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Details about  Mesa Boogie F50 guitar amplifier

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Mesa Boogie F50 guitar amplifier
Mesa-Boogie-F50-guitar-amplifier
Item Ended
Item condition:
Used
Ended:
01 Sep, 2014 20:12:35 BST
Winning bid:
£430.00
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Item location:
Daventry, United Kingdom

Description

eBay item number:
251627430066
Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing.

Item specifics

Condition:
Used: An item that has been previously used. The item may have some signs of cosmetic wear, but is fully ... Read moreabout the condition
Type:

Guitar Amplifier

Number of Channels:

2

Brand:

Mesa Boogie

RMS Power:

50 watt valve

Model:

F50

Rack Mountable:

No

Mesa Boogie F50  1x12" valve Amp. Immaculate condition, home use only for last 4 years, with Mesa footswitch and amp cover. Amazing quality of sound at low and high volume, very versatile amp, whether you play jazz, blues or screaming metal.

MESA BOOGIE




Owner's Manual



Series



Hello from the Tone Farm...



YOU, the smart player and all around intuitive human, have put your trust in us to be your


amplifier company. This is something we do not take lightly. Our reward is that we've made


a classic amplifier and by choosing this amplifier, you have become part of the MESA


family...Welcome! Our goal is to never let you down. Your reward is that you are now the


owner of an archetypal guitar amp bred of fine all tube amp heritage...benefiting from the


many patented pioneering MESA/Boogie circuits that led to the refinement of your new


instrument. Feel confident, as we do, that this amp will inspire many hours of musical


satisfaction and lasting enjoyment. It was built with you in mind, by players who know the


value of a fine musical instrument and the commitment it takes to make great music. The


same commitment to quality, value and support we make to you...our new friend.



FRONT PANEL: Controls & Switches


REAR PANEL: Controls / Switches / Connection Jacks




Precautions 0


Overview 1-2-3


Instant Gratification 2


GAIN 4


TREBLE 4


MID 4-5


BASS 5


REVERB 5


MASTER 5-6


CH 1 & 2: CONTOUR SELECT SWITCH 6


ON/STANDBY & POWER ON SWITCHES 5


FUSE 7


RECORD & PHONES 7


FX: SEND & RETURN 7


FX MIX CONTROL 8


SPEAKER MUTE SWITCH 8


SPEAKERS 8


FACTORY SAMPLE SETTINGS 9


PERSONAL SETTINGS PAGE 10


TUBE TASK CHART 11-12-13


TUBE NOISE & DIAGNOSING PRE-AMP PROBLEMS 14-15


Feature Article by RandallSmith


"Bias Adjustment" 16-17-18


SPEAKER IMPEDANCE & SPEAKER HOOK-UPS GUIDE 19 thru 24


Feature Article by Randall Smith


"Triodes, Pentodes & Irishmen" 25-26-27


PARTS SHEEET 28



Table of Contents



Series




PRECAUTIONS & WARNINGS



Your MESA/Boogie Amplifier is a professional instrument. Please treat it with respect and operate it properly.




USE COMMON SENSE AND ALWAYS OBSERVE THESE PRECAUTIONS:



YOUR AMPLIFIER IS LOUD! EXPOSURE TO HIGH SOUND VOLUMES MAY CAUSE PERMANENT HEARING DAMAGE !



No user serviceable parts inside. Refer service to qualified personnel. Always unplug AC power before removing chassis.


EXPORT MODELS: Always insure that unit is wired for proper voltage. Make certain grounding conforms with local standards.






READ AND FOLLOW INSTRUCTIONS OF PROPER USAGE.




WARNING: EU: permission from the Supply Authority is needed before connection.




WARNING: Vacuum tube amplifiers generate heat. To insure proper ventilation always make




certain there is at least four inches (100mm) of space behind the rear of the amplifier cabinet.


Keep away from curtains or any flammable objects.



WARNING: Do not block any ventilation openings on the rear or top of the amplifier. Do not




impede ventilation by placing objects on top of the amplifier which extend past the rear edge of its


cabinet.



WARNING: Do not expose the amplifier to rain, moisture, dripping or splashing water. Do not




place objects filled with liquids on or nearby the amplifier.



WARNING: Always make certain proper load is connected before operating the amplifier. Failure




to do so could pose a shock hazard and may result in damage to the amplifier.


Do not expose amplifier to direct sunlight or extremely high temperatures.


Always insure that amplifier is properly grounded. Always unplug AC power cord before changing


fuse or any tubes. When replacing fuse, use only same type and rating.


Avoid direct contact with heated tubes. Keep amplifier away from children.


Be sure to connect to an AC power supply that meets the power supply specifications listed on


the rear of the unit. Remove the power plug from the AC mains socket if the unit is to be stored


for an extended period of time. If there is any danger of lightning occurring nearby, remove the


power plug from the wall socket in advance.


To avoid damaging your speakers and other playback equipment, turn off the power of all related


equipment before


making the connections.


Do not use excessive force in handling control buttons, switches and controls. Do not use


solvents such as benzene or paint thinner to clean the unit. Wipe off the exterior with soft cloth.


Be sure to have the warranty card filled out by the store at which it was purchased and return to



Mesa/Boogie.




OVERVIEW:



Congratulations on choosing the F Series as your amplifier and welcome to the Mesa/Boogie family! The new F Series amplifiers




combines high gain lead performance, an amazing mid-gain crunch or blues sound and a bold and beautiful clean sound in a simple



2 Channel, Three Mode, all-tube, hand-built package that begs to rock. This tidy format is available in three power versions, the F-30,


F-50 and F-100, and in both head and self-contained combo platforms.


The bright and bouncy F-30 with its 2xEL84 power string operating in our patented Dyna-Watt circuit is housed in the original


Boogie 1x12 size and powers the legendary Celestion Vintage 30. This is perfect as a super portable, lightweight and surprisingly




powerful combo. As a short head powering a 2x12 or 4x12, this little wolf in sheep’s clothing shows its fangs and becomes a viable gig


rig for mid size venues where its power clip can add a unique and dynamic personality. Like its forefathers, this little dynamo stays true



to the little giant-killer tradition that won the first Boogies worldwide acclaim 30 years ago.


The F-50 holds the title as middleweight champion of the line with its robust and balanced 2x6L6 power section and this rich, pristine


blend speaks from our popular Wide-Body 1x12 combo or head. The combo features our favorite custom designed, proprietary




Celestion C90 speaker and sounds twice its size as it envelopes you with its 3D magic, while the head through a big cab is absolutely


over the top with a tight top end snap and aggressive mid-power urgency.



The big daddy F-100 is the power broker of this clan with the undeniable authority of 4x6L6’s working for your tone. This big block bad




boy produces stunning clean headroom and can push some serious air in its 2x12 combo format featuring two Celestion Vintage 30’s


or, when punishment is required, the Long Chassis head pumping a 4x12…it’s the final word in loud. The voice is fatter and a little



PAGE 1



Operating Instructions



Series




GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB MASTER



STANDBY POWER


ON ON



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR




INPUT



FRONT VIEW:


FX MIX


10%



SILENT RECORDING



MUTE SPKR ON



8 OHM



COMBO



SPEAKERS



FUSE




FOOTSWITCH


SOCKET


BELOW


RCORD / PHONES



STEREO / MONO



FX SEND RETURN



4 OHM



WARNING:


Unplug power


before replacing


fuse or removing


bolts mounting


chassis.


POWER FUSE


2A


SLO


BLO


120 V~


60 Hz


2A


100%



WARNING: To reduce risk of fire or




electric shock, replace fuse with


same type and rating only. Do not


expose this unit to rain or moisture.



WARNING: To reduce risk of fire or electric




shock, Do not remove cover. No userserviceable


parts inside. Refer


servicing to qualified personnel.



F-Series All Tube Amplifiers MESA BOOGIE Handbuilt in Petaluma, CA


4 OHM



USE WITH 8 OHM SPEAKERS



REAR VIEW:



OVERVIEW: (Continued) darker than that of its lower power family members but posses a depth and punch found only in amps of


this serious-gigging horsepower range. Our legendary 60/100 switch has been included and allows you to detune the power section



to achieve the brighter, more clippable feel of the F-Series.


