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Details about  Keep Calm and Carry On Cufflinks Silver World War II Nazi Germany Invasion I

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Keep Calm and Carry On Cufflinks Silver World War II Nazi Germany Invasion I
Keep-Calm-and-Carry-On-Cufflinks-Silver-World-War-II-Nazi-Germany-Invasion-I
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In Excellent Condition

Ended:
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311007730221
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Seller notes: In Excellent Condition
Keep Calm and Carry on
Cufflinks

A Pair of "Keep Calm and Carry On" Cuff Links

Iconic Classy Stylish

In Excellent Condition

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Keep Calm and Carry On was a motivational poster produced by the British government in 1939 several months before the beginning of the Second World War, intended to raise the morale of the British public in the aftermath of widely predicted mass air attacks on major cities.[1][2] It had only limited distribution with no public display, and thus was little known. It was rediscovered in 2000, has been re-issued by a number of private companies, and has been used as the decorative theme for a range of products. It was believed there were only two known surviving examples of the poster outside government archives[3] until a collection of 20 originals was brought in to the Antiques Roadshow in 2012 by the daughter of an ex-Royal Observer Corps member

Design and production
The poster was initially produced by the Ministry of Information,[1] at the beginning of the Second World War. It was intended to be distributed in order to strengthen morale in the event of a wartime disaster, such as mass bombing of major cities using high explosives and poison gas, which was widely expected within hours of an outbreak of war. Over 2,500,000 copies were printed, although the poster was distributed only in limited numbers, and never saw public display.[5] Bristol photographer Reece Winstone's book of wartime photographs of the city shows the poster in large form on a hoarding.[full citation needed]

The poster was third in a series of three. The previous two posters from the series, "Freedom Is In Peril. Defend It With All Your Might" and "Your Courage, Your Cheerfulness, Your Resolution Will Bring Us Victory" were issued and used across Britain for motivational purposes, as the Ministry of Information assumed that the events of the first weeks of the war would demoralise the population.[6] Planning for the posters started in April 1939; by June designs were prepared, and by August 1939, production had begun, and the posters were ready to be placed up within 24 hours of the outbreak of war. The posters were intended to be associated with the Ministry of Information, and to incorporate a unique and recognisable lettering and design, with a message from the King to his people. An icon of a "Tudor" crown (a widely used symbol of government authority) was chosen to head the poster, rather than a photograph. The slogans were created by civil servants, with a career civil servant named Waterfield coming up with "Your Courage" as "a rallying war-cry that will bring out the best in everyone of us and put us in an offensive mood at once". These particular posters were designed as "a statement of the duty of the individual citizen", un-pictorial, to be accompanied by more colloquial designs. The "Your Courage" poster was much more famous during the war, as it was the first of the Ministry of Information's posters.[2]


However, although the campaign was prompt, and although 800,000 of the "Freedom Is In Peril" and "Your Courage" posters were distributed, many people claimed not to have seen them; while those who did see them regarded them as patronising and divisive. Design historian Susannah Walker regards the campaign as "a resounding failure", and reflective of a misjudgement by upper-class civil servants of the mood of the people.[7]

Later developments
Later in the war, a leaflet was distributed with a message from the Prime Minister headed "Beating the Invader". It begins "If invasion comes..." and goes on to exhort the populace to "Stand Firm" and "Carry On". The two phrases do not appear in one sentence, but are picked out in an emphatic font. The text identifies them as the two "great order(s) and dut(ies)" to and for the people, should invasion come. The leaflet then lists a number of practical measures to be taken.[citation needed]

Rediscovery and commercialisation


Shop display of "Keep Calm" merchandise, including the original slogan and variants such as "Keep Calm and Drink Tea".
In 2000, Stuart Manley, co-owner with his wife Mary of Barter Books Ltd. in Alnwick, Northumberland, was sorting through a box of used books bought at auction when he uncovered one of the original "Keep Calm and Carry On" posters. The couple framed it and hung it up by the cash register; and it attracted so much interest that Manley began to produce and sell copies.[8] Other companies followed suit, and the design rapidly began to be used as the theme for a wide range of products. "What seemed to the Manleys as just a bit of quintessential British nostalgia has morphed into an international industry."[9] Mary Manley later commented, "I didn't want it trivialised. But of course now it's been trivialised beyond belief."[9]

In early 2012, Barter Books debuted an informational short, The Story of Keep Calm and Carry On, providing visual insight into the modernisation and commercialisation of the design and the phrase.[10]

Susannah Walker comments that the poster is now seen "not only as a distillation of a crucial moment in Britishness, but also as an inspiring message from the past to the present in a time of crisis". She goes on to point out, however, that such an interpretation overlooks the circumstances of its production, and the relative failure of the campaign of which it formed a part.[11]

Trademark claims

In August 2011, it was reported a UK-based company called Keep Calm and Carry On Ltd[12] had registered the slogan as a community trade mark in the EU,[13][14] after failing to trademark the slogan in the United Kingdom.[15] They issued a take-down request against a seller of Keep Calm and Carry On products.[16][unreliable source?] Questions have been raised as to whether the registration could be challenged, as the slogan had been widely used before registration and is not recognisable as indicating trade origin.[14] An application has been submitted by British intellectual property advisor and UK trademarking service Trade Mark Direct, to cancel the trademark on the grounds that the words are too widely used for one person to own the exclusive rights.[17] The company is now trying to trademark the slogan in both the United States[18] and Canada.[15][19]

Parodies



A 2009 parody of the poster
As the popularity of the poster in various media has grown, innumerable parodies, imitations and co-optations have also appeared, making it a notable meme. Messages range from the cute to the overtly political, typically with references to other aspects of popular culture ranging from the royal wedding of Kate Middleton and Prince William to the Mario videogames. Examples have included "Now Panic and Freak Out" (with an upside-down crown), "Get Excited and Make Things" (with a crown incorporating spanners), "Keep Calm and Have a Cupcake" (with a cupcake icon), "Don’t Panic and Fake a British Accent", "Keep Calm and Hate Microsoft" (with the Apple logo), and "Keep Spending and Carry On Shopping",[20] In March–April 2012 the British pop-rock band McFly undertook a theatre tour entitled "The Keep Calm and Play Louder Tour", promoted with a poster closely based on that of 1939. In late 2012 and early 2013, the "Save Lewisham Hospital" campaign (a protest against proposed cuts in services at University Hospital Lewisham) made widespread use of a poster with the slogan "Don't Keep Calm Get Angry and Save Lewisham A&E".[21][22]

Calgarian Mayor Naheed Nenshi's efforts to encourage and motivate his citizens in the wake of the 2013 Alberta floods have made his name the subject of parody "Keep Calm and Nenshi On" fundraising T-shirts.

World War II, or the Second World War[2] (often abbreviated as WWII or WW2), was a global military conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, which involved most of the world's nations, including all of the great powers: eventually forming two opposing military alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilised. In a state of "total war," the major participants placed their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. Marked by significant events involving the mass death of civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it was the deadliest conflict in human history,[3] resulting in 50 million to over 70 million fatalities.
The war is generally accepted to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and Slovakia, and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and most of the countries of the British Empire and Commonwealth. Germany set out to establish a large empire in Europe. From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or subdued much of continental Europe; amid Nazi-Soviet agreements, the nominally neutral Soviet Union fully or partially occupied and annexed territories of its six European neighbours. Britain and the Commonwealth remained the only major force continuing the fight against the Axis in North Africa and in extensive naval warfare. In June 1941, the European Axis launched an invasion of the Soviet Union. The USSR joined the Allies and the largest land theatre of war in history began, which, from this moment on, would tied down the major part of the Axis military power. In December 1941, Japan, the major Asian Axis nation, which had been at war with China since 1937,[4] and aimed to dominate Asia, attacked the United States and European possessions in the Pacific Ocean, quickly conquering much of the region. In response, the United States entered into military operations on the Allied side.
The Axis advance was stopped in 1942 after the defeat of Japan in a series of naval battles and after defeats of European Axis troops in North Africa and, decisively, at Stalingrad. In 1943, with a series of German defeats in Eastern Europe, the Allied invasion of Fascist Italy, and American victories in the Pacific, the Axis lost the initiative and undertook strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded France, while the Soviet Union regained all territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies.
The war in Europe ended with the capture of Berlin by Soviet and Polish troops and the subsequent German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945. The Japanese Navy was defeated by the United States, and invasion of the Japanese Archipelago ("Home Islands") became imminent. The war in Asia ended on 15 August 1945 when Japan agreed to surrender.
The war ended with the total victory of the Allies over Germany and Japan in 1945. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world. The United Nations (UN) was established to foster international cooperation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers started to decline, while the decolonisation of Asia and Africa began. Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to stabilise postwar relations

