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Details about  NATURALIST & RIVER AMAZONS:HENRY WALTER BATES-1st EDITION/ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE

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NATURALIST & RIVER AMAZONS:HENRY WALTER BATES-1st EDITION/ALFRED RUSSEL WALLACE
NATURALIST-RIVER-AMAZONS-HENRY-WALTER-BATES-1st-EDITION-ALFRED-RUSSEL-WALLACE
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201107430698
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Condition: Used
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Format:

Hardback

Sub-Subject:

South America

Language:

English

Printing Year:

1850-1899

Special Attributes:

1st Edition

Condition:

Used

Subject:

Natural History

Highland and Gaelic Books from Skye

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THE

NATURALIST ON THE RIVER

AMAZONS

A RECORD OF ADVENTURES, HABITS OF ANIMALS, SKETCHES OF

BRAZILIAN AND INDIAN LIFE, AND ASPECTS OF NATURE UNDER

THE EQUATOR, DURING ELEVEN YEARS OF TRAVEL.

BY

HENRY WALTER BATES

1ST EDITION

LONDON, JOHN MURRAY

1863

*******

BOOK DESCRIPTION:, original publisher's cloth, Two volumes. 8vo. viii, [ii], 351; vi, 423 pp. Separate frontispieces, 7 full-page illustrations plus numerous text illustrations and 1 folding map.  Complete with publisher's inserted adverts (32pp)

CONDITIONVERY GOOD-. A presentable and complete set. Covers have been expertly restored conserving the vast majority of the original cloth binding.  Some minor wear and staining and an area of water damage to the rear board of Vol I - not too unsightly and not extending into the book itself.  Corners quite bumped with a little loss.  Bindings tight and square.  Original endpapers have been given fresh joints with sympathetic period paper.  Some minor damage to the endpaper of vol II.  Contemporary name to each fly-leaf: F. C. King.  Some occasional marginal smudges, and  localised staining to two leaves (p.14/15) of VOL II, which though over much of the paper is thankfully not heavy (see photos below).   A decent restored set of a work that is scarce in original cloth.


“...the best book of Natural History Travels
ever published in England...

Charles Darwin

**********

The Naturalist on the River Amazons, is  Henry Walter Bates account of his expedition to the Amazon Basin. Bates and his friend Alfred Russel Wallace set out to obtain new species and new evidence for evolution by natural selection, as well as exotic specimens to sell. He explored thousands of miles of the Amazon and its tributaries, and collected over 14,000 species, of which 8,000 were new to science. His observations of the coloration of butterflies led him to discover Batesian mimicry.

On Bates's return to England, he was encouraged by Charles Darwin to write up his eleven-year stay in the Amazon as a book. The result was widely admired, not least by Darwin; other reviewers sometimes disagreed with the book's support for evolution, but generally enjoyed his account of the journey, scenery, people, and natural history.

  The superb illustrations, by several artists, are remarkable in that they often picture the author as well as the people and animals encountered (see some examples below).

Read the full contents of both volumes below, along with a transcription of Charles Darwin's "appreciation" (a review of this work published in Natural History Review, vol. iii. 1863)

 

*********************

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CONTENTS: 

CONTENTS OF VOL. I 
CHAPTER I
. 
PARÁ
Arrival— Aspect of the country— the Para Elver— Fu-st walk in 
the Suburbs of Para— Free Negroes— Birds, Lizards, and Insects 
of the Suburbs— Leaf-cutting Ant— Sketch of the climate, his- 
tory, and present condition of Para 1 
CHAPTER II. 
PARÁ
The Swampy forests of Para — A Portuguese landed proprietor — 
Country house at Nazareth— Life of a Naturalist under the equator 
— The drier virgin forests — Magoary — Eetired creeks — Abo- 
rigines 44
 