F-Series amplifiers are crafted with the same custom quality, chassis, cabinet and tight tolerance parts found in our top of the line




multi-channel amplifiers. They become the deal of the century by focusing on maximum performance derived from a more straightforward


layout that defines their stripped, business like personality. Yet make no mistake, these three over the top, footswitchable


sounds stand proud against any amp at any price.


Features include 2 Channels which are divided into a separate Rhythm Channel (top) and a Two-Mode Lead Channel (bottom) which


shares a set of Tone controls to produce the more vintage, warm sauce of Lead 1 and the huge, aggressive spread of Lead 2 Contour.



Add to this a long tank, 3-spring, pure analog Reverb, a Parallel Effects Loop and a dedicated Recording Output and the F-Series




preamp shines with old world luster as it delivers modern high gain performance.



All this preamp versatility is powered by feeding our dynamic dual differential driver first seen in our popular Strategy 400 Stereo




power amp, which lends an explosive nature to the sound and gives the impression of headroom far beyond the rated wattage. We


then send this super-buffed signal to the output section that responds to every nuance of your playing style.


All this performance is controlled via the included 3 button footswitch and this rounds out the package to achieve a performance


minded instrument of ultimate expression. So before we get to the specific controls and features, take a spin around the world of tone


found in the 3 Modes using the sample setting below as a guide.



PAGE 2



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB MASTER



STANDBY POWER


ON ON



CH1


FT.


CH SW


2


CH


CONTOUR



INPUT




NOTE: To audition the 3 modes using the Footswitch, toggle between Channel 1(top) and Channel 2 (bottom) using the left button




and toggle between Lead 1 and Lead 2 Contour with the middle button.




INSTANT GRATIFICATION:



PAGE 3



OVERVIEW: (Continued)





4 OHM



FX MIX


10%



SILENT RECORDING



MUTE SPKR ON



8 OHM



COMBO



SPEAKERS



FUSE




FOOTSWITCH


SOCKET


BELOW


RCORD / PHONES



STEREO / MONO



FX SEND RETURN


WARNING:


Unplug power


before replacing


fuse or removing


bolts mounting


chassis.


POWER FUSE


2A


SLO


BLO


120 V~


60 Hz


2A


100%



F-30 All Tube Amplifier MESA BOOGIE Handbuilt in Petaluma, CA


4 OHM



USE WITH 8 OHM SPEAKERS



REAR VIEW F: - 30


MESA




EL84



MESA




EL84



FX MIX


10%



SILENT RECORDING



MUTE SPKR ON



8 OHM



COMBO



SPEAKERS



FUSE




FOOTSWITCH


SOCKET


BELOW


RCORD / PHONES



STEREO / MONO



FX SEND RETURN



4 OHM



WARNING:


Unplug power


before replacing


fuse or removing


bolts mounting


chassis.


POWER FUSE


2A


SLO


BLO


120 V~


60 Hz


2A


100%



F-50 All Tube Amplifier MESA BOOGIE Handbuilt in Petaluma, CA


4 OHM



USE WITH 8 OHM SPEAKERS



REAR VIEW F: - 50




6L6 GC 6L6 GC



FX MIX


10%



SILENT RECORDING



MUTE SPKR ON



8 OHM



COMBO



SPEAKERS



FUSE




FOOTSWITCH


SOCKET


BELOW


RCORD / PHONES



STEREO / MONO



FX SEND RETURN



4 OHM



WARNING:


Unplug power


before replacing


fuse or removing


bolts mounting


chassis.


POWER FUSE


2A


SLO


BLO


120 V~


60 Hz


2A


100%



WARNING: To reduce risk of fire or




electric shock, replace fuse with


same type and rating only. Do not


expose this unit to rain or moisture.



WARNING: To reduce risk of fire or electric




shock, Do not remove cover. No userserviceable


parts inside. Refer


servicing to qualified personnel.



F-100 All Tube Amplifier MESA BOOGIE Handbuilt in Petaluma, CA


4 OHM



USE WITH 8 OHM SPEAKERS



REAR VIEW F: - 100




6L6 GC 6L6 GC 6L6 GC 6L6 GC



WARNING: To reduce risk of fire or




electric shock, replace fuse with


same type and rating only. Do not


expose this unit to rain or moisture.



WARNING: To reduce risk of fire or electric




shock, Do not remove cover. No userserviceable


parts inside. Refer


servicing to qualified personnel.



WARNING: To reduce risk of fire or




electric shock, replace fuse with


same type and rating only. Do not


expose this unit to rain or moisture.



WARNING: To reduce risk of fire or electric




shock, Do not remove cover. No userserviceable


parts inside. Refer


servicing to qualified personnel.




GAIN:


This is by far the most powerful control in each of the three different Modes that are activated by the Mode switch. It not only


determines the overall gain amount, shape and sensitivity of the Mode selected...but it is also a powerful Tone control. Generally


speaking, whatever is dialed up here ultimately determines the Modes’ personality. Set low, it allows cleaner and brighter sounds with


enhanced dynamic response, especially in the higher frequencies. Set high, the whole personality of the Mode becomes darker,


fatter and more overdriven.



We worked hard to make sure that the entire range of Gain available is usable in the F-Series and




more importantly, musical. Don’t think for a moment that this simple layout limits you in any way in


regards to the amount and texture of Gain that is available. Long neurotic hours were spent to


ensure that the ranges of Gain were stylistically accurate. It’s probably a good time to mention that



most of the great sounds can be found in the F-Series by setting the GAIN control moderately in the




Lead 2 - Contour mode.


In the Channel 1 Mode, try setting this control somewhere between ( 11:00 through 1:00 ). Use of


moderation here will reduce the likelihood of pesky tube microphonic problems ever occurring,


while at the same time making all three Modes easier to balance in volume and FX send strength.


TREBLE:



As in most tube guitar amplifiers, the TREBLE control ( in all three Modes of your F-Series amplifier ) is the most powerful of the rotary




controls and is next in line only to the GAIN control as a shaping tool. Because it is first in the signal path of the tone controls - and


from here the Middle and Bass receive their signal - it is by far the dominant tone control.


For this reason the setting of the TREBLE control is very important for equal representation


of the three frequency regions to appear at their respective controls.



Like most of the controls on your F-Series amplifier there is an optimum region of the




TREBLE control where ample top end is mixed in and yet enough signal is still passed on


to the MIDDLE and BASS controls. As you might surmise, here is the sweet spot. There


are definitely great sounds above and below this middle region ( 11:00 through 1:30 ), but


the balance between the TREBLE control and the other two tone controls is compromised.


The one place you may want to throw caution to the wind and set the TREBLE control



above this median zone presents itself in Channel 1 of your new F-Series amplifier. The TREBLE control can be used to dump extra




gain into the mix. As you might surmise, the BASS Controls’ effectiveness will be reduced, so you may have to run a much higher


setting than you are used to seeing to achieve a balance. This said, keep in mind that the TREBLE control in Channel 1 should not


be set much above ( 3:30 ) to avoid unwanted microphonic tube problems.


MID:


The MID control is responsible for the blend of midrange frequencies in the mix and though its effect is not as dramatic as that of the



TREBLE control, it plays an integral part in achieving any sound in your F-Series amplifier. It is capable of changing the feel dramatically




as it blends in a group of frequencies that tend to soften or stiffen the way a sound feels to play.


Most players tend to lean in the direction of lower MID control settings ( 7:00


through 11:00 ) where a scoop in this region produces girth ( by letting the


Bass become a little more dominant ) and a lack of punch lends a more com



CONTROLS:





PAGE 4



INPUT




GAIN



INPUT




GAIN TREBLE





INPUT




GAIN TREBLE MID


MID: (Continued) pressed, even feel to the strings and therefore less apparent resistance to the pick. As the MID control is increased,


( 11:00 through 11:30 ), the sound is rounded-out and filled-in with a focused mid attack appearing rather quickly. As you would guess,


the feel starts to change - becoming more resistant. Above this region the MID control could be used to compensate for either weaker


pick-ups or for times when a specific deficiency is produced by either an extremely high setting of other tone controls, or a physical


anomaly in the room. While these MID control settings ( 2:00 - 5:00 )can introduce added gain and create enhanced focus, the tradeoff


will be a stiffer, more forward, less compressed feel.


BASS:


This control blends in the lower frequencies and its effectiveness, again, depends on the setting of the TREBLE control. It should also


be set with moderation, as extreme settings in either low or high directions can produce an unbalanced tone. In any one of the three


Modes, be especially careful using higher Gain settings. Too


much Bass will cause a flabby unfocused sound that can’t be


dialed out because excessive Bass has been introduced to the


pre-amp in the early stages.


Try setting the BASS control to (7:00 ) for clean sounds in the


CLEAN Mode and ( 4:00 ) or below when dialing up High Gain


overdriven sounds in this Mode. In the Channel 2 / CONTOUR


Mode, try setting the BASS somewhere between ( 10:00 through


2:00 ). These settings will depend upon the amount of Gain and


Treble that you have dialed up.


REVERB:



Your new F-Series amplifier is equipped with a rich, natural sounding analog Reverb circuit. The REVERB control enables you to




dial-in just the right amount of Reverb to be mixed with the dry signal. It is normal for extreme settings of the REVERB control to


slightly alter the character of the amplifier as the voicing of the Reverb circuit becomes


more dominant in the mix.


NOTE: Avoid using high setting the REVERB control when High Gain and Treble


settings are in use. This reduces the likelihood of annoying microphonic problems


occurring.


MASTER:



The individual MASTER controls serve three purposes in the layout of the F-Series. FIRST: They serve as level balancing controls




for each of the two channels. This enables a wide range of front end Gain settings to be matched to a given listening level and the


level of the other Modes.


SECOND: They act as Effect Send controls for each Mode in the Effects Loop. As with



many of the controls on the F-Series, the best results for balance and tone are usually




found in the medium range of this control.


THIRD: The MASTER control is the Record / Phones Send Level control. When using


the direct RECORD / PHONES jack found on the Rear Panel to interface di -



PAGE 5



CONTROLS:




INPUT




GAIN TREBLE MID BASS


BASS REVERB MASTER





CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR




BASS REVERB




CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR




MASTER




MASTER: (Continued) -rectly to a mixing board or recorder, this control will determine the amount of signal you will be sending via


this jack. In this application it is usually best to start with the MASTER controls set to ( 7:00 ) and gradually increase them to the


proper level. This minimizes the possibility of blowing speakers or eardrums in the event the engineer has an extremely sensitive


input headroom setting in place at the console.


CH.1 / CH.2 / CONTOUR SELECT SWITCH:


Use this mini-toggle to select one of the three Modes - CHANNEL 1, CHANNEL 2 or CONTOUR. In order for the channel select



Footswitch to operate when connected to your new F-Series amplifier, the channel select mini-toggle switch




must be in its middle position - FT . SW.


ON / STANDBY:


Perfect for set breaks...this toggle switch also serves an even more important purpose. In the STANDBY position (switch up), the


tubes are at idle so that during power up they may warm up before being put to use.


Before the power is switched on, make sure the STANDBY switch is in the


STANDBY position. Wait at least 30 seconds and then flip the STANDBY


switch to its ON position. Following this simple warm up procedure helps


in preventing tube problems and increase their toneful life substantially.


POWER / ON:



This switch delivers the A.C. power to the F-Series. Make sure the unit is properly grounded ( all three terminals of the A.C. power cord




must be connected whenever possible and that the proper voltage is present. Follow the cold start procedure described in the ON/



STANDBY section above when powering up your new F-Series amplifier.




NOTE: Never alter the A.C. power cord in any way.



PAGE 6



CONTROLS:




CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



MASTER




STANDBY


ON



POWER


ON


STANDBY


ON




POWER


ON




PAGE 7



FUSE:


This is the A.C.’s ( Alternating Current ) main fuse and provides protection from outside A.C. fluctuations,


as well as power tube failure damage. Should the FUSE blow, replace it with the same rating in a sloblo


type package. The domestic U.S. version requires a 2 Amp SLO-BLO FUSE. A power tube short or


failure is often the cause of a blown fuse...Follow the cold start procedure mentioned earlier in the ON


/ STANDBY switch section and watch the power tubes as you flip the STANDBY to the ON position. If a


power tube is going bad or is arcing you will see it! Flip the STANDBY switch to STANDBY immediately


and replace the faulty power tube and the fuse if necessary. If you see nothing abnormal as you lift the


STANDBY switch, it is possible that a power tube shorted temporarily and blew the FUSE. If this is the


case it may work again normally. To be extra safe you may want to replace all power tubes in the troubleshooting tradition and save


the replaced set as spares. Carry along a few extra fuses for they too could be worth their weight in gold some day.


RECORD / PHONES:


This jack provides direct-to-console interfacing for recording or sound reinforcement applications. It


can also be used to power a set of personal headphones which is a convenient way to practice day or


night privately. It is a circuit dedicated to reproducing the roll off that occurs in the output section with a


speaker connected.


The send level strength is determined by the GAIN and MASTER controls. From this jack, adequate


signal level will be available to you for most of your recording needs and live direct performances.


FX LOOP: SEND & RETURN


These two 1/4" jacks are the patch point for external effects. The Effects Loop is



wired in parallel with the normal signal. Connect the SEND jack of the F-Series to


your Effects Input jack. Connect the RETURN jack of the F-Series to the Output jack




of your effect unit. The Effects Loop is a patch point between the pre-amp and power


section. Therefore, the RETURN jack can double as a “Power Amp Input” jack.



When the RETURN is used as an input, the F-Series FX MIX control is the only




control being utilized regardless of the mode selected and should be set to 100%. While the RETURN is being used in this manner,


all other controls are inactive.



FX MIX


10%



SILENT RECORDING



MUTE SPKR ON



8 OHM



COMBO



SPEAKERS



FUSE




FOOTSWITCH


SOCKET


BELOW


RCORD / PHONES



STEREO / MONO



FX SEND RETURN



4 OHM



WARNING:


Unplug power


before replacing


fuse or removing


bolts mounting


chassis.


POWER FUSE


2A


SLO


BLO


120 V~


60 Hz


2A


100%



WARNING: To reduce risk of fire or




electric shock, replace fuse with


same type and rating only. Do not


expose this unit to rain or moisture.



WARNING: To reduce risk of fire or electric




shock, Do not remove cover. No userserviceable


parts inside. Refer


servicing to qualified personnel.



F-Series All Tube Amplifiers MESA BOOGIE Handbuilt in Petaluma, CA


4 OHM



USE WITH 8 OHM SPEAKERS



REAR VIEW:


RECORD / PHONES




STEREO OR MONO




2A S.B.



FUSE


FUSE




WARNING:





Unplug power


before replacing


fuse or removing


bolts mounting


chassis.




POWER FUSE


2 A


SLO


BLO


120 V~


50-60 Hz


2 A


FOOTSWITCH


SOCKET


BELOW




RECORD / PHONES



STEREO OR MONO



WARNING: 2A S.B.





Unplug power


before replacing


fuse or removing


bolts mounting


chassis.




POWER FUSE


2 A


SLO


BLO


120 V~


50-60 Hz


2 A


FOOTSWITCH


SOCKET


BELOW




FUSE


FUSE




RECORD / PHONES




STEREO OR MONO




WARNING: 2A S.B.





Unplug power


before replacing


fuse or removing


bolts mounting


chassis.




POWER FUSE


2 A


SLO


BLO


120 V~


50-60 Hz


2 A


FOOTSWITCH


SOCKET


BELOW




FUSE


FUSE




FX


SEND RETURN



FX MIX




10%




PREAMP PATENT


4,701,957




100 %




F-50





REAR PANEL:





FX MIX:


This control determines the dry/wet blend of the FX Loop signal in relation to the unaffected signal. Set to 10%


you will experience only the dry signal (no noticeable FX) and at a setting of 90% the entire signal will be wet (total


effect.)


For the best results...Set the mix of your effect to 100% wet. Then dial in the amount of effect that you wish to hear,


starting at 10% with the FX LOOP MIX control. The drier (closer to 10%) signal you use, the better your tone


should be. This parallel type FX Loop allows the amplifier to retain its purity with the smallest amount of degredation


due to possible effect impedance mismatching.


SILENT RECORDING:


This rocker switch which is located down under the chassis and selects between the live “Speaker


On” setting and the silent “Speaker Mute” setting. This is a perfect solution for all-nighters! This


switch mutes all of the signal at the power section driver stage, removing the need for a speaker load


IN THIS POSITION ONLY!


NOTE: When this switch is set to the “ON” position, a speaker load must be maintained by either a


load resistor of some type or a speaker itself. Failure to follow this instruction could result in major


damage to the amplifier. Leave your speaker connected.


SPEAKERS:


Sensitivity to speaker mismatching in regards to ohmage differences is low, hence no damage to


the amplifier will occur. However, very low ohmage loads will cause the power tubes to wear faster.



The F-Series are equipped with a single 12 inch 8 Ohm speaker, but as you can see, other speaker




configurations may be used. When using two 8 Ohm speakers, connect each of them to the 4 Ohm


speaker jacks that are provided, this will equal a 4 Ohm load which is the proper impedance


required when using this particular speaker configuration.


4x12 cabinets may be 4, 8 or 16 Ohms. If you are not sure of the impedance of your cabinet, you may need to remove the Rear Panel



in order to verify the impedance rating of the individual speaker or speakers. Mesa/Boogie 4x12 and 4x10 cabinets come




standard wired to 8 Ohms, and are wired in series-parallel.



Some Non-Mesa 4x12 cabinets are wired 16 Ohms using four 16 Ohm speakers. By wiring all four speakers in parallel, you can




reduce the cabinet to an impedance load of 4 Ohms (assuming the speakers are 16 Ohms each.) No matter how unusual your


speaker setup, it is always possible to get good performance.



PAGE 8



RETURN




FX MIX



10% 1 0 0%



SILENT RECORDING



MUTE SPKR ON



TURN


MIX





100 %





8 OHM 4 OHM 4 OHM



SPEAKERS



REAR PANEL:





PAGE 9



INPUT



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB



STANDBY POWER


ON ON



MASTER



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



FACTORY SAMPLE SETTINGS



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB MASTER



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



INPUT



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB MASTER



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



INPUT



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB MASTER



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



INPUT



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB MASTER



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



Sample #1 Fat Clean: Channel 1


Sample #2 Squeaky Channel 1


Sample #3 Blues Power: Channel 2


Sample #4 Liguid Solo: Channel 2


Sample #5 Huge Crunch: Channel 2 Contour


Sample #6 Insane Lead: Channel 2 Contour



STANDBY POWER


ON ON


STANDBY POWER


ON ON


STANDBY POWER


ON ON


STANDBY POWER


ON ON



INPUT



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB



STANDBY POWER


ON ON



MASTER



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



INPUT




PAGE 10



INPUT



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB



STANDBY POWER


ON ON



MASTER



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB MASTER



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



INPUT



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB MASTER



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



INPUT



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB MASTER



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



INPUT



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB MASTER



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



Sample #1


Sample #2


Sample #3 l


Sample #4


Sample #5


Sample #6



STANDBY POWER


ON ON


STANDBY POWER


ON ON


STANDBY POWER


ON ON


STANDBY POWER


ON ON



INPUT



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB



STANDBY POWER


ON ON



MASTER



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



INPUT



PERSONAL SETTINGS




PAGE 11



EL84



12AX7


(4)


V 4 V 3 V 2 V 1



PARTIAL VIEW OF CHASSIS



F-30 TUBE TASK CHART BACK EDGE OF CHASSIS




B A B A B A B A



(Each 12AX7 contains two separate Triodes)


MUTE SWITCH



EL84



V1 A= Input Stage both Channels


V1 B= Clean Channel


V2 A= 2nd Input Stage bothChannels


V2 B=Channels 2 & 3 Boost Stage


V3 A=Channels FX Send


V3 B= FX Return


V4 A=


V4 B=


Phase Splitter /


Output


Description of Tube Functions




PAGE 12



6L6



12AX7


(4)


V 4 V 3 V 2 V 1



PARTIAL VIEW OF CHASSIS



F-50 TUBE TASK CHART BACK EDGE OF CHASSIS




B A B A B A B A



(Each 12AX7 contains two separate Triodes)


MUTE SWITCH



6L6



V1 A= Input Stage both Channels


V1 B= Clean Channel


V2 A= 2nd Input Stage bothChannels


V2 B=Channels 2 & 3 Boost Stage


V3 A=Channels FX Send


V3 B= FX Return


V4 A=


V4 B=


Phase Splitter /


Output


Description of Tube Functions




PAGE 13



6L6



PARTIAL VIEW OF CHASSIS



F-100 TUBE TASK CHART BACK EDGE OF CHASSIS



12AX7


(4)


V 4 V 3 V 2 V 1



B A B A B A B A



(Each 12AX7 contains two separate Triodes)


MUTE SWITCH



6L6



V1 A= Input Stage both Channels


V1 B= Clean Channel


V2 A= 2nd Input Stage bothChannels


V2 B=Channels 2 & 3 Boost Stage


V3 A=Channels FX Send


V3 B= FX Return


V4 A=


V4 B=


Phase Splitter /


Output


Description of Tube Functions



6L6 6L6




TUBE NOISE & MICROPHONICS:


You may occasionally experience some form of tube noise or microphonics. Certainly no cause for alarm, this quirky behavior


comes with the territory and the Tone. Much like changing a light bulb, you don’t need a technician to cure these types of minor user


serviceable annoyances and in fact, you’ll be amazed at how easy it is to cure tube problems...by simply swapping out a pre-amp or


power tube!


First may we suggest that you set the amplifier up on something so that you can get to the tubes comfortably without having to bend


down. It also helps to have adequate lighting as you will need to see the tube sockets clearly to swap tubes. Use caution and common


sense when touching the tubes after the amplifier has been on as they may be extremely hot! If they are hot and you don’t want


to wait for them to cool off, try grasping them with a rag and also note that the glass down around the bulbous silvery tip is


considerably less hot which makes it easier to handle. Gently rock the tube back and forth as you pull it away from its socket.


DIAGNOSING POWER TUBE FAILURES:


There are two main types of tube faults: shorts and noise. Both large and small tubes may fall prey to either of these problems but


diagnosis and remedy is usually simple.


If a fuse blows, the problem is most likely a shorted power tube and shorts can either be mild or severe. In a mildly shorted tube the


electron flow has overcome the control grid and excess current flows to the plate. You will usually hear the amp become distorted and


begin to hum slightly. If this occurs, quickly look at the power tubes as you switch the amp to STANDBY and try to identify one as


glowing red hot. It is likely that two of a pair will be glowing since the “shorted” tube will pull down the bias for its adjacent mates, but


one tube may be glowing hotter — and that one is the culprit. The other two are often fine — unless they’ve been glowing bright red


for several minutes.


Because there is no physical short inside the tube (just electrons rioting out of control) merely switching to STANDBY for a few


moments then back to ON will usually cure the problem...at least temporarily. Watch the tubes carefully now. Should the problem


recur, the intermittent tube will visibly start to over heat before the others and thus it can be identified. It should be replaced with one


from the same color batch, shown on its label. Call us and we will send one out to you. The severe short is not nearly so benign. In


the worst cases, a major arcing short occurs between the plate and the cathode with visible lightning inside the glass and a major


noise through the speaker. If this is seen to happen, IMMEDIATELY turn the amp to STANDBY. By this time the fuse probably will have


blown. Such a short is usually caused by a physical breakdown inside the tube including contaminate coming loose or physical


contact (or near contact) between the elements. Replace it and the fuse with the proper slo-blo type and power up the amp using the


power up procedure as we described earlier in this manual.


TUBE NOISE:


Often caused by contamination within in a tube, the culprit can usually be identified, and by lightly tapping on the glass, you will


probably hear the noise change. Hearing some noise through the speakers while tapping on the 12AX7’s is normal however. And the


one nearer the INPUT will always sound louder because its output is being further amplified by the second 12AX7.


The power tubes should be all but quiet when they are tapped. If crackling or hissing changes with the tapping, you have probably



found the problem. To confirm a noisy power tube, merely put your F-Series amplifier on Standby, remove it from its socket and turn




it back on. It will cause no damage to run your amplifier briefly with one power tube missing. You may notice a slight background hum,


however, as the push-pull becomes unbalanced. Whenever you are trying to diagnose a suspect tube, keep your other hand on the


POWER and STANDBY switches ready to shut them off instantly in the unlikely case you provoke a major short.


