Bidding has ended on this item. The seller has relisted this item or one like this.

Posts to:
Posts to:

Details about  Nelson Mandela Gold Coin Legend Autograph Commemorative Uncirculated Unknown RSA

See original listing
Nelson Mandela Gold Coin Legend Autograph Commemorative Uncirculated Unknown RSA
Item Ended
Item condition:
--not specified

In Excellent Condition

27 Jul, 2014 20:43:21 BST
Winning bid:
7 bids ]
£0.99 Standard Delivery | See details
Item location:
Take a Look at My Other Items, United Kingdom


eBay item number:
Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing.
dyolL annaeD
teertS dnumdE 4
QW5 6M
modgniK detinU

Item specifics

Seller notes: In Excellent Condition
Year of Issue:


Number of Pieces:


Nelson Mandela

UnCirculated Commemoration Coin

Depicts the Great Man with the words "Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela" it also has his signature
The Reverse has the South Africa Flag with figures and the words "10 Years of Freedom South Africa 1994 - 2004

The coin is 40mm in diameter, weighs about  1 oz

Comes in air-tight acrylic coin holder.

In Excellent Condition

All my items like this one start at a penny with no reserve. If your the only bidder you will win the coin for a penny!!!

Would make an Excellent Gift or Collectable Keepsake

I have a lot of Similar Coins on Ebay so Please CLICK HERE TO VISIT MY SHOP

Bid with Confidence - Check My  Positive Feedback from over 3000 Satisfied Customers

Most of My Auctions Start at a Penny and I always combine postage so please check out my other items!

I always leave instant automatic feedback on receiving payment

 All Payment Methods in All Major Currencies Accepted. Including Barlcays Bank "Pingit" Mobile App

I Specialise in Unique Fun Items So For that Interesting Conversational Piece, A Birthday Present, Christmas Gift, A Comical Item to Cheer Someone Up or That Unique Perfect Gift for the Person Who has Everything....You Know Where to Look for a Bargain!

If You Have any Questions Please Email Me at and I Will Reply ASAP

All Items Dispatched within 24 hours of Receiving Payment. 

Thanks for Looking and Best of Luck with the Bidding!!

The Countries I Send to Include Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL)  * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL)  * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL)  * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL)  * Sint Maarten (NL)  * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (Xhosa pronunciation: [xoˈliːɬaɬa manˈdeːla]; born 18 July 1918) is a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary and politician who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999. He was the first black South African to hold the office, and the first elected in a fully representative, multiracial election. His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid through tackling institutionalised racism, poverty and inequality, and fostering racial reconciliation. Politically an African nationalist and democratic socialist, he served as the President of the African National Congress (ANC) from 1991 to 1997. Internationally, Mandela was the Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1998 to 1999.

A Xhosa born to the Thembu royal family, Mandela attended Fort Hare University and the University of Witwatersrand, where he studied law. Living in Johannesburg, he became involved in anti-colonial politics, joining the ANC and becoming a founding member of its Youth League. After the Afrikaner nationalists of the National Party came to power in 1948 and began implementing the policy of apartheid, he rose to prominence in the ANC's 1952 Defiance Campaign, was elected President of the Transvaal ANC Branch and oversaw the 1955 Congress of the People. Working as a lawyer, he was repeatedly arrested for seditious activities and, with the ANC leadership, was prosecuted in the Treason Trial from 1956 to 1961 but was found not guilty. Although initially committed to non-violent protest, in association with the South African Communist Party he co-founded the militant Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK) in 1961, leading a bombing campaign against government targets. In 1962 he was arrested, convicted of sabotage and conspiracy to overthrow the government, and sentenced to life imprisonment in the Rivonia Trial.

Mandela served 27 years in prison, first on Robben Island, and later in Pollsmoor Prison and Victor Verster Prison. An international campaign lobbied for his release, which was granted in 1990 amid escalating civil strife. Becoming ANC President, Mandela published his autobiography and led negotiations with President F.W. de Klerk to abolish apartheid and establish multiracial elections in 1994, in which he led the ANC to victory. He was elected President and formed a Government of National Unity in an attempt to defuse ethnic tensions. As President, he established a new constitution and initiated the Truth and Reconciliation Commission to investigate past human rights abuses. Continuing the former government's liberal economic policy, his administration introduced measures to encourage land reform, combat poverty, and expand healthcare services. Internationally, he acted as mediator between Libya and the United Kingdom in the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial, and oversaw military intervention in Lesotho. He declined to run for a second term, and was succeeded by his deputy, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela subsequently became an elder statesman, focusing on charitable work in combating poverty and HIV/AIDS through the Nelson Mandela Foundation.

Mandela has been a controversial figure for much of his life. Right-wing critics denounced him as a terrorist and communist sympathiser. He nevertheless gained international acclaim for his anti-colonial and anti-apartheid stance, having received more than 250 honours, including the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize, the US Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Soviet Order of Lenin. He is held in deep respect within South Africa, where he is often referred to by his Xhosa clan name, Madiba, or as Tata ("Father"); he is often described as "the father of the nation".

President of South Africa
In office
10 May 1994 – 14 June 1999
Deputy    Thabo Mbeki
F. W. de Klerk
Preceded by    F. W. de Klerk
Succeeded by    Thabo Mbeki
Personal details
Born    Rolihlahla Mandela
18 July 1918 (age 95)
Mvezo, South Africa
Nationality    South African
Political party    African National Congress
Spouse(s)    Evelyn Ntoko Mase (1944–1957)
Winnie Madikizela (1958–1996)
Graça Machel (1998–present)
Children    Madiba Thembekile
Makgatho Lewanika
Josina Z. Machel (step daughter)
Malengani Machel (step son)
Residence    Houghton Estate, Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
Alma mater    University of Fort Hare
University of London External System
University of South Africa
University of the Witwatersrand
Religion    Christianity (Methodism)

Within South Africa, Mandela is widely considered to be "the father of the nation",[345] and "the founding father of democracy",[346] being seen as "the national liberator, the saviour, its Washington and Lincoln rolled into one".[347] In 2004, Johannesburg granted Mandela the freedom of the city,[348] and the Sandton Square shopping centre was renamed Nelson Mandela Square, after a Mandela statue was installed there.[349] In 2008, another Mandela statue was unveiled at Groot Drakenstein Correctional Centre, formerly Victor Verster Prison, near Cape Town, standing on the spot where Mandela was released from the prison.[350]

He has also received international acclaim. In 1993, he received the joint Nobel Peace Prize with de Klerk.[351] In November 2009, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed Mandela's birthday, 18 July, as "Mandela Day", marking his contribution to the anti-apartheid struggle. It called on individuals to donate 67 minutes to doing something for others, commemorating the 67 years that Mandela had been a part of the movement.[352]

Awarded the US Presidential Medal of Freedom,[353] and the Order of Canada,[354] he was the first living person to be made an honorary Canadian citizen.[355] The last reciprocent of the Soviet Union's Lenin Peace Prize from the Soviet Union,[356] and first reciprocent of the Al-Gaddafi International Prize for Human Rights,[357] in 1990 he received the Bharat Ratna Award from the government of India,[358] and in 1992 received Pakistan's Nishan-e-Pakistan.[359] In 1992 he was awarded the Atatürk Peace Award by Turkey. He refused the award, citing human rights violations committed by Turkey at the time,[360] but later accepted the award in 1999.[356] Elizabeth II awarded him the Bailiff Grand Cross of the Order of St. John and the Order of Merit.[361]

Nelson Mandela graffiti by Thierry Ehrmann in the Abode of Chaos museum, France.
Tributes by musicians
Many artists have dedicated songs to Mandela. One of the most popular was from The Special AKA who recorded the song "Free Nelson Mandela" in 1983, which Elvis Costello also recorded and had a hit with. Stevie Wonder dedicated his 1985 Oscar for the song "I Just Called to Say I Love You" to Mandela, resulting in his music being banned by the South African Broadcasting Corporation.[362] In 1985, Youssou N'Dour's album Nelson Mandela was the Senegalese artist's first US release. Other artists who released songs or videos honouring Mandela include Johnny Clegg,[363] Hugh Masekela,[364] Brenda Fassie,[365] Beyond,[366] Nickelback,[367] Raffi,[368] and Ampie du Preez and AB de Villiers.[369]

Cinema and television
Mandela has been depicted in cinema and television on multiple occasions. The 1997 film Mandela and de Klerk starred Sidney Poitier as Mandela,[370] while Dennis Haysbert played him in Goodbye Bafana (2007).[371] In the 2009 BBC television film Mrs Mandela, Nelson Mandela was portrayed by David Harewood,[372] and Morgan Freeman portrayed him in Invictus (2009)

Nelson Mandela
President of South Africa (1994-1999) President of the African National Congress (1991-1997) Born July 18, 1918
Rivonia Trial 70th Birthday Tribute Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa Awards and honours 90th Birthday Tribute
Nelson Mandela
South African general election, 1994 Presidency Intervention in Lesotho Ismail Ayob
Long Walk to Freedom Mandela: The Authorised Biography
Ngubengcuka Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa Evelyn Ntoko Winnie Madikizela-Mandela Graça Machel Makgatho Mandela Makaziwe Mandela Mandla Mandela
Goodbye Bafana (2007) Mandela and de Klerk (1997) Invictus (2009)
[hide] v t e
African National Congress
1912–1915 S. T. Plaatje 1915–1917 R. V. S. Thema 1917–1919 S. Msane 1919–1923 H.L. Bud-M'belle 1923–1927 T. D. Mweli-Skota 1927–1930 E. J. Khaile 1930–1936 E. Mdolomba 1936–1949 J. A. Calata 1949–1955 W. M. U. Sisulu 1955–1958 O. R. Tambo 1958–1969 P. P. D. Nokwe 1969–1991 A. B. Nzo 1991–1997 M. C. Ramaphosa 1997–2007 K. Motlanthe 2007–present G. Mantashe
1912–1917 J. L. Dube 1917–1924 S. M. Makgatho 1924–1927 Z. R. Mahabane 1927–1930 J. T. Gumede 1930–1936 P. ka Isaka Seme 1937–1940 Z. R. Mahabane 1940–1949 A. B. Xuma 1949–1952 J. S. Moroka 1952–1967 A. J. Lutuli 1967–1991 O. R. Tambo 1991–1997 N. R. Mandela 1997–2007 T. M. Mbeki 2007–present J. G. Zuma
Deputy President
1952–1958 N. R. Mandela 1958–1985 O. R. Tambo 1985–1991 N. R. Mandela 1991–1994 W. M. U. Sisulu 1994–1997 T. M. Mbeki 1997–2007 J. G. Zuma 2007–2012 K. Motlanthe 2012-present M. C. Ramaphosa
National Conferences   
38th (1949) 39th (1950) 40th (1951) 41st (1952) 42nd (1953) 43rd (1954) 44th (1955) 45th (1957) 46th (1958) 47th (1959) 48th (1991) 49th (1994) 50th (1997) 51st (2002) 52nd (2007) 53rd (2012)
Structure and wings   
ANC Women's League ANC Youth League National Executive Committee Radio Freedom Umkhonto we Sizwe Progressive ANC Voters Network
Related organizations   
Congress of South African Trade Unions South African Communist Party
[hide] v t e
Heads of State of South Africa (List)
Coat of Arms of South Africa

Coat of Arms of South Africa
Union of South Africa   
George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II
South Africa Flag 1910-1912.svg

South Africa Flag 1912-1928.svg

Flag of South Africa 1928-1994.svg

Flag of South Africa.svg
Charles Robberts Swart Theophilus Ebenhaezer Dönges Jozua François Naudé^* Jacobus Johannes Fouché Johannes de Klerk^* Nicolaas Johannes Diederichs Marais Viljoen^* B. J. Vorster Marais Viljoen
P. W. Botha F. W. de Klerk Nelson Mandela Thabo Mbeki Kgalema Motlanthe Jacob Zuma
^* Acting President
[hide] v t e
Secretaries-General of the Non-Aligned Movement
Tito Nasser Kaunda Boumédienne Gopallawa Jayewardene F. Castro Reddy Singh Mugabe Drnovšek Jović Mesić Kostić Ćosić Harto Samper Pastrana Mandela Mbeki Mahathir Abdullah F. Castro R. Castro Mubarak Tantawi Morsi Ahmadinejad Rouhani
[hide] v t e
Ministers of Nelson Mandela's first government (1994–1996)
Deputy Presidents   
Frederik Willem de Klerk / Thabo Mbeki
Kraai van Niekerk (Agriculture) Ben Ngubane (Arts and Culture) Pallo Jordan (Communications) Roelf Meyer (1994–1996) / Chris Fismer (1996) (Constitutional Development and Provincial Affairs) Sipo Mzimela (Correctional Services) Joe Modise (Defence) Sibusiso Bengu (Education) Dawid de Villiers (Environmental Affairs and Tourism) Derek Keys (1994) / Chris Liebenberg (1994–1996) (Finance) Alfred Nzo (Foreign Affairs) John Mavuso (1996) (General Services) Nkosazana Zuma (Health) Mangosuthu Buthelezi (Home Affairs) Joe Slovo (1994–1995) / Sankie Mtembi–Nkondo (1995–1996) (Housing) Dullah Omar (Justice) Tito Mboweni (Labour) Derek Hanekom (Land Affairs) Pik Botha (Minerals and Energy) Stella Sigcau (Public Enterprises) Zola Skweyiya (Public Service and Administration) Jeff Radebe (Public Works) Sydney Mufamadi (Safety and Security) Steve Tshwete (Sport and Recreation) Jay Naidoo (1994–1996) (The Presidency) Trevor Manuel (Trade and Industry) Mac Maharaj (Transport) Kader Asmal (Water Affairs and Forestry) Abe Williams (1994–1996) / Patrick McKenzie (1996) (Welfare)
[hide] v t e
Ministers of Nelson Mandela's second government (1996–1999)
Deputy President   
Thabo Mbeki
Derek Hanekom (Agriculture and Land Affairs) Ben Ngubane (1996–1997, 1999) / Lionel Mtshali (1997–1999) (Arts and Culture) Jay Naidoo (Communications) Mohammed Valli Moosa (Constitutional Development and Provincial Affairs) Sipo Mzimela (1996–1998) / Ben Skosana (1998–1999) (Correctional Services) Joe Modise (Defence) Sibusiso Bengu (Education) Pallo Jordan (Environmental Affairs and Tourism) Trevor Manuel (Finance) Alfred Nzo (Foreign Affairs) Nkosazana Zuma (Health) Mangosuthu Buthelezi (Home Affairs) Sankie Mtembi-Nkondo (Housing) Dullah Omar (Justice) Tito Mboweni (1996–1998) / Membathisi Mdladlana (1998–1999) (Labour) Penuell Maduna (Minerals and Energy) Stella Sigcau (Public Enterprises) Zola Skweyiya (Public Service and Administration) Jeff Radebe (Public Works) Sydney Mufamadi (Safety and Security) Steve Tshwete (Sport and Recreation) Gert Johannes Gerwel (The Presidency) Alec Erwin (Trade and Industry) Mac Maharaj (Transport) Kader Asmal (Water Affairs and Forestry) Geraldine Fraser-Moleketi (Welfare)
[hide] v t e
Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize (1976–2000)
1976 Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan 1977 Amnesty International 1978 Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin 1979 Mother Teresa 1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel 1981 United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1982 Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles 1983 Lech Wałęsa 1984 Desmond Tutu 1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War 1986 Elie Wiesel 1987 Óscar Arias 1988 UN Peacekeeping Forces 1989 Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama) 1990 Mikhail Gorbachev 1991 Aung San Suu Kyi 1992 Rigoberta Menchú 1993 Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk 1994 Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat 1995 Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat 1996 Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta 1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams 1998 John Hume / David Trimble 1999 Médecins Sans Frontières 2000 Kim Dae-jung
Complete list 1901–1925 1926–1950 1951–1975 1976–2000 2001–2025
[hide] v t e
Gandhi Peace Prize laureates
Julius Nyerere (1995) A. T. Ariyaratne (1996) Gerhard Fischer (1997) Ramakrishna Mission (1998) Baba Amte (1999) Grameen Bank, Nelson Mandela (2000) John Hume (2001) Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan (2002) Václav Havel (2003) Coretta Scott King (2004) Desmond Tutu (2005)
[hide] v t e
The Elders
Kofi Annan
Deputy Chair   
Gro Harlem Brundtland
Martti Ahtisaari Ela Bhatt Lakhdar Brahimi Fernando Henrique Cardoso Jimmy Carter Hina Jilani Graça Machel Mary Robinson Ernesto Zedillo
Honorary Members   
Nelson Mandela Desmond Tutu
Former Members   
Li Zhaoxing Aung San Suu Kyi Muhammad Yunus

Time Person of the Year

Year    Image    Choice    Lifetime    Notes
1927    Charles Lindbergh and the Spirit of Saint Louis (Crisco restoration, with wings).jpg    Charles Lindbergh     USA    1902–1974    Lindbergh was, in May 1927, the first person to fly a plane non-stop from New York City, USA to Paris, France.
1928        Walter Chrysler     USA    1875–1940    In 1928, Chrysler oversaw a merger of his company with Dodge, and began work on his eponymous building.
1929    Owen D. Young.jpg    Owen D. Young     USA    1874–1962    Young chaired a committee which authored the Young Plan, a program for settlement of German reparations debts after World War I.
1930    MKGandhi.jpg    Mahatma Gandhi     British Raj    1869–1948    Gandhi was the leader of the Indian independence movement. In 1930, he led the Salt Satyagraha, a 240-mile march to protest the imposition of taxes on salt by the British Raj.
1931    Laval 1931.jpg    Pierre Laval     France    1883–1945    Laval was a four-time Prime Minister of France.
1932    Franklin D. Roosevelt TIME Man of the Year 1933 color photo.jpg    Franklin D. Roosevelt     USA    1882–1945    Roosevelt won the 1932 US Presidential election by a landslide, defeating the incumbent, Herbert Hoover.
1933    Hugh S. Johnson.jpg    Hugh Samuel Johnson     USA    1882–1942    Johnson was then the director of the National Recovery Administration, an agency tasked by US President Franklin D. Roosevelt to bring industry, labor and government together to create codes of "fair practices" and set prices.
1934    FDR in 1933.jpg    Franklin D. Roosevelt     USA    1882–1945    Roosevelt was President of the United States from 1933 to 1945.
1935    Selassie restored.jpg    Haile Selassie I     Ethiopia    1892–1975    Selassie was the Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. In October 1935, Italian forces invaded Ethiopia, starting the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
1936    Wallis Simpson -1936.JPG    Wallis Simpson     USA    1896–1986    King Edward VIII abdicated his thrones to marry Simpson.
1937    Chiang Kai-shek(蔣中正).jpg    Chiang Kai-shek     China    1887–1975    At the time, Chiang was Premier of the Republic of China.
Songmayling.jpg    Soong May-ling     China    1898–2003    At the time, Soong was the wife of Chiang Kai-shek.
1938    Bundesarchiv Bild 183-S33882, Adolf Hitler retouched.jpg    Adolf Hitler     Germany    1889–1945    1938 saw the unification of Germany with Austria and the Sudetenland after the Anschluss and Munich Agreement respectively.
1939    Portrait of Stalin in 1936.gif    Joseph Stalin     USSR    1878–1953   
1940    Churchill portrait NYP 45063.jpg    Winston Churchill     UK    1874–1965   
1941    Franklin Roosevelt signing declaration of war against Japan.jpg    Franklin D. Roosevelt     USA    1882–1945   
1942    JStalin Secretary general CCCP 1942.jpg    Joseph Stalin     USSR    1878–1953   
1943    General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG    George Marshall     USA    1880–1959   
1944    General Dwight D. Eisenhower.jpg    Dwight D. Eisenhower     USA    1890–1969   
1945    Harry-truman.jpg    Harry S. Truman     USA    1884–1972   
1946    James Francis Byrnes, at his desk, 1943.jpg    James F. Byrnes     USA    1879–1972    Then-U.S. Secretary of State. His speech, "Restatement of Policy on Germany", set the tone of future U.S. policy as it repudiated the Morgenthau Plan and gave the Germans hope for the future.
1947    General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG    George Marshall     USA    1880–1959    Wrote the Marshall Plan
1948    Truman initiating Korean involvement.jpg    Harry S. Truman     USA    1884–1972   
1949    Sir Winston S Churchill.jpg    Winston Churchill     UK    1874–1965    Man of the half-century
1950        The American fighting-man     USA        Representing Korean War troops
1951    Mossadegh US04.jpg    Mohammad Mossadegh     Iran    1882–1967   
1952    Elizabeth and Philip 1953.jpg    Elizabeth II    Commonwealth realms[n 1]    1926–   
1953    Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F078072-0004, Konrad Adenauer.jpg    Konrad Adenauer     West Germany    1876–1967   
1954    JohnFosterDulles.jpeg    John Foster Dulles     USA    1888–1959   
1955    Harlow Curtice.jpg    Harlow Curtice     USA    1893–1962    Head of General Motors from 1953 to 1958.
1956        The Hungarian freedom fighter     Hungary       
1957    Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B0628-0015-035, Nikita S. Chruschtschow.jpg    Nikita Khrushchev     USSR    1894–1971   
1958    Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F010324-0002, Flughafen Köln-Bonn, Adenauer, de Gaulle-cropped.jpg    Charles de Gaulle     France    1890–1970   
1959    Dwight D. Eisenhower, official photo portrait, May 29, 1959.jpg    Dwight D. Eisenhower     USA    1890–1969   
1960        American Scientists     USA        Represented by George Beadle, Charles Draper, John Enders, Donald A. Glaser, Joshua Lederberg, Willard Libby, Linus Pauling, Edward Purcell, Isidor Rabi, Emilio Segrè, William Shockley, Edward Teller, Charles Townes, James Van Allen, and Robert Woodward
1961    John F. Kennedy, White House color photo portrait.jpg    John F. Kennedy     USA    1917–1963   
1962    JohnXXIII.jpg    Pope John XXIII     Holy See/ Italy    1881–1963   
1963    Martin Luther King Jr NYWTS.jpg    Martin Luther King, Jr.     USA    1929–1968   
1964    37 Lbj2 3x4.jpg    Lyndon B. Johnson     USA    1908–1973   
1965    Gen William C Westmoreland.jpg    William Westmoreland     USA    1914–2005   
1966        The Inheritor            A generation: the man—and woman—of 25 and under.
1967    37 Lbj2 3x4.jpg    Lyndon B. Johnson     USA    1908–1973   
1968    Apollo 8 Crewmembers - GPN-2000-001125.jpg    The Apollo 8 astronauts     USA        William Anders, Frank Borman, and Jim Lovell
1969        The Middle Americans     USA        Also referred to as the Silent Majority[8]
1970    Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpg    Willy Brandt     West Germany    1913–1992   
1971    Richard Nixon.jpg    Richard Nixon     USA    1913–1994   
1972    Richard Nixon.jpg    Richard Nixon     USA    1913–1994   
Henry Kissinger.jpg    Henry Kissinger     USA    1923–   
1973        John Sirica     USA    1904–1992    Judge who ordered Richard Nixon to turn over Watergate-related recordings.
1974    King Faisal of Saudi Arabia on on arrival ceremony welcoming 05-27-1971 (cropped).jpg    King Faisal     Saudi Arabia    1906–1975   
1975        American women     USA        Represented by Susan Brownmiller, Kathleen Byerly, Alison Cheek, Jill Conway, Betty Ford, Ella Grasso, Carla Hills, Barbara Jordan, Billie Jean King, Carol Sutton, Susie Sharp, and Addie Wyatt
1976    JimmyCarterPortrait2.jpg    Jimmy Carter     USA    1924–   
1977    Anwar Sadat cropped.jpg    Anwar Sadat     Egypt    1918–1981   
1978    DengXiaoping.jpg    Deng Xiaoping     China    1904–1997   
1979    Portrait of Imam Khomeini.jpg    Ayatollah Khomeini     Iran    1902–1989   
1980    Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg    Ronald Reagan     USA    1911–2004   
1981    Lech walesa prezydent RP.gif    Lech Wałęsa     Poland    1943–   
1982        The Computer            Machine of the Year
1983    Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg    Ronald Reagan     USA    1911–2004   
Andropov on Lubyanka.jpg    Yuri Andropov     USSR    1914–1984   
1984    Peter Ueberroth.jpg    Peter Ueberroth     USA    1937–   
1985    DengXiaoping.jpg    Deng Xiaoping     China    1904–1997   
1986    Corazon Aquino 1986.jpg    Corazon C. Aquino     Philippines    1933–2009   
1987    Mikhail Gorbachev 1987 Cropped.jpg    Mikhail Gorbachev     USSR    1931–   
1988        The Endangered Earth            Planet of the Year
1989    Mikhail Gorbachev 1987 Cropped.jpg    Mikhail Gorbachev     USSR    1931–    Man of the Decade
1990    George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait.jpg    George H. W. Bush     USA    1924–   
1991    Ted Turner LF.JPG    Ted Turner     USA    1938–   
1992    Bill Clinton.jpg    Bill Clinton     USA    1946–   
1993        The Peacemakers    Palestinian territories Palestinian Authority
 South Africa
 Israel        Represented by Yasser Arafat, F.W. de Klerk, Nelson Mandela, and Yitzhak Rabin
1994    JohannesPaul2-portrait.jpg    Pope John Paul II     Holy See/ Poland    1920–2005   
1995    Newt Gingrich by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg    Newt Gingrich     USA    1943–   
1996    David Ho portrait.JPG    David Ho     Taiwan/ USA    1952–    Scientist, AIDS researcher.
1997    Andrew Grove.jpg    Andrew Grove     Hungary/ USA    1936–   
1998    Bill Clinton.jpg    Bill Clinton     USA    1946–    Time Magazine held its first online poll to decide the Person of the Year. Wrestler and activist Mick Foley won with over 50% of votes. Foley was removed from the poll, and the award was given to Clinton and Starr.[9][better source needed]
Starr-large (1).jpg    Kenneth Starr     USA    1946–   
1999    Jeff Bezos' iconic laugh.jpg    Jeffrey P. Bezos     USA    1964–    See also: Person of the Century
2000    George-W-Bush.jpeg    George W. Bush     USA    1946–   
2001    Rudy Giuliani.jpg    Rudolph Giuliani     USA    1944–   
2002        The Whistleblowers     USA        Represented by Cynthia Cooper (WorldCom), Coleen Rowley (FBI) and Sherron Watkins (Enron)
2003        The American soldier     USA       
2004    George-W-Bush.jpeg    George W. Bush     USA    1946–   
2005        The Good Samaritans     Ireland
 USA        Represented by Bono, Bill Gates, and Melinda Gates
2006        You[7]            Represented by the individual content creator on the World Wide Web
2007    Vladimir Putin official portrait.jpg    Vladimir Putin[10]     Russia    1952–   
2008    Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg    Barack Obama[11]     USA    1961–   
2009    Ben Bernanke official portrait.jpg    Ben Bernanke[12]     USA    1953–   
2010    Mark Zuckerberg at the 37th G8 Summit in Deauville 037.jpg    Mark Zuckerberg[13]     USA    1984–   
2011        The Protester[14]            Representing many global protest movements – for example, the Arab Spring, the Indignants Movement, Tea Party movement and Occupy Movement – as well as protests in Greece, India, Russia and 2011–12 Chilean student protests among others
2012    President Barack Obama.jpg    Barack Obama[15]     USA    1961–   

Blessed Pope John Paul II (Latin: Ioannes Paulus PP. II, Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan Paweł II), born Karol Józef Wojtyła (Polish: [ˈkarɔl ˈjuzɛf vɔjˈtɨwa]; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005), reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church from 1978 until his death in 2005. He was the second-longest serving Pope in history and the first non-Italian since 1523.
John Paul II was acclaimed as one of the most influential leaders of the 20th century. Some[who?] say he was instrumental in ending communist party control of his native Poland and eventually all of Europe. Conversely, he denounced the excesses of capitalism. John Paul II significantly improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism, Islam, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion. Though criticised by progressives for upholding the Church's teachings against artificial contraception and the ordination of women, and by traditionalists for his support of the Church's Second Vatican Council and its reform, he was also widely praised for his firm, orthodox Catholic stances.
He was one of the most-travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate. As part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he beatified 1,340 people and canonised 483 saints, more than the combined tally of his predecessors during the preceding five centuries. A key goal of his papacy was to transform and reposition the Catholic Church. His wish was "to place his Church at the heart of a new religious alliance that would bring together Jews, Muslims and Christians in a great [religious] armada".[1][2] 19 December 2009, John Paul II was proclaimed venerable by his successor Pope Benedict XVI and was beatified on 1 May 2011.

Papacy began 16 October 1978
Papacy ended 2 April 2005
(26 years, 168 days)
Predecessor John Paul I
Successor Benedict XVI
Ordination 1 November 1946
by Adam Stefan Sapieha
Consecration 28 September 1958
by Eugeniusz Baziak
Created Cardinal 26 June 1967
Personal details
Birth name Karol Józef Wojtyła
Born 18 May 1920
Wadowice, Republic of Poland
Died 2 April 2005 (aged 84)
Apostolic Palace, Vatican City
Nationality Polish
Previous post
Auxiliary Bishop of Kraków, Poland (1958–1964)
Titular Bishop of Ombi (1958–1964)
Archbishop of Kraków, Poland (1964–1978)
Cardinal-Priest of San Cesareo in Palatio (1967–1978)
Motto Totus Tuus meaning "totally yours"
Coat of arms
Feast day 22 October
Beatified 1 May 2011
Saint Peter's Square, Vatican City
by Pope Benedict XVI
Patronage World Youth Day (Co- Patron)

Pope John Paul II
Biography · October 1978 Conclave · Teachings (encyclicals) · Relations with Eastern Orthodox Church · Pastoral trips (list of visits) · Health · Funeral (list of dignitaries) · Places named after him · 2005 Conclave  · Beatification

 Book:Pope John Paul II
[hide] v t e
Notable figures of the Cold War
Soviet Union
Joseph Stalin Vyacheslav Molotov Andrei Gromyko Nikita Khrushchev Anatoly Dobrynin Leonid Brezhnev Alexei Kosygin Yuri Andropov Konstantin Chernenko Mikhail Gorbachev Nikolai Ryzhkov Eduard Shevardnadze Gennady Yanayev Boris Yeltsin
United States
Harry S. Truman George Marshall Joseph McCarthy Dwight D. Eisenhower John Foster Dulles John F. Kennedy Robert F. Kennedy Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Robert McNamara Lyndon B. Johnson Richard Nixon Henry Kissinger Gerald Ford Jimmy Carter Ronald Reagan George Shultz Caspar Weinberger George H. W. Bush
People's Republic of China
Mao Zedong Zhou Enlai Hua Guofeng Deng Xiaoping Zhao Ziyang
Hirohito Shigeru Yoshida Ichirō Hatoyama Nobusuke Kishi Eisaku Satō Kakuei Tanaka Takeo Miki Takeo Fukuda Masayoshi Ōhira Zenko Suzuki Yasuhiro Nakasone Noboru Takeshita Sōsuke Uno Toshiki Kaifu
West Germany
Konrad Adenauer Walter Hallstein Willy Brandt Helmut Schmidt Helmut Kohl
United Kingdom
Winston Churchill Clement Attlee Ernest Bevin Anthony Eden Harold Macmillan Alec Douglas-Home Kim Philby Harold Wilson Edward Heath James Callaghan Margaret Thatcher
Alcide De Gasperi Palmiro Togliatti Giulio Andreotti Aldo Moro Enrico Berlinguer Francesco Cossiga Bettino Craxi
Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher Georges Pompidou Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand
Urho Kekkonen
Francisco Franco Luis Carrero-Blanco Juan Carlos I Adolfo Suárez Felipe González
António de Oliveira Salazar Marcelo Caetano Álvaro Cunhal Salgueiro Maia Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho António de Spínola Vasco Gonçalves António Ramalho Eanes Mário Soares Francisco de Sá Carneiro Aníbal Cavaco Silva
People's Republic of Poland
Bolesław Bierut Władysław Gomułka Edward Gierek Wojciech Jaruzelski Pope John Paul II Lech Wałęsa
William Lyon Mackenzie King Louis St. Laurent John Diefenbaker Lester Pearson Pierre Trudeau Joe Clark John Turner Brian Mulroney Kim Campbell
Benigno Aquino, Jr. Corazon Aquino Juan Ponce Enrile Gringo Honasan Nur Misuari Jose Maria Sison Diosdado Macapagal Ferdinand Marcos Imelda Marcos Fidel V. Ramos
José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi (Angola) Patrice Lumumba Mobutu Sese Seko (Congo/Zaire) Agostinho Neto Mengistu Haile Mariam (Ethiopia) Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana) Julius Nyerere (Tanzania) Idi Amin (Uganda) Muammar Gaddafi (Libya) Siad Barre (Somalia)
Eastern Bloc
Enver Hoxha (Albania) Todor Zhivkov (Bulgaria) Alexander Dubček (Czechoslovakia) Walter Ulbricht Erich Honecker (East Germany) Mátyás Rákosi Imre Nagy János Kádár (Hungary) Nicolae Ceauşescu (Romania) Josip Broz Tito (Yugoslavia)
Latin America
Juan Domingo Perón Jorge Rafael Videla Leopoldo Galtieri (Argentina) Getúlio Vargas Luís Prestes Leonel Brizola João Goulart Castelo Branco (Brazil) Salvador Allende Augusto Pinochet (Chile) Fidel Castro Che Guevara (Cuba) Daniel Ortega (Nicaragua) Marcos Pérez Jiménez Rómulo Betancourt (Venezuela) Manuel Noriega (Panama) Jacobo Árbenz Guzmán (Guatemala)
Muslim World
Nur Muhammad Taraki Hafizullah Amin Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Ahmad Shah Massoud (Afghanistan) Gamal Abdel Nasser Anwar Sadat (Egypt) Mohammad Reza Pahlavi Mohammad Mosaddegh Ayatollah Khomeini (Iran) Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr Saddam Hussein (Iraq) Menachem Begin (Israel) Michel Aflaq Salah Jadid Hafez al-Assad (Syria)
South and East Asia
Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (Bangladesh) U Nu Ne Win (Burma) Pol Pot (Cambodia) Indira Gandhi Jawaharlal Nehru (India) Sukarno Suharto Mohammad Hatta Adam Malik (Indonesia) Kim Il-sung (North Korea) Syngman Rhee Park Chung-hee (South Korea) Muhammad Ayub Khan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq (Pakistan) Chiang Kai-shek Chiang Ching-kuo (Taiwan) Ho Chi Minh (North Vietnam) Ngo Dinh Diem (South Vietnam)
Category Portal Timeline of events
[hide] v t e
Popes of the Catholic Church
1st–4th centuries
Peter Linus Anacletus Clement I Evaristus Alexander I Sixtus I Telesphorus Hyginus Pius I Anicetus Soter Eleuterus Victor I Zephyrinus Callixtus I Urban I Pontian Anterus Fabian Cornelius Lucius I Stephen I Sixtus II Dionysius Felix I Eutychian Caius Marcellinus Marcellus I Eusebius Miltiades Sylvester I Mark Julius I Liberius Damasus I Siricius Anastasius I

5th–8th centuries
Innocent I Zosimus Boniface I Celestine I Sixtus III Leo I Hilarius Simplicius Felix III Gelasius I Anastasius II Symmachus Hormisdas John I Felix IV Boniface II John II Agapetus I Silverius Vigilius Pelagius I John III Benedict I Pelagius II Gregory I Sabinian Boniface III Boniface IV Adeodatus I Boniface V Honorius I Severinus John IV Theodore I Martin I Eugene I Vitalian Adeodatus II Donus Agatho Leo II Benedict II John V Conon Sergius I John VI John VII Sisinnius Constantine Gregory II Gregory III Zachary Stephen II Paul I Stephen III Adrian I Leo III
9th–12th centuries
Stephen IV Paschal I Eugene II Valentine Gregory IV Sergius II Leo IV Benedict III Nicholas I Adrian II John VIII Marinus I Adrian III Stephen V Formosus Boniface VI Stephen VI Romanus Theodore II John IX Benedict IV Leo V Sergius III Anastasius III Lando John X Leo VI Stephen VII John XI Leo VII Stephen VIII Marinus II Agapetus II John XII Benedict V Leo VIII John XIII Benedict VI Benedict VII John XIV John XV Gregory V Sylvester II John XVII John XVIII Sergius IV Benedict VIII John XIX Benedict IX Sylvester III Gregory VI Clement II Damasus II Leo IX Victor II Stephen IX Nicholas II Alexander II Gregory VII Victor III Urban II Paschal II Gelasius II Callixtus II Honorius II Innocent II Celestine II Lucius II Eugene III Anastasius IV Adrian IV Alexander III Lucius III Urban III Gregory VIII Clement III Celestine III Innocent III
13th–16th centuries
Honorius III Gregory IX Celestine IV Innocent IV Alexander IV Urban IV Clement IV Gregory X Innocent V Adrian V John XXI Nicholas III Martin IV Honorius IV Nicholas IV Celestine V Boniface VIII Benedict XI Clement V John XXII Benedict XII Clement VI Innocent VI Urban V Gregory XI Urban VI Boniface IX Innocent VII Gregory XII Martin V Eugene IV Nicholas V Callixtus III Pius II Paul II Sixtus IV Innocent VIII Alexander VI Pius III Julius II Leo X Adrian VI Clement VII Paul III Julius III Marcellus II Paul IV Pius IV Pius V Gregory XIII Sixtus V Urban VII Gregory XIV Innocent IX Clement VIII
17th century–present
Leo XI Paul V Gregory XV Urban VIII Innocent X Alexander VII Clement IX Clement X Innocent XI Alexander VIII Innocent XII Clement XI Innocent XIII Benedict XIII Clement XII Benedict XIV Clement XIII Clement XIV Pius VI Pius VII Leo XII Pius VIII Gregory XVI Pius IX Leo XIII Pius X Benedict XV Pius XI Pius XII John XXIII Paul VI John Paul I John Paul II Benedict XVI
 Book  Category  Pope Portal  Catholicism Portal List of popes
[hide] v t e
History of the Catholic Church
History of the Catholic Church History of the Papacy History of the Roman Curia Catholic Ecumenical Councils Timeline of the Catholic Church History of Christianity Role of the Catholic Church in Western civilization Art in Roman Catholicism Catholic religious institutes Christian monasticism Papal States
Church beginnings
Jesus Twelve Apostles Saint Peter Paul the Apostle Saint Stephen John the Apostle Council of Jerusalem Apostolic Fathers Ignatius of Antioch Irenaeus Pope Victor I Tertullian
Constantine the Great to
Pope Gregory I
Constantine the Great and Christianity Arianism Basilica of St. John Lateran First Council of Nicaea Pope Sylvester I First Council of Constantinople Biblical canon Jerome Vulgate First Council of Ephesus Council of Chalcedon Benedict of Nursia Second Council of Constantinople Pope Gregory I Gregorian chant
Early Middle Ages
Third Council of Constantinople Saint Boniface Byzantine Iconoclasm Second Council of Nicaea Charlemagne Pope Leo III Fourth Council of Constantinople East–West Schism
High Middle Ages
Pope Urban II Investiture Controversy Crusades First Council of the Lateran Second Council of the Lateran Third Council of the Lateran Pope Innocent III Latin Empire Francis of Assisi Fourth Council of the Lateran Inquisition First Council of Lyon Second Council of Lyon Bernard of Clairvaux Thomas Aquinas
Late Middle Ages
Pope Boniface VIII Avignon Papacy Pope Clement V Council of Vienne Knights Templar Catherine of Siena Pope Alexander VI
Protestant Reformation/
Protestant Reformation Counter-Reformation Thomas More Pope Leo X Society of Jesus Francis Xavier Dissolution of the Monasteries Council of Trent Pope Pius V Tridentine Mass Robert Bellarmine
Baroque Period to the
French Revolution
Pope Innocent XI Pope Benedict XIV Suppression of the Society of Jesus Anti-clericalism Pope Pius VI Shimabara Rebellion Edict of Nantes Dechristianisation of France during the French Revolution
19th century
Pope Pius VII Pope Pius IX Dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary Our Lady of La Salette Our Lady of Lourdes First Vatican Council Papal infallibility Pope Leo XIII Mary of the Divine Heart Prayer of Consecration to the Sacred Heart Rerum Novarum
20th century
Pope Pius X Our Lady of Fátima Persecutions of the Catholic Church and Pius XII Pope Pius XII Pope Pius XII Consecration to the Immaculate Heart of Mary Dogma of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary Pope John XXIII Second Vatican Council Pope Paul VI Pope John Paul I Pope John Paul II
21st century
Pope Benedict XVI World Youth Day 2008
By country or region
Brazil Cuba France Germany Hispano-America Ireland Japan Mexico Spain United States Venezuela
 Catholicism Portal  Pope Portal
[hide] v t e
Recipients of the Charlemagne Prize
Richard Nikolaus Graf Coudenhove-Kalergi (1950) Hendrik Brugmans (1951) Alcide de Gasperi (1952) Jean Monnet (1953) Konrad Adenauer (1954) Sir Winston S. Churchill (1956) Paul Henri Spaak (1957) Robert Schuman (1958) George C. Marshall (1959) Joseph Bech (1960) Walter Hallstein (1961) Edward Heath (1963) Antonio Segni (1964) Jens Otto Krag (1966) Joseph Luns (1967) The European Commission (1969) François Seydoux de Clausonne (1970) Roy Jenkins (1972) Don Salvador de Madariaga (1973) Leo Tindemans (1976) Walter Scheel (1977) Konstantinos Karamanlis (1978) Emilio Colombo (1979) Simone Veil (1981) King Juan Carlos of Spain (1982) The People of Luxembourg (1986) Henry A. Kissinger (1987) François Mitterrand and Helmut Kohl (1988) Frère Roger (1989) Gyula Horn (1990) Václav Havel (1991) Jacques Delors (1992) Felipe González Márquez (1993) Gro Harlem Brundtland (1994) Franz Vranitzky (1995) Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands (1996) Roman Herzog (1997) Bronisław Geremek (1998) Anthony (Tony) Charles Lynton Blair (1999) William Jefferson (Bill) Clinton (2000) György Konrád (2001) The euro (2002) Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (2003) Pat Cox (2004) Extraordinary prize: Pope John Paul II (2004) Carlo Azeglio Ciampi (2005) Jean-Claude Juncker (2006) Javier Solana (2007) Angela Merkel (2008) Andrea Riccardi (2009) Donald Tusk (2010) Jean-Claude Trichet (2011) Wolfgang Schäuble (2012)
[hide] v t e
Time Persons of the Year
Jimmy Carter (1976) Anwar Sadat (1977) Deng Xiaoping (1978) Ayatollah Khomeini (1979) Ronald Reagan (1980) Lech Wałęsa (1981) The Computer (1982) Ronald Reagan / Yuri Andropov (1983) Peter Ueberroth (1984) Deng Xiaoping (1985) Corazon Aquino (1986) Mikhail Gorbachev (1987) The Endangered Earth (1988) Mikhail Gorbachev (1989) George H. W. Bush (1990) Ted Turner (1991) Bill Clinton (1992) “The Peacemakers”: Yitzhak Rabin / Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk / Yasser Arafat (1993) Pope John Paul II (1994) Newt Gingrich (1995) David Ho (1996) Andrew Grove (1997) Bill Clinton / Ken Starr (1998) Jeffrey P. Bezos (1999) George W. Bush (2000)
Complete roster 1927–1950 1951–1975 1976–2000 2001–present
[hide] v t e
Fall of Communism
Communism Liberalization and Democratization Criticism of communism Anti-communism
Internal conditions
Brezhnev stagnation Cultural Revolution Eastern Bloc Eastern Bloc economies Eastern Bloc politics Eastern Bloc information dissemination Eastern Bloc emigration and defection KGB Nomenklatura Samizdat Shortage economy Totalitarianism
International relations
Active measures Cold War List of socialist countries Predictions of Soviet collapse Reagan Doctrine Soviet Empire Terrorism and the Soviet Union Vatican opposition
Reforms of socialism
Socialism with Chinese characteristics Perestroika Glasnost Democratisation Sinatra Doctrine Doi Moi
Events by country
Eastern Bloc countries
Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Soviet Union Yugoslavia
Former Soviet Republics: Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Estonia Georgia Latvia Lithuania Kazakhstan Kirghistan Moldova Russia Tajikstan Turkmenistan Ukraine Uzbekistan
Other countries
Afghanistan Angola Benin Cambodia China People's Republic of the Congo Cuba Ethiopia Mongolia Mozambique Somalia South Yemen
Communist leaders
Ramiz Alia Hafizullah Amin Heydar Aliyev Yuri Andropov Aung San Siad Barre Leonid Brezhnev Fidel Castro Nicolae Ceauşescu Konstantin Chernenko Mikhail Gorbachev Károly Grósz Hua Guofeng Erich Honecker Enver Hoxha János Kádár Nikita Khrushchev Kim Il-sung Milouš Jakeš Egon Krenz Wojciech Jaruzelski Mathieu Kérékou Mengistu Haile Mariam Denis Sassou Nguesso Saparmurat Niyazov Kaysone Phomvihane Heng Samrin Tôn Đức Thắng Walter Ulbricht Phoumi Vongvichit Deng Xiaoping Todor Zhivkov
Anti-communist leaders
Corazon Aquino Sali Berisha Vladimir Bukovsky George H.W. Bush Violeta Chamorro Chiang Ching-kuo Viacheslav Chornovil Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj Václav Havel John F. Kennedy Helmut Kohl Vytautas Landsbergis Pope John Paul II Zianon Pazniak Augusto Pinochet Ronald Reagan Lee Teng-hui Margaret Thatcher Harry S. Truman Lech Wałęsa Boris Yeltsin Zhelyu Zhelev Zia-ul-Haq
Democracy movements
Chinese democracy movement Civic Forum Democratic Party of Albania Democratic Russia Sąjūdis Rukh Solidarity Popular Front of Latvia Popular Front of Estonia Public Against Violence Belarusian Popular Front National League for Democracy National Opposition Union United Nationalist Democratic Organization National Salvation Front Union of Democratic Forces Movement for Restoration of Democracy
Revolutions of 1989 April 9 tragedy Black January Baltic Way 1988 Polish strikes Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 Removal of Hungary's border fence Polish Round Table Agreement Hungarian Round Table Talks Pan-European Picnic Monday demonstrations in East Germany Fall of the Berlin Wall Malta Summit German reunification January 1991 events in Lithuania January 1991 events in Latvia 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt Yemeni unification
Colour revolution Decommunization Democratization Economic liberalization Economic reforms after the collapse of socialism Neo-Stalinism North Korean famine Post-communism Special Period Yugoslav Wars

Business seller information


Returns policy

After receiving the item, cancel the purchase within
Return postage
60 days
Seller pays return postage
The seller is responsible for return postage costs.
Return policy details
If unhappy with your item please return for a full refund

Questions and answers about this item

No questions or answers have been posted about this item.

Place bid

Time left:
Current bid:
(Approximately ##1##)
Import charges:
Your maximum bid:
Your maximum bid:
Please read the full listing. By clicking Confirm bid you commit to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder. You will enter a binding contract.
By clicking Confirm bid, you are committing to buy this item from the seller if you are the winning bidder and have read and agree to the Global Postage Programme terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount.
Resume bidding, if the page does not update immediately.
Place bid
Review and confirm your bid
Bid confirmation
Free P&P
See item description
(Approximately ##1##)
(Enter ##1## or more)
(Enter more than ##1##)
Your maximum bid:
Increase maximum bid
Place bid
Confirm bid
Increase maximum bid
Change bid
, you've been outbid. Don't let it get away - bid again.
, you're the highest bidder on this item. Hope you win it.
, you're the first bidder. Hope you win.
, you're currently the high bidder, but you're close to getting outbid.
, this auction is almost over and you're currently the high bidder.
, you're the high bidder, but the reserve price hasn't been met.
Please enter your bid again.
Please enter a valid number as the bid price.
Enter an amount that is equal or greater than the minimum bid required. This can be found under the bid entry box.
Maximum bids can't be lowered once they're submitted.
This seller requires the buyer to have a PayPal account to purchase this item. Get a PayPal account here .
Your bid is greater than or equal to the Buy it now price. We recommend you purchase this item via Buy it now. If you still wish to bid, you may do so below.
Time left:
Current bid:
(approximately ##1##)
Your maximum bid:
(approximately ##1##)
Increase your maximum bid:
By clicking 1 Click Bid, you are agreeing to buy this item from the seller if you're the winning bidder. Learn moreabout 1-click bid - opens in a new window or tab
(approximately ##1##)
Winning bid:
Starting bid:
Congratulations The auction has ended and you're the winner.
The auction has ended, but the reserve price was not met.
Sorry, the auction has ended and you were outbid.
Good news, you're the highest bidder.
Sorry, you've been outbid.
You're the highest bidder, but the reserve price has not been met.
Please enter a higher amount than the current bid.
Maximum bids cannot be lowered once submitted.
Please enter a valid number.