 3yo+

September Stardom Stakes Goodwood  7f 2yo

September Haynes, Hanson and Clark Stakes Newbury  1m 2yo

October Silver Tankard Stakes Pontefract  1m 4y 2yo

Oct / Nov Zetland Stakes Newmarket  1m 2f 2yo


April 1986 1,000 Guineas Trial Stakes Salisbury  7f 3yo f

April 1986 2,000 Guineas Trial Stakes Salisbury  7f 3yo c&g

April 1993 White Rose Stakes Ascot  1m 2f 3yo

July 2005 Golden Daffodil Stakes Chepstow  1m 2f 36y 3yo+ f

July 2005 Scottish Derby Ayr  1m 2f 3yo+

July 1999 Beeswing Stakes Newcastle  7f 3yo+

Aug 1985 Seaton Delaval Stakes Newcastle  7f 2yo

† Distances in miles, furlongs and yards


Wagering money on horse races is as old as the sport itself, but in the United Kingdom the links between horseracing and nationwide wagering are very strong. "Betting shops" are common sights in most towns, tending to be sited wherever a significant number of people with disposable cash can be expected. At one point in the 1970s it was said that the ideal location was "close to a pub, the Labour Exchange and the Post Office", the first being a source of customers in a good mood, the other two being sources of ready cash in the form of "The Dole" and state pension money, which was dispensed through Post Offices at the time.

Betting is taxed under the authority of various acts of Parliament, the revenue being collected by the Horserace Betting Levy Board, a "non-departmental public body" sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. According to the Board website,[6] 90% of the tax raised by the levy is used for the improvement of horseracing, the rest presumably being absorbed by the Board's expenses. For the latest year reported, the levy resulted in £103.5 million being collected.

Member of Parliament Clement Freud, who himself has owned racehorses, alleged in an article published in the 1970s, before his election to Parliament, that horseracing was organized purely to generate taxes. He cited the large number of otherwise non-viable racecourses kept open (to ensure sufficient races being run) even as the financial rewards to the owners and trainers declined to the point where most could barely cover their expenses.

On 6 October 2001 the Government abolished the tax on betting, which had been 9% of the stake or the winnings, the punter having the choice to pay a certain small amount or an uncertain large amount. The tax is now effectively indirectly levied on the punters, the cost being absorbed in the odds that bookmakers offer.

The last 10 years in the UK, has seen massive growth in online gambling. Punters are now going online to place their bets, where technology gives them access to a greater wealth of information and knowledge. Now racing punters exchange information on online forums, tipping sites etc.

Racehorse welfare

A 2006 investigation by The Observer found that each year 6-10,000 horses are slaughtered for consumption abroad, a significant proportion of which are horses bred for racing. [7] The industry produces approximately 5,000 foals, whilst 4-5,000 racehorses are retired each year, 90 being taken into care by the industries charity Retraining of Racehorses. [7] Research conducted by the Equine Fertility Unit found that 66% of thoroughbred foals were never entered for a race, and more than 80% were no longer in training after four years. [7] Foal production has increased threefold since 1966. [7] Racehorses are capable of living for more than 30 years on average. [7]


The main meetings held are:


Cheltenham - The Cheltenham Festival

Lingfield Park - Bet Direct Winter Derby


Aintree - Aintree Grand National Meeting

Ayr - Scottish Grand National

Newmarket - Craven Meeting

Sandown Park - Bet365 Gold Cup Celebration


Newmarket - Guineas Meeting

Chester - May Meeting

York - Dante Meeting


Epsom Downs - Epsom Derby Meeting

Ascot - Royal Ascot

Newcastle - John Smith's Northumberland Plate


Sandown Park - Coral-Eclipse Meeting

Newmarket - July Meeting

Ascot - King George Day

Goodwood - Glorious Goodwood


York - Ebor Festival


Haydock Park - William Hill Sprint Cup

Doncaster - St. Leger Meeting

Ayr - Western Meeting

Ascot - Ascot Festival


Newmarket - Totesport Cambridgeshire Meeting

Newmarket - October Meeting

Doncaster - Racing Post Trophy


Cheltenham - The Paddy Power Open

Haydock & Aintree - North West Masters

Newbury - Hennessy Meeting


Sandown Park - Tingle Creek Meeting

Kempton Park - Stan James Christmas Festival

Chepstow - Coral Welsh National

See also

Racing Post

The Sportsman

The Sporting Life

The Sporting Times

Horseracing in Scotland

Horse racing in Wales


National Hunt 

Aintree · Bangor-on-Dee · Cartmel · Cheltenham · Exeter · Fakenham · Fontwell Park · Hereford · Hexham · Huntingdon · Kelso · Ludlow · Market Rasen · Newton Abbot · Perth · Plumpton · Sedgefield · Stratford-on-Avon · Taunton · Towcester · Uttoxeter · Wetherby · Wincanton · Worcester


Bath · Beverley · Brighton · Chester · Epsom Downs · Goodwood · Great Yarmouth · Great Leighs (licence suspended) · Hamilton Park · Newmarket · Nottingham · Pontefract · Redcar · Ripon · Salisbury · Thirsk · Windsor · Wolverhampton · York


Ascot · Ayr · Carlisle · Catterick Bridge · Chepstow · Doncaster · Ffos Las · Folkestone · Haydock Park · Kempton Park · Leicester · Lingfield Park · Musselburgh · Newbury · Newcastle · Sandown Park · Southwell · Warwick

Named races 

British Horseracing Authority

British flat racing Champion Trainer

This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2006)

The Champion Trainer of flat racing in Great Britain is the trainer whose horses have won the most prize money during a season. The list below shows the Champion Trainer for each year since 1896.

1896 - Alfred Hayhoe

1897 - Richard Marsh

1898 - Richard Marsh

1899 - John Porter

1900 - Richard Marsh

1901 - John Huggins

1902 - Bob Sievier

1903 - George Blackwell

1904 - Peter Gilpin

1905 - Jack Robinson

1906 - George Lambton

1907 - Alec Taylor, Jr.

1908 - Charles Morton

1909 - Alec Taylor, Jr.

1910 - Alec Taylor, Jr.

1911 - George Lambton

1912 - George Lambton

1913 - Richard Wootton

1914 - Alec Taylor, Jr.

1915 - Charles Peck

1916 - Dick Dawson

1917 - Alec Taylor, Jr.

1918 - Alec Taylor, Jr.

1919 - Alec Taylor, Jr.

1920 - Alec Taylor, Jr.

1921 - Alec Taylor, Jr.

1922 - Alec Taylor, Jr.

1923 - Alec Taylor, Jr.

1924 - Dick Dawson

1925 - Alec Taylor, Jr.

1926 - Fred Darling

1927 - Frank Butters

1928 - Frank Butters

1929 - Dick Dawson

1930 - Atty Persse

1931 - Joe Lawson

1932 - Frank Butters

1933 - Fred Darling

1934 - Frank Butters

1935 - Frank Butters

1936 - Joe Lawson

1937 - Cecil Boyd-Rochfort

1938 - Cecil Boyd-Rochfort

1939 - Jack Jarvis

1940 - Fred Darling

1941 - Fred Darling

1942 - Fred Darling

1943 - Walter Nightingall

1944 - Frank Butters

1945 - Walter Earl

1946 - Frank Butters

1947 - Fred Darling

1948 - Noel Murless

1949 - Frank Butters

1950 - Charles Semblat

1951 - Jack Jarvis

1952 - Marcus Marsh

1953 - Jack Jarvis

1954 - Cecil Boyd-Rochfort

1955 - Cecil Boyd-Rochfort

1956 - Charles Elsey

1957 - Noel Murless

1958 - Cecil Boyd-Rochfort

1959 - Noel Murless

1960 - Noel Murless

1961 - Noel Murless

1962 - Dick Hern

1963 - Paddy Prendergast

1964 - Paddy Prendergast

1965 - Paddy Prendergast

1966 - Vincent O'Brien

1967 - Noel Murless

1968 - Noel Murless

1969 - Arthur Budgett

1970 - Noel Murless

1971 - Ian Balding

1972 - Dick Hern

1973 - Noel Murless

1974 - Peter Walwyn

1975 - Peter Walwyn

1976 - Henry Cecil

1977 - Vincent O'Brien

1978 - Henry Cecil

1979 - Henry Cecil

1980 - Dick Hern

1981 - Michael Stoute

1982 - Henry Cecil

1983 - Dick Hern

1984 - Henry Cecil

1985 - Henry Cecil

1986 - Michael Stoute

1987 - Henry Cecil

1988 - Henry Cecil

1989 - Michael Stoute

1990 - Henry Cecil

1991 - Paul Cole

1992 - Richard Hannon

1993 - Henry Cecil

1994 - Michael Stoute

1995 - John Dunlop

1996 - Saeed bin Suroor

1997 - Michael Stoute

1998 - Saeed bin Suroor

1999 - Saeed bin Suroor

2000 - Sir Michael Stoute

2001 - Aidan O'Brien

2002 - Aidan O'Brien

2003 - Sir Michael Stoute

2004 - Saeed bin Suroor

2005 - Sir Michael Stoute

2006 - Sir Michael Stoute

2007 - Aidan O'Brien

2008 - Aidan O'Brien

2009 - Sir Michael Stoute

2010 - Richard Hannon

British flat racing Champion Jockey

British flat racing Champion Apprentice

British flat racing Champion Owner

British jump racing Champion Trainer

Leading sire in Great Britain & Ireland

This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2006)

The Champion Trainer of National Hunt racing in Great Britain is the trainer whose horses have won the most prizemoney during a season. The list below shows the Champion Trainer for each season since 1945-46.

1945-46 - Tommy Rayson

1946-47 - Fulke Walwyn

1947-48 - Fulke Walwyn

1948-49 - Fulke Walwyn

1949-50 - Peter Cazalet

1950-51 - Fred Rimell

1951-52 - Neville Crump

1952-53 - Vincent O'Brien

1953-54 - Vincent O'Brien

1954-55 - Ryan Price

1955-56 - William Hall

1956-57 - Neville Crump

1957-58 - Fulke Walwyn

1958-59 - Ryan Price

1959-60 - Peter Cazalet

1960-61 - Fred Rimell

1961-62 - Ryan Price

1962-63 - Keith Piggott

1963-64 - Fulke Walwyn

1964-65 - Peter Cazalet

1965-66 - Ryan Price

1966-67 - Ryan Price

1967-68 - Denys Smith

1968-69 - Fred Rimell

1969-70 - Fred Rimell

1970-71 - Fred Winter

1971-72 - Fred Winter

1972-73 - Fred Winter

1973-74 - Fred Winter

1974-75 - Fred Winter

1975-76 - Fred Rimell

1976-77 - Fred Winter

1977-78 - Fred Winter

1978-79 - Peter Easterby

1979-80 - Peter Easterby

1980-81 - Peter Easterby

1981-82 - Michael Dickinson

1982-83 - Michael Dickinson

1983-84 - Michael Dickinson

1984-85 - Fred Winter

1985-86 - Nicky Henderson

1986-87 - Nicky Henderson

1987-88 - David Elsworth

1988-89 - Martin Pipe

1989-90 - Martin Pipe

1990-91 - Martin Pipe

1991-92 - Martin Pipe

1992-93 - Martin Pipe

1993-94 - David Nicholson

1994-95 - David Nicholson

1995-96 - Martin Pipe

1996-97 - Martin Pipe

1997-98 - Martin Pipe

1998-99 - Martin Pipe

1999-00 - Martin Pipe

2000-01 - Martin Pipe

2001-02 - Martin Pipe

2002-03 - Martin Pipe

2003-04 - Martin Pipe

2004-05 - Martin Pipe

2005-06 - Paul Nicholls

2006-07 - Paul Nicholls

2007-08 - Paul Nicholls

2008-09 - Paul Nicholls

List of jockeys

List of notable jockeys, both male and female, covering jockeys who compete worldwide in all forms of horse racing.