If you think you’ve located a problem tube but aren’t sure, we recommend substituting the suspect with a new one just to be sure of


your diagnoses. You will be doing yourself and us a big favor by just following the simple guidelines previously mentioned regarding


tube replacement. You’ll probably be successful with much less effort than is required to disconnect everything and haul the unit to a


technician who will basically perform the same simple tests. If the tubes are still within their six-month warranty period, we will


happily send you a replacement. Just note the color designation on the tube label so that we can send you the appropriate match.



PAGE 14



DIAGNOSING PREAMP TUBE PROBLEMS:


Because your amplifier is an all tube design, it is quite possible that you will at some point experience minor pre-amp tube noise.


Rest assured - this is no cause for alarm and you can take care of the problem yourself in a matter of minutes by simply swapping


tubes.


Let us begin by saying; It is a “very good” idea to keep at least a couple of spare pre-amp tubes on hand at all times to insure


uninterrupted performance. These minor pre-amp tube problems can take many forms but can generally be described in two categories:


Noise and Microphonics. Noise can be in the form of crackling, sputtering, white noise/hiss and/or hum. Microphonic problems


usually appear in the form of a ringing or high pitched squealing that gets worse as the gain or volume is increased thus are more


noticeable in the higher gain “HI” modes. Microphonic problems are easily identified because the problem is still present even with


the instruments’ volume off or unplugged altogether - unlike pick-up feedback which ceases as the instrument is turned down.


Microphonic noise is caused by mechanical vibration and shock: think of banging a microphone around and you’ll understand where


the word came from.


The best way to approach a pre-amp tube problem is to see if it occurs only in one specific mode or channel. Then refer back to the


TUBE TASK and DESCRIPTION CHART and it should lead you to the tube needing replacement. Then all that remains is to swap the


suspect tube for a known good performer.


If you cannot narrow down the trouble to a specific mode or channel, the problem may be the small tube that drives the power tubes


which is operational in all modes and channels. Though rare, a problem with the driver tube would show up in all aspects of performance


- so if you can’t narrow the problem down to being mode or channel specific, you may want to try replacing the driver tube.


Driver problems generally show themselves in the form of crackling or hum in all modes of performance and/or weak overall output


from the amplifier. Occasionally an anemic driver tube will cause the amplifier to sound flat and lifeless, but this is somewhat uncommon,


as worn power tubes are a more likely suspect for this type of problem.


Sometimes making the diagnosis is more trouble than it’s worth and it’s faster and easier to merely replace the small pre-amp tubes


ONE AT A TIME with a replacement known to be good. But MAKE SURE you keep returning the tubes to their original socket until you


hit the one that cures the problem. You’ll notice that tubes located nearer to the INPUT jack always sound noisier...but this is because


they are at the start of the chain and their noise gets amplified over and over by the tubes that follow. The tube that goes into this


“input socket” (usually labeled V1) needs to be the least noisy of the bunch. The tube that goes at the end of the preamp chain - just


ahead of the power tubes - can be quite noisy without causing any problem at all. The tubes in your amp have already been located


in the most appropriate sockets and this is why you should NEVER pull them all out at once and ALWAYS swap them one at a time.


ALWAYS return a perfectly good tube to its original socket. Also it’s a good idea to put the amp on STANDBY when swapping tubes to


reduce the heat build up in the tubes themselves and to prevent explosive noises (which can still occur even if you are pulling the


tubes away from their sockets gently) from coming through the speaker.


Remember, take your time, be patient and chances are real good that you can fix your amp yourself by finding and replacing the bad


tube. It kills us to see someone who has shipped their amp back to us...and all it needed was a simple tube replacement! If you must


send back your amp, unplug the power cord, speaker and reverb cables then remove the chassis from the cabinet by unscrewing the


four mounting bolts on top. The chassis then slides back like a drawer and comes out. Remove the big power tubes and mark them


according to their location from left to right 1, 2 etc. They need to be wrapped separately with plenty of wadded up newspaper around


them and put in a smaller box within the larger carton. To wrap the chassis, use plenty of tightly wadded up newspaper so there is at


least six inches of “crush space” between the chassis and the cardboard box. Bubble wrap also works well, but please DON’T use


styrene peanuts - they will shift during transit and get lodged inside your electronics as well as allowing your amp to end up at the


bottom of the box unprotected and possibly damaged. Pre-amp tubes don’t normally wear out as a rule. Therefore, it is not a good


idea to change them just for the sake of changing them. If there isn’t a problem - don’t fix it. If there is no result from your


substitutions, it may be possible that you have more than one problematic tube. Though rare, this does happen and though it makes


the troubleshooting process a little more intimidating, it is still possible to cure the problem yourself.


NOTE: It is normal to hear a slight metallic ringing sound when tapping on the preamp tubes. As long as the tube does not break



PAGE 15



into oscillation or start crackling or any other form of bizzare noise, it is considered normal and functional.


BIAS ADJUSTMENT: (a continuing series)


NOTE: An article written by Randall Smith that


we thought you might find interesting.


Here’s a question we often hear:



“Why doesn’t Mesa put bias adjustments




in their amplifiers?”


Well, there’s a short answer and a long answer to this question.


The short answer is that during my 12 years of repairing Fenders, one of the most frequent problems I saw was bias controls that were


either set wrong or that had wandered out of adjustment due to vibration. As any honest tech will tell you, there’s lot’s of easy money


to be made by sprinkling “holy water” on amplifiers ... uh, what I meant to say is “Your amp needed biasing.” See what I mean? What


customer is going to argue with that?


It only takes a moment and a volt meter: The Fender diagram shows how: “Adjust this trim pot for - 52 volts.” That’s it. Nothing more.


Now don’t be fooled into thinking that tubes “draw” more or less bias, they don’t. The way a bias supply is connected to a tube is akin


to a dead end road, it just trails off to nowhere without really completing a circuit. It’s a static voltage and regardless of what tube is in


the socket — or even if the tubes aren’t plugged in at all, it doesn’t change the bias voltage a bit.


So the end of the short answer is this: Since a bias supply needs to put out the right voltage and never vary, I wanted to build



amplifiers that were individually hard wired to the correct values and NEVER needed adjustment. And for 25 years, that’s how Mesa/


Boogies have been built.




Time to change tubes? Just plug our tubes into any one of our amps and you’re DONE. No tech needed. NO bills and no BS about


biasing. And most important: The bias is RIGHT because it can’t change!


Now, you want the long answer? Here’s more information on how our hard-wired bias avoids trouble. Please read on.


But first, let’s make an important distinction. Our business is designing and building high performance amplifiers. And for this we need


tubes whose variance is within a narrow range. Our warehouse is full of rejects ...oh, they work — they just don’t perform within our


tolerance range. We have a very sophisticated computer - based tube testing system (nicknamed “Robotube”) that matches and


measures tubes over seven important parameters. It can even predict which tubes are likely to have a shortened lifetime — even


though they work perfectly during the test.


Because our business is building quality amps, we can afford to reject a lot of wayward tubes. The guys you hear complaining



because Boogies don’t have bias adjusters are primarily in the business of selling tubes - not amps. They don’t want to throw away 30




percent of their inventory, so they promote the idea that tubes outside our parameters can be used to “customize” amplifiers and they



criticize us because our amps can’t be adjusted to accommodate their out-of-Mesa tolerance tubes.




Now you might be thinking, “But I thought you just said that tubes don’t “draw” bias, therefore they don’t effect the bias supply and thus



PAGE 16



..


.


.


.


.


..........


.......


.......


.. .....



( )


( )



( , )




( , )


( )



PLATE



Structure of a 6L6 / 5881


Beam Power Pentode.



BEAMCONFINING


ELECTRODE


SCREEN


GRID


GRID


CATHODE




it doesn’t need to be adjustable.”


BIAS ADJUSTMENT: (Continued) When you set the bias (whether it’s by selecting the right resistors, as we do, or adjusting a


trimmer — which is quicker) what you are doing is establishing the correct amount of idle CURRENT that flows through the power


tubes. But you can’t adjust the current directly, you can only change it by adjusting the amount of bias VOLTAGE that goes onto the


tubes’ control grids.


