Full Color Flag beautifully woven
Sturdy polyester fabric
Double stitched ends
Heavy metal grommets
Size: 3' in height x 5' in length
Weight 6 oz
The Army of Northern Virginia
battle flag was usually square, of various sizes for the different
branches of the service: 52 inches (130 cm) square for the infantry, 38
inches (97 cm) for the artillery, and 32 inches (81 cm) for the cavalry.
It was used in battle beginning in December 1861 until the fall of the
Confederacy. The blue color on the saltire in the battle flag was navy
blue, as opposed to the much lighter blue of the Naval Jack.
The flag's stars represented the number of states in the Confederacy.
The distance between the stars decreased as the number of states
increased, reaching thirteen when the secessionist factions of Kentucky and Missouri joined in late 1861.
The Battle Flag of the Army of Northern Virginia
At the First Battle of Manassas,
the similarity between the Stars and Bars and the Stars and Stripes
caused confusion and military problems. Regiments carried flags to help
commanders observe and assess battles in the warfare of the era. At a
distance, the two national flags were hard to tell apart.
In addition, Confederate regiments carried many other flags, which
added to the possibility of confusion. After the battle, General P.G.T. Beauregard
wrote that he was "resolved then to have [our flag] changed if
possible, or to adopt for my command a 'Battle flag', which would be
Entirely different from any State or Federal flag."
He turned to his aide, who happened to be William Porcher Miles, the
former chair of Committee on the Flag and Seal. Miles described his
rejected national flag design to Beauregard. Miles also told the
Committee on the Flag and Seal about the general's complaints and
request for the national flag to be changed. The committee rejected this
idea by a four to one vote, after which Beauregard proposed the idea of
having two flags. He described the idea in a letter to his commander
General Joseph E. Johnston: "I wrote to [Miles] that we should have two flags—a peace or parade flag, and a war
flag to be used only on the field of battle—but congress having
adjourned no action will be taken on the matter—How would it do us to
address the War Dept. on the subject of Regimental or badge flags made
of red with two blue bars crossing each other diagonally on which shall
be introduced the stars, ... We would then on the field of battle know
our friends from our Enemies."
Sovereignty or Secession Flag
The flag that Miles had favored when he was chair of the Committee on
the Flag and Seal eventually became the battle flag and, ultimately,
the most popular flag of the Confederacy. According to historian John
Coski, Miles' design was inspired by one of the many "secessionist
flags" flown at the South Carolina secession convention of December,
1860. That flag was a blue St George's Cross
(an upright or Latin cross) on a red field, with 15 white stars on the
cross, representing the Confederate States, and, on the red field,
palmetto and crescent symbols. Miles received a variety of feedback on
this design, including a critique from Charles Moise, a self-described
"Southerner of Jewish persuasion". Moise liked the design, but asked
that "the symbol of a particular religion not be made the symbol of the
nation." Taking this into account, Miles changed his flag, removing the
palmetto and crescent, and substituting a heraldic saltire ("X") for the
upright one. The number of stars was changed several times as well. He
described these changes and his reasons for making them in early 1861.
The diagonal cross was preferable, he wrote, because "it avoided the
religious objection about the cross (from the Jews and many Protestant
sects), because it did not stand out so conspicuously as if the cross
had been placed upright thus." He also argued that the diagonal cross
was "more Heraldric [sic] than Ecclesiastical, it being the 'saltire' of Heraldry, and significant of strength and progress."
According to Coski, the Saint Andrew's Cross
had no special place in Southern iconography at the time, and if Miles
had not been eager to conciliate the Southern Jews his flag would have
used the traditional Latin, Saint George's Cross. A colonel named James
B. Walton submitted a battle flag design essentially identical to Miles'
except with an upright Saint George's cross, but Beauregard chose the
diagonal cross design.
Miles' flag, and all the flag designs up to that point, were
rectangular ("oblong") in shape. General Johnston suggested making it
square instead to conserve material. Johnston also specified the various
sizes to be used by different types of military units. Generals
Beauregard and Johnston and Quartermaster General Cabell approved the
design of the 12-star Confederate Battle Flag at the Ratcliffe home,
which served briefly as Beauregard’s headquarters, near Fairfax Court
House in September 1861. The 12th star represented Missouri. President
Jefferson Davis arrived by train at Fairfax Station soon after and was
shown the design for the new battle flag at the Ratcliffe House. Hetty Cary and her sister and cousin
made prototypes. One such 12-star flag resides in the collection of
Richmond’s Museum of the Confederacy and the other is in Confederate
Memorial Hall in New Orleans.
On November 28, 1861, Confederate soldiers in the Army of Northern Virginia received the new battle flags in ceremonies at Centreville and Manassas,
Virginia, and carried them throughout the Civil War. Beauregard gave a
speech encouraging the soldiers to treat this new flag with honor and
that it must never be surrendered. Many soldiers wrote home about the
ceremony and the impression the flag had upon them, the "fighting
colors" boosting morale after the confusion at the Battle of First
Manassas. From that point on, the battle flag only grew in its
identification with the Confederacy and the South in general. Later, a 13th star was added for Kentucky.
The Army of Northern Virginia battle flag assumed a prominent place
post-war when it was adopted as the copyrighted emblem of the United
Confederate Veterans. Its continued use by the UCV and the later Sons of
Confederate Veterans led to the assumption that it was, as it has been
termed, "the soldier's flag" or "the Confederate battle flag".
The flag is also properly known as the flag of the Army of Northern
Virginia. It was sometimes called "Beauregard's flag" or "the Virginia
battle flag". A Virginia Department of Historic Resources marker
declaring Fairfax, Virginia, as the birthplace of the Confederate battle
flag was dedicated on April 12, 2008, near the intersection of Main and
Oak Streets, Fairfax, VA.
The Sons of Confederate Veterans consider themselves the direct heirs of their ancestors' battle flags.
The battle flag is often considered to be associated with Confederate sympathizers.The
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On Mar-01-13 at 16:39:38 PST, seller added the following information:
On Mar-02-13 at 00:13:38 PST, seller added the following information: