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Details about  Marcus Aurelius/Eagle garlanded Altar/Rare original Ancient Roman coin superb

Marcus Aurelius/Eagle garlanded Altar/Rare original Ancient Roman coin superb See original listing
Marcus-Aurelius-Eagle-garlanded-Altar-Rare-original-Ancient-Roman-coin-superb
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Ended:
29 Jun, 2012 04:31:25 BST
Winning bid:
US $36.05
Approximately £21.49
15 bids ]
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Item location:
winnetka, United States

Description

eBay item number:
290732620238
Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing.
Last updated on  22 Jun, 2012 04:39:56 BST  View all revisions

Item specifics

Material:

bronze

 

an379

Marcus Aurelius - Roman Caesar: 139-161 A.D. - Roman Emperor: 161-180 A.D. -

 AE denarius 18-19mm. 2.68gm. Rome mint. Superb specimen. Much better in hand. Bidding is for the coin from the photos. 

Struck 163-164 AD.
Obv./ DIVVS M ANTONINVS PIVS, bare head right.
Rev./ CONSECRATIO, eagle standing right on garlanded altar, head left. RSC 84.

Authenticity guaranteed.

Minerva (Etruscan: Menrfa, or Menrva) was the Roman goddess whom Hellenizing Romans from the second century BC onwards equated with the Greek goddess Athena. She was the virgin goddess of poetry, medicine, wisdom, commerce, weaving, crafts, magic, and the inventor of music. She is often depicted with an owl, her sacred creature and is, through this connection, a symbol of wisdom.

This article focuses on Minerva in ancient Rome and in cultic practice. For information on Latin literary mythological accounts of Minerva, which were heavily influenced by Greek mythology, see Pallas Athena, where she is one of three virgin goddesses along with Artemis and Hestia, known by the Romans as Diana and Vesta.

 Etruscan Menrva

The name "Minerva" is imported from the Etruscans who called her Menrva. Extrapolating from her Roman nature, it is assumed that in Etruscan mythology, Minerva was the goddess of wisdom, war, art, schools and commerce. She was the Etruscan counterpart to Greek Athena. Like Athena, Minerva was born from the head of her father, Jupiter (Greek Zeus).

By a process of folk etymology, the Romans could have confused the phones of her foreign name with those of the root men- in Latin words such as mens meaning "mind", perhaps because one of her aspects as goddess pertained to the intellectual. The word mens has the Proto-Indo-European mn- stem, linked with memory as in Greek Mnemosyne (μνημοσύνη) and mnestis (μνῆστις: memory, remembrance, recollection).

 Cult in Rome

Menrva was part of a holy triad with Tinia and Uni, equivalent to the Roman Capitoline Triad of Jupiter-Juno-Minerva. Minerva was the daughter of Jupiter.

As Minerva Medica, she was the goddess of medicine and doctors. As Minerva Achaea, she was worshipped at Luceria in Apulia where votive gifts and arms said to be those of Diomedes were preserved in her temple.

In Fasti III, Ovid called her the "goddess of a thousand works." Minerva was worshipped throughout Italy, though only in Rome did she take on the warlike character shared by Athena. Her worship was also taken out to the empire — in Britain, for example, she was conflated with the local wisdom goddess Sulis.

The Romans celebrated her festival from March 19 to March 23 during the day which is called, in the neuter plural, Quinquatria, the fifth after the Ides of March, the nineteenth, an artisans' holiday . A lesser version, the Minusculae Quinquatria, was held on the Ides of June, June 13, by the flute-players, who were particularly useful to religion. In 207 BC, a guild of poets and actors was formed to meet and make votive offerings at the temple of Minerva on the Aventine hill. Among others, its members included Livius Andronicus. The Aventine sanctuary of Minerva continued to be an important center of the arts for much of the middle Roman Republic.

Minerva was worshipped on the Capitoline Hill as one of the Capitoline Triad along with Jupiter and Juno, at the Temple of Minerva Medica, and at the "Delubrum Minervae" a temple founded around 50 BC by Pompey on the site now occupied by the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva facing the present-day Piazza della Minerva.

 MARCUS AURELIUS
Caesar: A.D. 139-161 under Antoninus Pius
Augustus: A.D. 161-180
   A.D. 161-169 with Lucius Verus
   A.D. 169-177 Sole Reign
   A.D. 177-180 with Commodus

   Adopted son of Antoninus Pius and heir of Hadrian
   Husband of Faustina Junior
   Father of Commodus, Annius Verus, Lucilla and Aurelius Antoninus
   Son-in-law of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Senior
   Father-in-law of Lucius Verus

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman emperor from 161 to his death in 180. He ruled with Lucius Verus as co-emperor from 161 until Lucius' death in 169. He was the last of the "Five Good Emperors", and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. His tenure was marked by wars in Asia against a revitalized Parthian Empire, and with Germanic tribes along the Limes Germanicus into Gaul and across the Danube. A revolt in the East, led by Avidius Cassius who previously fought alongside Lucius Verus against the Parthians, failed.

Marcus Aurelius' work Meditations, written in Greek while on campaign between 170 and 180, is still revered as a literary monument to a government of service and duty.

Marcus Aurelius owes much of him becoming Augustus to Hadrian who groomed him from childhood for the post. He became Caesar shortly after Hadrian died and the political grooming continued under Antoninus Pius. He had to wait another twenty years or so to become Augustus himself in the year 161. No sooner did this happen than he was thrust in a series of wars that would eat up the rest of his time in office. He died while fighting the ever-harassing tribes of the Germanic region and power then passed to his son Commodus.

During his lengthy reign he is remembered as being among the noblest and most even-keeled of emperors. He preferred to use the considerable power of his post to pursue a period of enlightenment out of character not only for his age but clear across time to our very own. Gibbon summarizes that he "was severe to himself, indulgent to the imperfections of others, just and beneficent to all mankind."



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