CHAPTER III. 
PARÁ
Religious holidays— Marmoset Monkeys — Serpents — Insects of the 
forest —Eelations of the fauna of the Para District . . .86 
CHAPTER IV. 
THE TOCANTINS AND CAMETA. 
Preparations for the journey — The bay of Goajara — Grove of fan- 
leaved palms— The lower Tocantins— Sketch of the river— Vista 
alegi-e — Baiao — Eapids— Boat journey to the Guariba falls — 
Native life on the Tocantins— Second journey to Cameta . . 112 
CHAPTER V. 
CARIPI AND THE BAY OF MARAJÓ. 
"River Para and Bay of Marajó— Journey to Caripi — Negro obser- 
vance of Christmas — A German Family — Bats — Ant-eaters — 
Humming-birds — Excursion to the Murucupi — Domestic Life of 
the Inhabitants — Hunting Excursion with Indians — Natural 
History of the Paca and Cutia — Insects , . . . .168 
CHAPTER VI. 
THE LOWER AMAZONS-PARA TO OBYDOS. 
Modes of travelling on the Amazons — Historical Sketch of the 
early explorations of the River — Preparations for Voyage— Life 
on board a large Trading- vessel — The narrow Channels joining the 
Para to the Amazons — First Sight of the great River — Gurupa — 
The Great Shoal — Flat-topped Mountains — Contraction of the 
River Yalley — Santarem — Obydos — Natural History of Obydos — 
Origin of Species by Segregation of Local Varieties . . .212 
CHAPTER VII. 
THE LOWER AMAZONS— OBYDOS TO MANAOS, OR 
THE BARRA OF THE RIO NEGRO. 
Departure from Obydos — River banks and by-channels— Cacao 
planters — Daily life on board our vessel — Great Storm— Sand- 
island and its birds — Hill of Pareutins — Negro trader and 
Manilas Indians — Villa Nova, its inhabitants, climate, forest, 
and animal productions — Cararaucu — A rustic festival — Lake of 
Cararaucu — Moti'ica flies — Serpa — Christmas holidays — River 
Madeira — A mameluco farmer — Mura Indians — Rio Negro — 
Description of Barra — Descent to Para — Yellow fever . . 266 
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 
VOL. I. 
ADVENTURE WITH CURL-CEESTED TOUCANS . . Frontisinece. 
SAUBA OR LEAF-CARRYING ANT 24 
SAUBA ANT — FEMALE , . 33 
CLIMBING PALM (dESMONCUS) ....... 48 
INTERIOR OF PRIMEVAL FOREST ON THE AMAZONS . . . 72 
AMPHISBAENA 101 
ACROSOMA ARCUATUM 106 
ASSAI PALM (EUTERPE OLERACEA) 123 
BIRD-KILLING SPIDER (MYGALE AVICULARIA) ATTACKING FINCHES 161 
ANT-EATER GRAPPLING WITH DOG 
humming-bird AND humming-bird HAWK-MOTH 
ACARI FISH (LORICARIA DUODECIMALIS) .... 
FLAT-TOPPED MOUNTAINS OF PARAUAQUARA, LOWER AMAZONS 
MUSICAL CRICKET (CHLOROCCELUS TANANA) 
HELICONIUS MELPOMENE 
HELICONIUS THELXIOPE 
TRANSITION FORMS BETWEEN HELICONIUS MELPOMENE -AND H, 
THELXIOPE 
PEURIRIMA PALM (BACTRIS) 
CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 
CHAPTER I. 
SANTAKEM. 
Situation of Santarem — Manners and customs of the inhabitants 
— Trade — Climate — Leprosy — Historical sketch — Grassy campos 
and woods — Excursions to Mapiri, Mahica, and Irura, with 
sketches of their Natural History ; Palms, wild fruit-trees, 
Mining Wasps, Mason Wasps, Bees, Sloths, and Marmoset 
Monkeys — Natural History of Termites or White Ants . . 1 
CHAPTER II. 
VOYAGE UP THE TAPAJOS. 
Preparations for voyage — First day's sail — Mode of arranging 
money-matters and remittance of collections in the interior — 