Voltage and current are NOT the same. Current is the AMOUNT of electricity, the “quantity” — and is measured in amperes. Voltage


is the degree of electric charge — like the “pressure” to use the old water analogy. Let me illustrate how different voltage and current


are:


When you scrape your feet across a carpetted floor in dry, wintery conditions, your body can become charged with 50,000 to 100,000


volts of static electricity. And when you reach for the door knob, a spark jumps and you feel it! The voltage is super high but the


current (measured in micro-amps) is tiny - otherwise you would die from electrocution.


Contrast this with your car battery, which puts out a mere 12 volts. You can lay your hands right across the terminals and not feel a


thing. Yet the amount of current available can run to several hundred amperes .. enough to turn over a cold engine and get it started.


So current and voltage are two totally separate electrical parameters — though when you multiply them together, you get POWER,


which is measured in watts.


When you set the bias of an amplifier, you are adjusting the static VOLTAGE at the control grid of the tube in order to produce a


desired amount of idle CURRENT flowing to the tube’s plate. A small change in grid voltage, produces a large change in the amount


of current flowing — and that’s basically how a tube works. Say that again because it’s super important: A small change in voltage at


the grid causes a large change in current flowing to the plate. See, that’s the essence of amplification: A small change causing a large


change. And here it’s a small voltage change causing a large current change.


The bias conditions are what determines how much current flows through the big power tubes when you’re not playing. And what


drives your speakers is flucuations in that current flow when are ARE playing. If the amount of current increases and decreases 440


times per second, then you’ll hear an A note. If the fluctions in current flow are large and still at 440 per second, you’ll hear an A that


is LOUD!


But for purposes of biasing, it’s the amount of “plate current” flowing with no signal applied that’s important. Unfortunately current is


hard to measure because the circuit must be interuppted — as in “cut the wire” — and the meter spliced “in series” with the broken


circuit. But measuring VOLTAGE is easy. It is not necessary to interrupt the circuit because a voltage reading can be taken in


PARALLEL with the circuit intact.


Thus, as a matter of convenience, most bias settings are given in volts at the grid ... even though current through the plate is the


important factor. In fact plate current is so inconvenient (and dangerous) to measure that Fender doesn’t even state what the correct


value should be. They only give the grid voltage that will produce that current. (That’s the minus 52.) But that only happens if the


tubes being used are “in spec.”


As long as the tubes ARE “in spec”, the right bias voltage will always give the correct plate “CURRENT” — but then there’s no need


for the bias voltage to be adjustable!


If the tubes are NOT in spec, then the only proper way to re-set the bias is to cut the circuit and measure the current while adjusting


the bias ... but no manufacturer I know even STATES the desired current value! Be that as it may, when the original bias voltage is


altered far enough, it will compensate for the tube’s abnormal performance and the correct amount of idle current flow may then be


restored. Clearly this is something most repair techs should not attempt.


Some newer amps have LED indicators connected to the circuit which will turn on when the right threshold of current flow has been


reached. This is an improvement, and almost worthy if you’re willing to except resistors and lights added into your amplifier’s audio


path — which we aren’t. The other “advantage” of this system is that it allows some amp manufacturers to avoid matching their


power


tubes. The thinking is that adjusting the bias to each tube separately eradicates the inherent differences between the tubes by


insuring that the same current flows through each one.




PAGE 17



BIAS ADJUSTMENT: (Continued) tubes. The thinking is that adjusting the bias to each tube separately eradicates the inherent


differences between the tubes by insuring that the same current flows through each oneAgain, this has some merit .. but it’s still not


as good as using tubes that are matched in the first place because compensating for the mis-match causes the push-pull circuit itself


to become unbalanced. Two wrongs don’t really make a right.


Some of the other recommended biasing, “methods” — such as -”.. tubes running red hot, increase the bias .. sounds harsh and runs


too cool, turn it down ...” are guesswork at best. Luckily, one of the great things about tube amps is that they can usually stand some


abuse without causing any real harm ... at least not immediately.


But don’t these alterations imply that you are second-guessing the amp designer and that there’s a better set of operating conditions


that the designer missed but the tube sellers have discovered?


Now some players may like the sound of their amp altered by tubes with extreme characteristics and with the bias set to help


compensate. But often it is the mere novelty of change that they’re really responding to and when the amp goes back to the proper


original way, we’ve seen them be far happier still!


Because every part in every one of our designs has been meticulously evaluated, compared and stressed over — no matter how


seemingly insignificant it might be. And with every design we look for a “sweet spot” where all the parameters — including the bias —


come together to give the best sonic performance, consistently and reliably. Every part and voltage is important — yet no one


complains that these other parameters aren’t available for tinkering.



Consider our patented Simul-Class circuitry where there are two different bias voltages used for separate pairs of power tubes ... and




changing one voltage also changes the other. Great care goes into getting this just right and we think we’d be asking for trouble to


have it adjustable for the world to play with ... unless you like paying to have your amp messed up. Sorry, I meant to say, “Uh, ... your


amp needed biasing.”



If that doesn’t appeal to you, then merely plug a matched set of Mesa tubes into one of our amps and you’re ready for tone. Guaranteed.




You’d be amazed at the number of service calls we field every day that lead to a diagnosis of out-of-tolerance, non-spec tube


problems. To think these would be prevented by including a bias adjustment is something of an insult to you and us. If you put the


wrong size tires on your car, do you think changing the pressure will make them right?


Please, don’t think this is a blanket indictment of the other guys selling tubes — it isn’t. And their tubes aren’t all bad either. It just


doesn’t make sense to pay more of your hard earned cash for tubes that were probably made in the same Russian or Chinese factory


and which have the possibility of being outside the performance window we select for your amp. And it pains us to hear the hype and


mystique built up around biasing when twenty-five years of evidence affirms our decision to make bias circuits that “never need



adjustment”. How much money and trouble that has saved Mesa/Boogie players you couldn’t estimate.


Our rigorously tested and hand selected tubes are available at your nearest Mesa/Boogie Pro Center or from us directly. Nobody




offers better price, quality or warranty than we do ... so why swerve?


Next time we’ll talk about our part in developing the great Sylvania STR 415 type 6 6 and how we’re on the verge of seeing something


fairly close reappear on the market. Remember, we still have some of these super rugged mondo-bottles available for older amps —



Boogies only please! Until then, Relax, Breathe and Nourish your soul!




Cheers!



Mesa/Boogie Ltd.




Randall Smith


Designer & President



PAGE 18



SPEAKER IMPEDANCE MATCHING & HOOK-UP GUIDE:


IMPEDANCE:


Wiring up speakers to provide the most effective load and making sure that all of them are in phase will help in creating the best sound


possible. This is not too difficult, as long as you understand a few things about loading and how to connect your speakers to provide


an optimal resistive load.



Mesa Boogie amplifiers can handle 4 and 8 ohms effectively. Never run below 4 ohms in a tube amplifier unless you are absolutely




certain that the system can handle it properly; this can cause damage to the Output transformer. A few amplifiers can handle 2 ohms



effectively without damaging them ( for example the Mesa’s Bass 400+ ). You can always have a higher resistance ( 16 ohms, for




example ) without damaging results, but too low of a resistance will likely cause problems.


MIS-MATCHING:


When running a higher resistance ( for example: 8 ohm output into 16 ohm cabinet ), a slightly different feel and response will be


eminent. A slight mismatch can provide a darker smoother tone with a little less output and attack. This response is a result of the


amplifier running a bit cooler. Sometimes when using more than one cabinet a mismatch will be the only option.


WHAT IS MY CABINETS IMPEDANCE:


If you have only a single speaker, you just match that single speakers impedance to the amplifier, and you are done. In many cases,


you will have a number of speakers, and then you must calculate the “load” that the amplifier will need to support. There are generally


three ways to wire multiple speakers together. They are as follows:


SERIES:


When you wire ( hook-up ) speakers in Series, the speakers resistance ( as measured in ohms ) is additive - i.e. putting two 8 ohm


speakers in Series results in a 16 ohm load.



PAGE 19



Speaker A = 8 Ohms Speaker B = 8 Ohms



SERIES: Connect the Negative side of Speaker A



to the Positive side of Speaker B


POSITIVE = NEGATIVE =



Made by



Electro-Voice



BLACK


SHADOW


Made by



Electro-Voice



BLACK


SHADOW



SPEAKER IMPEDANCE MATCHING & HOOK-UP GUIDE: (Continued)


PARALLEL:


When wiring in parallel, the resistance of the speakers decreases. Two 8 ohm speakers wired in ( hooked-up ) Parallel results in a 4


ohm load. It’s easy to calculate the effect of a resistive load when all the speakers are all the same resistance. It is really not suggested


to wire different resistive load values in Parallel ( 8 and 4, 16 and 8 etc. ) The formula for figuring the total impedance in Parallel is the


multiplication of the two loads divided by the sum of the two loads - i.e. putting two 8 ohm speakers in Parallel results in a 4 ohm load.