Fred Archer

Goncalino Almeida

Robby Albarado

Anna Lee Aldred

Kim Andersen

Chris Antley

Eddie Arcaro

Fred Archer

Cash Asmussen


Calvin Borel

Jerry Bailey

Michael Baze

Russell Baze

Tyler Baze

Terry Biddlecombe

Dominique Boeuf

Calvin Borel

Glen Boss

Opie Bosson

Darryl Bradley

Scobie Breasley

Paddy Brennan (jockey)


Dennis Carr

Willie Carson

G. R. Carter

Jesus Castanon

Javier Castellano

Eddie Castro

Steve Cauthen

Eibar Coa

Ray Cochrane

David Cohen

Angel Cordero Jr.

Jean Cruguet

Jim Culloty

Luke Currie

Diane Crump

Anthony S. Cruz


Frankie Dettori

John R. Davila Jr.

Robbie Davis

Jacqueline Davis

Pat Day

Eddie Delahoussaye

Kent Desormeaux

Frankie Dettori

Ramon Dominguez

Steve Donoghue

Richard Dunwoody

Mark Du Plessis

Shane Dye

Martin Dwyer


Masayoshi Ebina

Pat Eddery

Stewart Elliott


Kieren Fallon

David Romero Flores

Jeremias Flores


Alan Garcia

Barry Geraghty

Garrett Gomez

Aaron Gryder


Bill Hartack

Sandy Hawley

Roy Higgins

Michael Hills

Richard Hills

Darryll Holland

Richard Hughes

Patrick Husbands

Simon Husbands


Yasunari Iwata


Richard Johnson

Billy Jacobson


Julie Krone

Willy Kan

Inez Karlsson

Michael Kinane

Julie Krone


Carlos Lavor

Lucien Laurin

Graham Lee

Julien Leparoux

Jose Lezcano

Christophe Lemaire

Johnny Loftus

Johnny Longden

Paco Lopez

Frederic Lenclud

Michael Luzzi


Tony McCoy

Jason Maguire

Rajiv Maragh

Chris McCarron

Tony McCoy

James McDonald

Joe Mercer

Richard Migliore

Kirsty Milczarek

George Moore

Jamie Moore

Ryan Moore

Isaac Murphy

Johnny Murtagh

Harold Russell Maddock


Corey Nakatani


Damien Oliver


Stéphane Pasquier

T. J. Pereira

Olivier Peslier

Julio Pezua

Lester Piggott

Laffit Pincay Jr.

Red Pollard

Edgar Prado

Brenton Primmer


Jorge Ricardo

Sir Gordon Richards

Jeremy Rose

Katri Rosendahl

Michael Roberts

Philip Robinson

Wilfredo Rohena

Randy Romero

Chris Russell

Davy Russell

Joel Rosario


Gabriel Saez

Yves Saint-Martin

Jean Luc Samyn

Emanuel Jose Sanchez

Jose Santos

Yoshitomi Shibata

Blake Shinn

Bill Shoemaker

Eurico Rosa da Silva

Willie Simms

Rolanda Simpson

Doug Smith

Mike E. Smith

Pat Smullen

Alex Solis

Christophe Soumillon

Jamie Spencer

Greville Starkey

Gary Stevens

Maylan Studart

Chantal Sutherland

Walter Swinburn


Joe Talamo

Brian Taylor

Koshiro Take

Yutaka Take

Andrew Thornton

Ron Turcotte

Hayley Turner

Liam Treadwell

Sam Twiston-Davies

Sam Thomas

Willie Twiston-Davies


Bobby Ussery

Grenville Underwood


Pat Valenzuela

Jacinto Vasquez

Cornelio Velásquez

John R. Velazquez


Michael Walker

Ruby Walsh

Oscar Wells

Evan Williams

Fred Winter

Hedley Woodhouse

George Woolf

Harry Wragg


Chin Yang

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