Loss of boat — Altar do Chad — Excursion in forest — Valuable 
timber — Modes of obtaining fish — Difficulties with crew — Arrival 
at Aveyros — Excursions in the neighbourhood — White Cebus 
and habits and dispositions of Cebi Monkeys — Tame Parrot — 
Missionary settlement — Enter the Kiver Cupari — Adventure with 
Anaconda — Smoke-dried Monkey — Boa-constrictor — Village of 
Mundurucu Indians, and incursion of a wild tribe — Falls of 
the Cupari — Hyacinthine Macaw — Re-emerge into the broad 
Tapajos — Descent of river to Santarem . . . . .71 
CHAPTER III. 
THE UPPER AMAZONS— VOYAGE TO EGA. 
Departure from Barra — First day and night on the Upper Ama- 
zons — Desolate appearance of river in the flood season — Cucama 
Indians — Mental condition of Indians — Squalls — Manatee — 
Forest — Floating pumice-stones from the Andes — Falling banks 
— Ega and its inhabitants — Daily life of a Naturalist at Ega — 
Customs, trade, &c. — The four seasons of the Upper Amazons . 153 
CHAPTER IV. 
EXCURSIONS IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF EGA. 
The river Teffe — Rambles through groves on the beach — Excursion 
to the house of a Passe chieftain — Character and customs of 
the Passe* tribe — First excursion to the sand islands of the 
Solimoens — Habits of great river-turtle — Second excursion — 
Turtle-fishing in the inland pools — Third excursion — Hunt- 
ing-rambles with, natives in the forest — Return to Ega . . 225 
CHAPTER V. 
ANIMALS OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF EGA. 
Scarlet-faced Monkeys — Parauacii Monkey — Owl-faced Night-apes 
— Marmosets — Jupurd, — Comparison of Monkeys of the New 
"World with those of the Old — Bats — Birds — Cuvier's Toucan 
— Curl-crested Toucan — Insects — Pendulous Cocoons — Foraging 
Ants— Blind Ants 305 
CHAPTER VI. 
EXCURSIONS BEYOND EGA. 
Steamboat travelling on the Amazons — Passengers — Tunantins — 
Caishana Indians — The Jutahi — Indian tribes on the Jutahi and 
the Junia — The Sapo — Maraud Indians — Fonte Boa — Journey to 
St. Paulo — Tucuna Indians — Illness— Descent to Para — Changes 
at Para — Departure for England 367 
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 
VOL. II. 
MASKED DANCE AND WEDDING FEAST OF TUCUNA INDIANS 
PELOPAEUS WASP BUILDING NEST 
CELLS OF TRYPOXYLON AURIFRONS 
MELIPONA BEES GATHERING CLAY 
THE JACUARU (TEITJS TEGUENIM) 
SOLDIERS OF DIFFERENT SPECIES OF WHITE ANTS, WITH ORDI- 
NARY SHAPE OF WORKER AND WINGED CLASS, . . . 64 
ACARA (mesonauta insignis) 140 
sarapo (CARAPUS) 141 
needle-fish (liemabamphus) 141 
bulging-stemmed palm : pashiuba barrigudo (iriartea yentkicosa) 169 
uiki fruit 217 
putunha palm 218 
blow-pipe, quiver, and arrow 236 
sububim (pimelodus tigrinus) . . . . . 256 
arrow used in turtle shooting 261 
TURTLE-FISHING AND ADVENTURE WITH ALLIGATOR . . . 265 
NIGHT ADVENTURE WITH ALLIGATOR 279 
UMBRELLA BIRD 283 
.SCARLET-FACED AND PARAUACU MONKEYS .... 306 
CURL-CRESTED TOUCAN 343 
SUSPENDED COCOON OF MOTH 348 
SACK-BEARING CATERPILLAR (SACCOPHORA) 350 
FORAGING ANTS (ECITON DREPANOPHORA) 356 
FORAGING ANTS (ECITON ERRATICA) CONSTRUCTING A COVERED 
ROAD. —SOLDIERS SALLYING OUT ON BEING DISTURBED . 364 

AN APPRECIATION

 

BY CHARLES DARWIN

 

Author of "The Origin of Species," etc.

 

[From Natural History Review, vol. iii. 1863.]

 

IN April, 1848, the author of the present volume left England in company with Mr. A. R. Wallace--"who has since acquired wide fame in connection with the Darwinian theory of Natural Selection"--on a joint expedition up the river Amazons, for the purpose of investigating the Natural History of the vast wood-region traversed by that mighty river and its numerous tributaries. Mr. Wallace returned to England after four years' stay, and was, we believe, unlucky enough to lose the greater part of his collections by the shipwreck of the vessel in which he had transmitted them to London. Mr. Bates prolonged his residence in the Amazon valley seven years after Mr. Wallace's departure, and did not revisit his native country again until 1859. Mr. Bates was also more fortunate than his companion in bringing his gathered treasures home to England in safety. So great, indeed, was the mass of specimens accumulated by Mr. Bates during his eleven years' researches, that upon the working out of his collection, which has been accomplished (or is now in course of being accomplished) by different scientific naturalists in this country, it has been ascertained that representatives of no less than 14,712 species are amongst them, of which about 8000 were previously unknown to science. It may be remarked that by far the greater portion of these species, namely, about 14,000, belong to the class of Insects--to the study of which Mr. Bates principally devoted his attention--being, as is well known, himself recognised as no mean authority as regards this class of organic beings. In his present volume, however, Mr. Bates does not confine himself to his entomological discoveries, nor to any other branch of Natural History, but supplies a general outline of his adventures during his journeyings up and down the mighty river, and a variety of information concerning every object of interest, whether physical or political, that he met with by the way. Mr. Bates landed at Para in May, 1848. His first part is entirely taken up with an account of the Lower Amazons--that is, the river from its sources up to the city of Manaos or Barra do Rio Negro, where it is joined by the large northern confluent of that name-- and with a narrative of his residence at Para and his various excursions in the neighbourhood of that city. The large collection made by Mr. Bates of the animal productions of Para enabled him to arrive at the following conclusions regarding the relations of the Fauna of the south side of the Amazonian delta with those of other regions. "It is generally allowed that Guiana and Brazil, to the north and south of the Para district, form two distinct provinces, as regards their animal and vegetable inhabitants. By this it means that the two regions have a very large number of forms peculiar to themselves, and which are supposed not to have been derived from other quarters during modern geological times. Each may be considered as a centre of distribution in the latest process of dissemination of species over the surface of tropical America. Para lies midway between the two centres, each of which has a nucleus of elevated table-land, whilst the intermediate river- valley forms a wide extent of low-lying country. It is, therefore, interesting to ascertain from which the latter received its population, or whether it contains so large a number of endemic species as would warrant the conclusion that it is itself an independent province. To assist in deciding such questions as these, we must compare closely the species found in the district with those of the other contiguous regions, and endeavour to ascertain whether they are identical, or only slightly modified, or whether they are highly peculiar. "Von Martius when he visited this part of Brazil forty years ago, coming from the south, was much struck with the dissimilarity of the animal and vegetable productions to those of other parts of Brazil. In fact the Fauna of Para, and the lower part of the Amazons has no close relationship with that of Brazil proper; but it has a very great affinity with that of the coast region of Guiana, from Cayenne to Demerara. If we may judge from the results afforded by the study of certain families of insects, no peculiar Brazilian forms are found in the Para district; whilst more than one-half of the total number are essentially Guiana species, being found nowhere else but in Guiana and Amazonia. Many of them, however, are modified from the Guiana type, and about one-seventh seem to be restricted to Para. These endemic species are not highly peculiar, and they may yet be found over a great part of Northern Brazil when the country is better explored. They do not warrant us in concluding that the district forms an independent province, although they show that its Fauna is not wholly derivative, and that the land is probably not entirely a new formation. From all these facts, I think we must conclude that the Para district belongs to the Guiana province and that, if it is newer land than Guiana, it must have received the great bulk of its animal population from that region. I am informed by Dr. Sclater that similar results are derivable from the comparison of the birds of these countries." One of the most interesting excursions made by Mr. Bates from Para was the ascent of the river Tocantins--the mouth of which lies about 4-5 miles from the city of Para. This was twice attempted. On the second occasion--our author being in company with Mr. Wallace--the travellers penetrated as far as the rapids of Arroyos, about 130 miles from its mouth. This district is one of the chief collecting-grounds of the well-known Brazil-nut (Bertholletia excelsa), which is here very plentiful, grove after grove of these splendid trees being visible, towering above their fellows, with the "woody fruits, large and round as cannon-balls, dotted over the branches." The Hyacinthine Macaw (Ara hyacinthina) is another natural wonder, first met with here. This splendid bird, which is occasionally brought alive to the Zoological Gardens of Europe, "only occurs in the interior of Brazil, from 16' S.L. to the southern border of the Amazon valley." Its enormous beak--which must strike even the most unobservant with wonder--appears to be adapted to enable it to feed on the nuts of the Mucuja Palm (Acrocomia lasiospatha). "These nuts, which are so hard as to be difficult to break with a heavy hammer, are crushed to a pulp by the powerful beak of this Macaw." Mr. Bates' later part is mainly devoted to his residence at Santarem, at the junction of the Rio Tapajos with the main stream, and to his account of Upper Amazon, or Solimoens--the Fauna of which is, as we shall presently see, in many respects very different from that of the lower part of the river. At Santarem--"the most important and most civilised settlement on the Amazon, between the Atlantic and Para "--Mr. Bates made his headquarters for three years and a half, during which time several excursions up the little-known Tapajos were effected. Some 70 miles up the stream, on its affluent, the Cupari, a new Fauna, for the most part very distinct from that of the lower part of the same stream, was entered upon. "At the same time a considerable proportion of the Cupari species were identical with those of Ega, on the Upper Amazon, a district eight times further removed than the village just mentioned." Mr. Bates was more successful here than on his excursion up the Tocantins, and obtained twenty new species of fishes, and many new and conspicuous insects, apparently peculiar to this part of the Amazonian valley. In a later chapter Mr. Bates commences his account of the Solimoens, or Upper Amazons, on the banks of which he passed four years and a half. The country is a "magnificent wilderness, where civilised man has, as yet, scarcely obtained a footing-the cultivated ground, from the Rio Negro to the Andes, amounting only to a few score acres." During the whole of this time Mr. Bates' headquarters were at Ega, on the Teffe, a confluent of the great river from the south, whence excursions were made sometimes for 300 or 400 miles into the interior. In the intervals Mr. Bates followed his pursuit as a collecting naturalist in the same "peaceful, regular way," as he might have done in a European village. Our author draws a most striking picture of the quiet, secluded life he led in this far-distant spot. The difficulty of getting news and the want of intellectual society were the great drawbacks--"the latter increasing until it became almost insupportable." "I was obliged at last," Mr. Bates naively remarks, "to come to the conclusion that the contemplation of Nature, alone is not sufficient to fill the human heart and mind." Mr. Bates must indeed have been driven to great straits as regards his mental food, when, as he tell us, he took to reading the Athenaeum three times over, "the first time devouring the more interesting articles--the second, the whole of the remainder--and the third, reading all the advertisements from beginning to end." Ega was, indeed, as Mr. Bates remarks, a fine field for a Natural History collector, the only previous scientific visitants to that region having been the German Naturalists, Spix and Martius, and the Count de Castelnau when he descended the Amazons from the Pacific. Mr. Bates' account of the monkeys of the genera Brachyuyus, Nyctipithecus and Midas met with in this region, and the whole of the very pregnant remarks which follow on the American forms of the Quadrumana, will be read with interest by every one, particularly by those who pay attention to the important subject of geographical distribution. We need hardly say that Mr. Bates, after the attention he has bestowed upon this question, is a zealous advocate of the hypothesis of the origin of species by derivation from a common stock. After giving an outline of the general distribution of Monkeys, he clearly argues that unless the "common origin at least of the species of a family be admitted, the problem of their distribution must remain an inexplicable mystery." Mr. Bates evidently thoroughly understands the nature of this interesting problem, and in another passage, in which the very singular distribution of the Butterflies of the genus Heliconius is enlarged upon, concludes with the following significant remarks upon this important subject: "In the controversy which is being waged amongst Naturalists since the publication of the Darwinian theory of the origin of species, it has been rightly said that no proof at present existed of the production of a physiological species, that is, a form which will not interbreed with the one from which it was derived, although given ample opportunities of doing so, and does not exhibit signs of reverting to its parent form when placed under the same conditions with it. Morphological species, that is, forms which differ to an amount that would justify their being considered good species, have been produced in plenty through selection by man out of variations arising under domestication or cultivation. The facts just given are therefore of some scientific importance, for they tend to show that a physiological species can be and is produced in nature out of the varieties of a pre-existing closely allied one. This is not an isolated case, for I observed in the course of my travels a number of similar instances. But in very few has it happened that the species which clearly appears to be the parent, co-exists with one that has been evidently derived from it. Generally the supposed parent also seems to have been modified, and then the demonstration is not so clear, for some of the links in the chain of variation are wanting. The process of origination of a species in nature as it takes place successively, must be ever, perhaps, beyond man's power to trace, on account of the great lapse of time it requires. But we can obtain a fair view of it by tracing a variable and far-spreading species over the wide area of its present distribution; and a long observation of such will lead to the conclusion that new species must in all cases have arisen out of variable and widely-disseminated forms. It sometimes happens, as in the present instance, that we find in one locality a species under a certain form which is constant to all the individuals concerned; in another exhibiting numerous varieties; and in a third presenting itself as a constant form quite distinct from the one we set out with. If we meet with any two of these modifications living side by side, and maintaining their distinctive characters under such circumstances, the proof of the natural origination of a species is complete; it could not be much more so were we able to watch the process step by step. It might be objected that the difference between our two species is but slight, and that by classing them as varieties nothing further would be proved by them. But the differences between them are such as obtain between allied species generally. Large genera are composed in great part of such species, and it is interesting to show the great and beautiful diversity within a large genus as brought about by the working of laws within our comprehension." But to return to the Zoological wonders of the Upper Amazon, birds, insects, and butterflies are all spoken of by Mr. Bates in his chapter on the natural features of the district, and it is evident that none of these classes of beings escaped the observation of his watchful intelligence. The account of the foraging ants of the genus Eciton is certainly marvellous, and would, even of itself, be sufficient to stamp the recorder of their habits as a man of no ordinary mark. The last chapter of Mr. Bates' work contains the account of his excursions beyond Ega. Fonteboa, Tunantins--a small semi-Indian settlement, 240 miles up the stream--and San Paulo de Olivenca, some miles higher up, were the principal places visited, and new acquisitions were gathered at each of these localities. In the fourth month of Mr. Bates' residence at the last-named place, a severe attack of ague led to the abandonment of the plans he had formed of proceeding to the Peruvian towns of Pebas and Moyobamba, and "so completing the examination of the Natural History of the Amazonian plains up to the foot of the Andes." This attack, which seemed to be the culmination of a gradual deterioration of health, caused by eleven years' hard work under the tropics, induced him to return to Ega, and finally to Para, where he embarked, on the 2nd June 1859, for England. Naturally enough, Mr. Bates tells us he was at first a little dismayed at leaving the equator, "where the well-balanced forces of Nature maintain a land-surface and a climate typical of mind, and order and beauty," to sail towards the "crepuscular skies" of the cold north. But he consoles us by adding the remark that "three years' renewed experience of England" have convinced him "how incomparably superior is civilised life to the spiritual sterility of half-savage existence, even if it were passed in the Garden of Eden."




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