Connect the Positive side of Speaker A to the Positive side of Speaker B - Connect the Negative side of Speaker A to the Negative


side of Speaker B.


COMBINATION SERIES & PARALLEL:


This is really just two sets of Parallel wired speakers connected in series. This is how you maintain a consistent load with multiple


speakers. The importance of this is more evident when you have more than one cabinet to connect to your amplifier.


This is when you need to figure out the loads and how to


wire them up without applying too low of a resistance on the


amplifier.


Simply connect the Positive side of Speaker A to the Positive


side of Speaker C.


Connect the Negative side of Speaker A to the Positive side


of Speaker B, then on to the Positive side of Speaker D and


finally on to the Negative side of Speaker C.


And lastly, connect the Negative side of Speaker B to the


Negative side of Speaker D.


4 Eight ( 8 ) Ohm speakers wired in Series Parallel = a Total


Load of 8 Ohms.



PAGE 20



POSITIVE


Speaker A


8 Ohms


Speaker B


8 Ohms


NEGATIVE


Total Load = 4 Ohms



Made by



Electro-Voice



BLACK


SHADOW



Made by



Electro-Voice



BLACK


SHADOW



Made by



Electro-Voice



BLACK


SHADOW



Made by



Electro-Voice



BLACK


SHADOW



Made by



Electro-Voice



BLACK


SHADOW



Made by



Electro-Voice



BLACK


SHADOW



SPEAKER A SPEAKER B


SPEAKER C SPEAKER D



NEGATIVE


All 4 Spkrs.are 8 Ohms


POSITIVE



PAGE 21



1 2


4 5



4 Ohm Cabinet


3



8 OHM 4 OHM 4 OHM




Partial back view of


some Mesa amp



8 Ohm Cabinet


SAFE MISMATCH



WIRING SCHEMES...Amplifier to Speaker Cabinets




4 OHM 8 OHM 16 OHM




Partial back view of amplifier



16 Ohm Cabinet


4 OHM 8 OHM 16 OHM




Partial back view of amplifier



16 Ohm Cabinet


SAFE MISMATCH



8 OHM 4 OHM 4 OHM




Partial back view of amplifier



8 OHM 4 OHM 4 OHM




Partial back view of amplifier



8 Ohm Cabinet


8 Ohm Cabinet 4 Ohm Cabinet




PAGE 22



8 OHM 4 OHM 4 OHM




Partial back view of amplifier



8 Ohm Cabinet 8 Ohm Cabinet



6



8 Ohm Cabinet 16 Ohm Cabinet



8



4 OHM 4 OHM 8 OHM




Partial back view of amplifier



SAFE MISMATCH



8 OHM



Partial back view of amplifier


SERIES BOX



8 Ohm



4 Ohm 4 Ohm


4 Ohm Cabinet 4 Ohm Cabinet



4 OHM 4 OHM 8 OHM




Partial back view of amplifier


PARALLEL BOX



8 Ohm



16 Ohm 16 Ohm


16 Ohm Cabinet 16 Ohm Cabinet



9



4 OHM 4 OHM




WIRING SCHEMES...Amplifier to Speaker Cabinets 7




CORRECT MATCH


CORRECT


MATCH


CORRECT


MATCH




PAGE 23



4 OHM 4 OHM 8 OHM




Partial back view of amplifier


8 Ohm Cabinet 8 Ohm Cabinet



SERIES BOX



16 Ohm



8 Ohm 8 Ohm



8 Ohm Cabinet



10



SAFE MISMATCH



12



4 OHM 4 OHM



Partial back view of amplifier



16 Ohm Cabinet 16 Ohm Cabinet



11



8 OHM




8 Ohm Cabinet


16 Ohm Cabinet 16 Ohm Cabinet



8 OHM 4 OHM 4 OHM




Partial back view of amp



PARALLEL BOX



8 Ohm



16 Ohm 16 Ohm



WIRING SCHEMES...Amplifier to Speaker Cabinets




CORRECT MATCH


SAFE MISMATCH




PAGE 24



4 OHM 4 OHM 8 OHM




Partial back view of amplifier



8 Ohm Cabinet 8 Ohm Cabinet



SERIES BOX



16 Ohm



8 Ohm 8 Ohm


16 Ohm Cabinet



13



SAFE MISMATCH



WIRING SCHEMES...Amplifier to Speaker Cabinets




8 OHM 4 OHM 4 OHM




Partial back view of amplifier



16 Ohm Cabinet 16 Ohm Cabinet



PARALLEL BOX



8 Ohm



16 Ohm 16 Ohm


16 Ohm Cabinet



SAFE MISMATCH



14




ON TRIODES, PENTODES & IRISHMEN:


With apologies to Friends and Relatives from the Emerald Isle - who will make their appearance soon enough - the humor which


follows is dedicated to the memories of Spec McAuliff and Fae (Rafael) McNally, two of the True Greats.


As their numerical references suggest, the terms Diode, Triode and Pentode indicate the number of elements within the vacuum tube


i.e. two, three or five. All tubes also require a filament or heater which is not included in the count. Its purpose is to excite electrons


from the cathode coating by raising the temperature such that they are able to boil out of the electron-rich coating material and form


a cloud of free electrons in the vacuum space surrounding the cathode.


Although the term filament and heater are often used interchangeably, there are specific differences: A filament is a directly heated


cathode where cathode coating is applied directly to the heating element. Examples are 5U4 twin diode rectifier and 300B triode


amplifier tubes.


A heater, on the other hand, is a heating element which is separate from the cathode and is usually inserted within the tubular cathode


sleeve. Examples are 12AX7 twin triode amplifier and 6V6 or EL84 beam power pentode tubes. In all cases this fundamental aspect


of each tube\’d5s construction is clearly visible, especially when the heating element is glowing red hot.


The cathode, then, would be considered the first numbered element because it is the source of the electrons. The word itself is from


the Greek literally meaning completely down, which implies a sense of central origin - like the center of the earth where Tone begins.


It might be said that an ecstatic audiophile experiences a positive catharsis, his soul being purified when his system transports him to


Audio Nirvana. The only trouble with taking this positive imagery too far is that the cathode is, unfortunately, negative... at least


electrically speaking. However this is easily remembered since virtually all musicians and audiophiles have also experienced the


more common negative catharsis when they emerge from the emotional rebirth kicking and screaming in rage and frustration.


Once heated, the intrinsically negative electrons are energetic little fellows of almost no mass. Thus they may be accelerated almost


instantaneously and will travel through a vacuum a nearly the speed of light. Being of like, negative charge, they tend to repel one


another and thus within the electron cloud surrounding the cathode, there is much jostling and elbowing as each one tries to maintain


his distance from all the others... unless there is a strong and universal attraction from an outside influence.


Visualize, if you will, a group of sub-atomic Irishmen milling about and in a repellent, negative state of mind. All are scowling and none


wants to have anything to do with the other. Now introduce a strong attraction say, a public bar, and you can easily picture an orderly,


if rapid movement of the lot in a single direction. This is what happens when a positively charged element called the anode or plate is


introduced into the vacuum.


The plate is the large metal element most prominently visible through the glass of an electron tube. It is the outermost element of a


tube’s structure and it surrounds all the others. The cathode is at the center radiating electrons outwards. As higher and higher


positive voltage is applied to the plate, the attraction for the electrons surrounding the cathode is increased and with nothing standing


in the way, full uninhibited flow to the plate occurs...sort of like removing the doors and offering free drinks to the crowd of surly


Irishmen milling around outside. As electrons flow to the plate, the space charge will continually be replenished by further ‘boiling’ of


the hot, electron-rich cathode as you can easily imagine other Irishmen impatiently taking up the places of those who’ve gone inside


- until the entire village is deserted.


Now, where do they come from and how do they emerge? Well, a grand and elegant lady once showed me how to revive flat


champagne: She dropped a raisin into the glass. There was a dramatic and immediate increase in effervescence with the introduction


of a cathoding surface. Thousands of tiny bubbles suddenly appeared - and continued to flow from the raisin. Of course the bubbles


were made up of gas dissolved in the beverage, but the analogy makes it easy to visualize the loosely bound electrons dissolved in


the rich cathode coating as they effervesce from its heated surface.


But back to the electron flow. If the electrons are strongly attracted to a positively charged plate, then it follows that they are strongly


repelled by a negatively charged plate and they are. Thus, if an alternating current - such as comes from a transformer - is applied to



PAGE 25



the plate, electrons will flow only during the times when the plate is positively charged. During periods of negative plate charge,


ON TRIODES, PENTODES & IRISHMEN: (Continued) electron flow is stopped and the space charge of electrons remains compressed


in the area around the cathode.


Thus a diode tube - one with a cathode and an anode - is mostly used to rectify alternating current into direct current by passing it


without restriction, but in one direction only. This also explains why closing time is stricly enforced at Irish pubs: During normal


operation, the traffic flow is similarily unimpeded and uni-directional toward the bar and this process rectifies the work-day negativity.


It goes without saying that no one leaves as long as the atmosphere around the bar remains positively charged.


TRIODES:


This section is a continuing technical treatise on the workings of Irish Pubs but to make it easier for the layman to understand, it is


explained in terms of vacuum tube technology. Enter the original bar - free beer and no doors. Well, it turns out that some control over


the flow can be a necessary and useful advantage. This led to the invention of those swinging louvered saloon doors which are open


at the top and bottom. They are patterned after the control grid of the vacuum tube, which is a loosely wound coil of thin wire located


between the cathode and the plate.


In a Triode the plate is always positively charged with high voltage D.C. and even though the grid is blocking the path, those negative


electrons can still FEEL the strong attraction - just as the Irishmen can see in through the louvers of the bar doors. They know what


pleasures lie beyond, but to get there requires overcoming the negative influences controlling the access. This negative influence is


typically called a Bias. In electronic terms that means the grid is supplied with a voltage which is slightly MORE NEGATIVE than the


already negative electrons. The more negative the Bias, the more it tends to neutralize the attraction of the plate and repel the


electrons back toward the cathode.


The Irish can be similarily charged with Bias, but unless you are Irish yourself, this type of Biasing may be more difficult to understand.


The effect is similar though: The more negative the Bias, the more it impedes forward progress. Generally speaking though, the


electronic Bias of the grid is easiert to overcome, and for two main reasons: First, the Bias is set - like the bar doors - to allow some


passage. Second, the grid is mostly NOT THERE, like the louvered doors which are mostly open spaces. Unlike the plate which is


solid, the grid is like a coiled bed spring. It can create a repelling field but mostly it’s empty space in between widely seperated


windings of wire. It’s very easy to control the electrons as they pass through the grid’s force field: Changing the grid voltage only


slightly will have an enormous effect on how much current flows through... and that’s what AMPLIFICATION is: a small change in


voltage at the grid causing a large change in current flowing to the plate.


The purpose of the louvered bar doors is similar to that of the grid, namely, to give momentary pause while still revealing the promise


within. Hesitation mostly gives way to temptation, but there are those few stalwart Irishmen who think twice and decide to come back


later. Most just pause slightly then go on through. That is the purpose of the bar doors: to prevent everyone from crowding in all at


once - and as the door is made less of a barrier, wider spaces between the louvers, more of the bar’s attractive influence is felt outside


thus amplifying the customer flow and increasing the crowd at the bar.


PENTODES:


Occasionally though, bar doors - even the louvered type - were found to be too effective, and too many customers turned away.


Something further was needed to increase the attraction of the bar and overcome the resistance created by the door. Thus the cocktail


waitress was invented.


Once again the idea was inspired by the vacuum tube. It had been discovered in some tubes, often large power types, that the


distance to the plate was too great to attract enough electrons past the negative influence of the control grid. So another grid coil of


fine wire was inserted between the first grid and the plate. This was called the screen grid and carrying a highly positive charge, it


functioned as a bait for the plate.


In a properly designed power tube such as an EL84 or a 6V6, the windings of the screen grid are precisely aligned to fall in the shadow


of the control grid. This way the electrons responding to the pull of the screen grid are lined up in sheets as they pass between


windings of the inner control grid... only to find that they have been fooled! Once past the control grid and drawn toward the screen



PAGE 26


PAGE 27



grid, they discover...there’s almost nothing there. The path they’re on has them aligned to zing straight through the spaces BETWEEN


ON TRIODES, PENTODES & IRISHMEN: (Continued) screen grid windings. So rather than a close and personal encounter, they


just fly on past - and once they’re out that far, there’s no stopping them. The influence of the plate takes over and - being solid metal


and of the highest positive attraction - it is at this final destination that the electrons congregate.


Thus the proper cocktail waitress - visible through the louvers - is scantily clad so as to be all the more effective at reinforcing the


attractive influence of her bar and by being located in between the door and the bar, she serves as bait to lure customers past the


door’s negative influence. Once through the door however, it is the rare Irishman who actually comes in personal contact with the


cocktail waitress as, for all intents and purposes, she - like the screen grid - turns out to be a vanishing illusion. Yet, having come this


far, the solid influence of the bar itself now takes over and attracts the customers to congregate, having happily reached their destination.


If you’re still following this and haven’t lost track of the count, you’ll know we’re still one element short of the five needed to make a


Pentode. This last part is a pair of beam-confining shields which being negatively charged, serve to direct the flow right toward the


plate. This is much the way a short entrance hall to the bar prevents wandering accidentally into the Men’s room on the way.


Once at the bar though, the circuit is complete and the process of soul-nourishing works its ritual magic. Biases having been overcome,


illusory nightingales having vanished, the spirits truly soar and the once surly Irishmen now are filled with warmth, wit and


kindred friendship, enjoying the music and glowing nicely with their heaters on.


With appreciative thanks to the inhabitants of the Land of the Leprechaun, we have now concluded our little diversion into the


mechanics of proper bar lay-out.


A feature article by Randall Smith


Designer / President



PAGE 28



FUSE HOLDER pt# 790347




SWITCHES pt#



PILOT LIGHT


JACK pt# BULB pt#


ALL FRONT PANEL KNOBS



610120



POT pt#



593739



POT pt#



592794



POT pt#


POT pt#



593148 592738



408115 SWITCH pt# 607303 601073




703110


593737



FRONT VIEW F SERIES



JACK pt#


KNOB pt# JACK pt#


(all three)



618100



JACK pt#


JACK pt#


SWITCH



pt# 600115 618100




618100


618100


408004



POT pt#



REAR VIEW F SERIES



8 OHM 4 OHM 4 OHM


SPEAKERS



RECORD / PHONES



STEREO OR MONO



FX


SEND RETURN



FX MIX



PREAMP PATENT 10%




4,701,957



2A S.B.



FUSE


FUSE




1 0 0%



SILENT RECORDING



MUTE SPKR ON



WARNING:




Unplug power


before replacing


fuse or removing


bolts mounting


chassis.



POWER FUSE


2 A


SLO


BLO


120 V~


50-60 Hz


2 A


FOOTSWITCH


SOCKET


BELOW



WARNING: To reduce risk of fire




or


electric shock, replace fuse with


same type and rating only. Do not



CAUTION: To reduce risk of fire or electric




shock, do not remove cover. No userserviceable


parts inside. Refer


servicing to qualified personnel.



MESA BOOGIE


USE WITH 8 OHM SPEAKERS



INPUT



GAIN TREBLE MID BASS REVERB



STANDBY POWER


ON ON



MASTER



CH1


FT


SW


CH .


2


CH


CONTOUR



591842



POT pt#


POT pt#



592738



POT pt#



593736



POT pt#



593737



POT pt#



593148



POT pt#



593739



POT pt#



593150



POT pt#



593150



LENS pt# 703782




F-Series


Amplifiers


The Spirit of Art in Technology



MESA BOOGIE


Thank you for trusting MESA/Boogie to be your amplifier




company. We wish you many years of toneful enjoyment from


this handbuilt all tube instrument.


1317 Ross Street Petaluma, CA 94954


USA


Phone No. (707) 778-6565 Fax No. (707) 765-1503



The Spirit of Art in Technology




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