World War II
Western Europe · Eastern Europe · Africa · Mediterranean · Asia and the Pacific · Atlantic
Casualties · Military engagements · Topics · Conferences · Commanders
Participants
Allies (Leaders)
Ethiopia · China · Czechoslovakia · Poland · United Kingdom · India · France · Australia · New Zealand · South Africa · Canada · Norway · Belgium · Netherlands · Luxembourg · Greece · Yugoslavia · Soviet Union · United States · Philippines · Mexico · Brazil
Axis and
Axis-aligned
(Leaders)
Bulgaria · Reorganized National Government of China · Croatia · Finland · Germany · Hungary · Iraq · Italy · Italian Social Republic · Japan · Manchukuo · Romania · Slovakia · Thailand · Vichy France
Resistance
Albania · Austria · Baltic States · Belgium · Czech lands · Denmark · Estonia · Ethiopia · France · Germany · Greece · Hong Kong · India · Italy · Jewish · Korea · Latvia · Luxembourg · Netherlands · Norway · Philippines · Poland (Anti-communist) · Romania · Thailand · Soviet Union · Slovakia · Western Ukraine · Vietnam · Yugoslavia
Timeline
Prelude
Africa · Asia · Europe
1939
Invasion of Poland · Phoney War · Winter War · Atlantic · Changsha (1939) · China
1940
Weserübung · Netherlands · Belgium · France · UK · North Africa · British Somaliland · Baltic States · Moldova · Indochina · Greece · Compass
1941
East Africa · Invasion of Yugoslavia · Yugoslav Front · Greece · Crete · Soviet Union (Barbarossa) · Karelia · Lithuania · Middle East · Kiev · Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran · Leningrad · Moscow · Sevastopol · Pearl Harbor · Hong Kong · Philippines · Changsha (1941) · Malaya · Borneo
1942
Burma · Changsha (1942) · Coral Sea · Gazala · Midway · Blue · Stalingrad · Dieppe · El Alamein · Torch · Guadalcanal
1943
End in Africa · Kursk · Smolensk · Solomon Islands · Sicily · Lower Dnieper · Italy · Gilbert and Marshall · Changde
1944
Monte Cassino and Shingle · Narva · Cherkassy · Tempest · Ichi-Go · Normandy · Mariana and Palau · Bagration · Western Ukraine · Tannenberg Line · Warsaw Uprising · Eastern Romania · Yugoslavia · Paris · Gothic Line · Market Garden · Estonia · Crossbow · Pointblank · Lapland · Hungary · Leyte · Bulge · Burma
1945
Vistula-Oder · Iwo Jima · Okinawa · Surrender of Italy · Berlin · Czechoslovakia · Budapest · West Hunan · Surrender of Germany · Manchuria · Philippines · Borneo · Atomic bombings · Surrender of Japan
Aspects
General
Air warfare of World War II · Attacks on North America · Blitzkrieg · Comparative military ranks · Cryptography · Home front · Manhattan Project · Military awards · Military equipment · Military production · Nazi plunder · Technology · Total war · Strategic bombing · Bengal famine of 1943
Aftermath
Effects · Expulsion of Germans · Operation Paperclip · Operation Keelhaul · Occupation of Germany · Morgenthau Plan · Territorial changes · Soviet occupations (Romania, Poland, Hungary, Baltic States) · Occupation of Japan · First Indochina War · Indonesian National Revolution · Cold War · Decolonization · Popular culture
War crimes
German and Wehrmacht war crimes · The Holocaust · Italian war crimes · Japanese war crimes · Allied war crimes · Soviet war crimes · United States war crimes
War rape
Rape during the occupation of Japan · Comfort women · Rape of Nanking · Rape during the occupation of Germany
Prisoners
Nazi crimes against Soviet POWs · Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union · Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union · Japanese prisoners of war in World War II · German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union · German prisoners of war in the United States


List of wars by death toll

60,000,000–72,000,000 - World War II (1939–1945), (see World War II casualties)[91][92]
36,000,000 - An Shi Rebellion (China, 755–763)[93]
30,000,000–60,000,000 - Mongol Conquests (13th century) (see Mongol invasions and Tatar invasions)[94][95][96][97]
25,000,000 - Qing dynasty conquest of Ming dynasty (1616–1662)[98]
20,000,000 - World War I (1914–1918) (see World War I casualties)[99]
20,000,000 - Taiping Rebellion (China, 1850–1864) (see Dungan revolt)[100]
20,000,000 - Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945)[101]
10,000,000 - Warring States Era (China, 475 BC–221 BC)
8,000,000–12,000,000 - Dungan revolt (China, 1862 –1877)
7,000,000 - 20,000,000 Conquests of Tamerlane (1370–1405)[102][103]
5,000,000–9,000,000 - Russian Civil War and Foreign Intervention (1917–1922)[104]
5,000,000 - Conquests of Menelik II of Ethiopia (1882–1898)[105][106]
3,800,000 - 5,400,000 - Second Congo War (1998–2003)[107][108][109]
3,500,000–6,000,000 - Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) (see Napoleonic Wars casualties)
3,000,000–11,500,000 - Thirty Years' War (1618–1648)[110]
3,000,000–7,000,000 - Yellow Turban Rebellion (China, 184–205)
2,500,000–3,500,000 - Korean War (1950–1953) (see Cold War)[111]
2,300,000–3,800,000 - Vietnam War (entire war 1945–1975)
300,000–1,300,000 - First Indochina War (1946–1954)
100,000–300,000 - Vietnamese Civil War (1954–1965)
1,750,000–2,100,000 - American phase (1965–1973)
170,000 - Final phase (1973–1975)
175,000–1,150,000 - Secret War (1953–1975)
2,000,000–4,000,000 - Huguenot Wars[112]
2,000,000 - Shaka's conquests (1816–1828)[113]
300,000–3,000,000[114] - Bangladesh Liberation War (1971)
2,000,000 - Russian-Circassian War (1763–1864) (see Caucasian War) and the exile of another 1.5 million Circassians from there homeland to the Ottoman Empire and another 500,000 Circassians Killed at sea during the Circassian exile from there homeland.
1,500,000–2,000,000 - Afghan Civil War (1979-)
1,000,000–1,500,000 Soviet intervention (1979–1989)
1,300,000–6,100,000 - Chinese Civil War (1927–1949) note that this figure excludes World War II casualties
300,000–3,100,000 before 1937
1,000,000–3,000,000 after World War II
1,000,000–2,000,000 - Mexican Revolution (1910–1920)[115]
1,000,000 - Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988)[116]
1,000,000 - Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)[117]
1,000,000 - Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005)
1,000,000 - Panthay Rebellion (China,1856–1873)
1,000,000 - Nien Rebellion (China,1853–1868)
1,000,000 - Nigerian Civil War (1967–1970)
618,000[118] - 970,000 - American Civil War (including 350,000 from disease) (1861–1865)
900,000–1,000,000 - Mozambique Civil War (1975–1994)
868,000[119] - 1,400,000[120] - Seven Years' War (1756–1763)
800,000 - 1,000,000 - Rwandan Civil War (1990–1993)
800,000 - Congo Civil War (1996–1997)
600,000 to 1,300,000 - First Jewish-Roman War (see List of Roman wars)
580,000 - Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132–135CE)
570,000 - Eritrean War of Independence (1961–1991)
550,000 - Somali Civil War (1988- )
500,000 - 1,000,000 - Spanish Civil War (1936–1939)
500,000 - Angolan Civil War (1975–2002)
500,000 - Ugandan Civil War (1979–1986)
400,000–1,000,000 - War of the Triple Alliance in Paraguay (1864–1870)
400,000 - War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714)
371,000 - Continuation War (1941–1944)
350,000 - Great Northern War (1700–1721)[121]
315,000 - 735,000 - Wars of the Three Kingdoms (1639–1651) English campaign ~40,000, Scottish 73,000, Irish 200,000-620,000[122]
300,000 - First Burundi Civil War (1972)
300,000 - Darfur conflict (2003-)
250,000 - Bosnian War (1992–1995)[123]
230.000 - 2,000,000 - Eighty Years' War (1568–1648)
270,000–300,000 - Crimean War (1854–1856)
234,000 Philippine-American War (1899–1912)[124]
230,000–1,400,000 - Ethiopian Civil War (1974–1991)
224,000 - Balkan Wars, includes both wars (1912–1913)
220,000 - Liberian Civil War (1989–1995 )
217,000 - 1,124,303 - War on Terror (9/11/2001–Present)[citation needed]
200,000 - 1,000,000[125][126] - Albigensian Crusade (1208–1259)
200,000–800,000 - Warlord era in China (1916–1928)
200,000 - 400,000 - Politionele acties (Indonesian war of independence) (1945–1949)
200,000 - 220,000 - The Conquest of Chile ((1536-1883)
200,000 - Second Punic War (BC218-BC204) (see List of Roman battles)
200,000 - Sierra Leone Civil War (1992–2001)
200,000 - Algerian Civil War (1991–2002 )[127][128]
200,000 - Guatemalan Civil War (1960–1996)
190,000 - Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871)
180,000 - 300,000 - La Violencia (1948–1960)
170,000 - Greek War of Independence (1821–1830)
150,000 - Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990)
150,000 - North Yemen Civil War (1962–1970)
150,000 - Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905)
148,000-1,000,000 - Winter War (1939)
125,000 - Eritrean-Ethiopian War (1998–2000)
120,000 - 384,000 Great Turkish War (1683–1699) (see Ottoman-Habsburg wars)
120,000 - Third Servile War (BC73-BC71)
117,000 - 500,000 - Revolt in the Vendée (1793–1796)
103,359+ - 1,136,920+ - Invasion and Occupation of Iraq (2003–Present)
101,000 - 115,000 - Arab-Israeli conflict (1929- )
100,500 - Chaco War (1932–1935)
100,000 - 1,000,000 - War of the two brothers (1531–1532)
100,000 - 400,000 - Western New Guinea (1984 - ) (see Genocide in West Papua)
100,000 - 200,000 - Indonesian invasion of East Timor (1975–1978)
100,000 - Persian Gulf War (1990–1991)
100,000–1,000,000 - Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962)
100,000 - Thousand Days War (1899–1902)
100,000 - German Peasants' War (1524–1525)[129]
80,000 - Third Punic War (BC149-BC146)
75,000 - 200,000? - Conquests of Alexander the Great (BC336-BC323)
75,000 - El Salvador Civil War (1980–1992)
75,000 - Second Boer War (1899–1902)
70,000 - Boudica's uprising (AD60-AD61)
69,000 - Internal conflict in Peru (1980- )
60,000 - Sri Lanka/Tamil conflict (1983–2009)
60,000 - Nicaraguan Rebellion (1972–91)
55,000 - War of the Pacific (1879–1884)
50,000 - 200,000 - First Chechen War (1994–1996)
50,000 - 100,000 - Tajikistan Civil War (1992–1997)
50,000 - Wars of the Roses (1455–1485) (see Wars involving England)
45,000 - Greek Civil War (1945–1949)
41,000–100,000 - Kashmiri insurgency (1989- )
36,000 - Finnish Civil War (1918)
35,000 - 40,000 - War of the Pacific (1879–1884)
35,000 - 45,000 - Siege of Malta (1565) (see Ottoman wars in Europe)
30,000 - Turkey/PKK conflict (1984- )
30,000 - Sino-Vietnamese War (1979)
30,000 - Rhodesian Bush War (1964–1979)
~28,000 - 1982 Lebanon War (1982)
25,000 - Second Chechen War (1999–2001)[130]
25,000 - American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)
23,384 - Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 (December 1971)
23,000 - Nagorno-Karabakh War (1988–1994)
20,000 - 49,600 U.S. Invasion of Afghanistan (2001–2002)
19,000+ - Mexican–American War (1846–1848)
14,000+ - Six-Day War (1967)
15,000–20,000 - Croatian War of Independence (1991–1995)
13,000+ - Nepalese Civil War (1996-2006)
11,053 - Malayan Emergency (1948–1960)
11,000 - Spanish-American War (1898)
10,000–20,000 - Libyian civil war (2011–present)
10,000 - Amadu's Jihad (1810–1818)
10,000 - Halabja poison gas attack (1988)
7,264–10,000 - Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 (August–September 1965)
7,000–24,000 - American War of 1812 (1812–1815)
2000-7,000 - Kosovo War (1998–1999)
5,000 - Turkish invasion of Cyprus (1974)
4,600 - Sino-Indian War (1962)
4,000 - Waziristan War (2004–2006)
4,000 - Irish Civil War (1922–23)
3,500 - The Troubles (1969–1998)
3,000 - Civil war in Côte d'Ivoire (2002–2007)
2,899 - New Zealand Land Wars (1845–1872)
2,604–7,000 - Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 (October 1947-December 1948)
2,000 - Football War (1969)
2,000 - Irish War of Independence (1919–21)
1,975–4,500+ - violence in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict (2000–2005)
1,724 - War of Lapland (1945)
1,500 - Romanian Revolution (December 1989)
~1,500 - 2006 Lebanon War
1,000 - Zapatista uprising in Chiapas (1994)
907 - Falklands War (1982)
62 - Slovenian Independence War (1991)

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