by Artist Roger Garland 1987
inspired by the
THE LORD OF THE RINGS trilogy by
J. R. R. Tolkien
UNUSED MODERN C. 2000 ART REPRINT POST CARD POSTCARD
APPROX. SIZE OF CARD: 6.25" X 4.75"
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J. R. R. Tolkien
Born John Ronald Reuel Tolkien 3 January 1892 (1892-01-03) Bloemfontein, Orange Free State
Died 2 September 1973 (1973-09-03) (aged 81) Bournemouth, England
Occupation Author, Academic, Philologist
Genres Fantasy, High fantasy, Translation, Criticism
Notable work(s) The Hobbit
The Lord of the Rings
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion. Tolkien was Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford from 1925 to 1945, and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature from 1945 to 1959. He was a close friend of C. S. Lewis – they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972. After his death, Tolkien's son, Christopher, published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, poems, fictional histories, invented languages, and literary essays about an imagined world called Arda, and Middle-earth within it. Between 1951 and 1955 Tolkien applied the word legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings when they were published in paperback in the United States led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre. This has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or more precisely, high fantasy. Tolkien's writings have inspired many other works of fantasy and have had a lasting effect on the entire field. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of 'The 50 greatest British writers since 1945'.
Middle-earth is the fictional universe setting of the majority of author J. R. R. Tolkien's fantasy writings. The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings take place entirely in Middle-earth, as does much of The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales. Properly, Middle-earth is the central continent of the imagined world, not a name of the entire world.
Tolkien prepared several maps of Middle-earth and of the regions of Middle-earth where his stories took place. Some were published in his lifetime, though some of the earliest maps were not published until after his death. The main maps were those published in The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, and Unfinished Tales. Most of the events of the First Age took place in the subcontinent Beleriand, which was later engulfed by the ocean at the end of the First Age; the Blue Mountains at the right edge of the map of Beleriand are the same Blue Mountains that appear on the extreme left of the map of Middle-earth in the Second and Third Ages. Tolkien's map of Middle-earth, however, shows only a small part of the world; most of the lands of Rhûn and Harad are not shown on the map, and there are also other continents.
Tolkien wrote many times that Middle-earth is located on our Earth. He described it as an imaginary period in Earth's past, not only in The Lord of the Rings, but also in several letters. He put the end of the Third Age at about 6,000 years before his own time, and the environs of the Shire in what is now northwestern Europe (Hobbiton for example was set at the same latitude as Oxford), though in replies to letters he would also describe elements of the stories as a "... secondary or sub-creational reality" or "Secondary belief". During an interview in January 1971, when asked whether the stories take place in a different era, he stated, "No ... at a different stage of imagination, yes." However, he did nod to the stories' setting on Earth; speaking of Midgard and Middle-earth, he said: "Oh yes, they're the same word. Most people have made this mistake of thinking Middle-earth is a particular kind of earth or is another planet of the science fiction sort but it's just an old fashioned word for this world we live in, as imagined surrounded by the Ocean." He continued to make references to its being "... a brief episode of History" of Earth as late as Autumn 1971.
|The Lord of the Rings |
The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English philologist and University of Oxford professor J. R. R. Tolkien. The story began as a sequel to Tolkien's 1937 children's fantasy novel The Hobbit, but eventually developed into a much larger work. It was written in stages between 1937 and 1949, much of it during World War II. It is the third best-selling novel ever written, with over 150 million copies sold.
The title of the novel refers to the story's main antagonist, the Dark Lord Sauron, who had in an earlier age created the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power as the ultimate weapon in his campaign to conquer and rule all of Middle-earth. From quiet beginnings in the Shire, a Hobbit land not unlike the English countryside, the story ranges across north-west Middle-earth, following the course of the War of the Ring through the eyes of its characters, notably the hobbits Frodo Baggins, Samwise "Sam" Gamgee, Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck and Peregrin "Pippin" Took, but also the hobbits' chief allies and travelling companions: Aragorn, a Human Ranger; Boromir, a man from Gondor; Gimli, a Dwarf warrior; Legolas, an Elven prince; and Gandalf, a Wizard.
The work was initially intended by Tolkien to be one volume of a two-volume set, with the other being The Silmarillion, but this idea was dismissed by his publisher. It was decided for economic reasons to publish The Lord of the Rings as three volumes over the course of a year from 21 July 1954 to October 1955, thus creating the now familiar Lord of the Rings trilogy. The three volumes were entitled The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King. Structurally, the novel is divided internally into six books, two per volume, with several appendices of background material included at the end of the third volume. The Lord of the Rings has since been reprinted numerous times and translated into many languages.
Tolkien's work has been the subject of extensive analysis of its themes and origins. Although a major work in itself, the story was only the last movement of a larger epic Tolkien had worked on since 1917, in a process he described as mythopoeia. Influences on this earlier work, and on the story of The Lord of the Rings, include philology, mythology, religion and the author's distaste for the effects of industrialization, as well as earlier fantasy works and Tolkien's experiences in World War I. The Lord of the Rings in its turn is considered to have had a great effect on modern fantasy; the impact of Tolkien's works is such that the use of the words "Tolkienian" and "Tolkienesque" has been recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary.
The enduring popularity of The Lord of the Rings has led to numerous references in popular culture, the founding of many societies by fans of Tolkien's works, and the publication of many books about Tolkien and his works. The Lord of the Rings has inspired, and continues to inspire, artwork, music, films and television, video games, and subsequent literature. Award-winning adaptations of The Lord of the Rings have been made for radio, theatre, and film.
Frodo Baggins, a well-to-do hobbit from the Shire, who inherits the One Ring from Bilbo. Frodo accepts the task of destroying the Ring in the fire of Mount Doom.
Samwise Gamgee, gardener and friend of the Bagginses, who accompanies Frodo on the quest to destroy the Ring.
Meriadoc Brandybuck, or Merry, Frodo's cousin and companion in the Fellowship.
Peregrin Took, Pip or Pippin, Frodo's cousin and companion in the Fellowship.
Gandalf, a wizard, who guides Frodo in his quest. He is a Maia, an angelic being sent by the godlike Valar to contest Sauron.
Aragorn, descendant of Isildur and rightful heir to the thrones of Arnor and Gondor. He becomes a loyal companion to Frodo.
Legolas Greenleaf, an elf prince, who aids Frodo and the Fellowship. Son of King Thranduil of Mirkwood
Gimli, son of Glóin, A representative of the Dwarves in the Fellowship.
Denethor, ruling Steward of Gondor and Lord of Minas Tirith.
Boromir, the eldest son of Denethor and member of the Fellowship. tempted by the power of the Ring he tries to take it from Frodo by force.
Faramir, younger brother of Boromir and not favoured by Denethor.
Galadriel, royal Elf, co-ruler of Lothlórien, and grandmother of Arwen Undómiel (Arwen Evenstar). Keeper of one of the three elven rings.
Celeborn, husband of Galadriel, co-ruler of Lothlórien, and grandfather of Arwen Undomiel.
Elrond, Lord of Rivendell and father to Arwen Undomiel.
Bilbo Baggins, Frodo's adoptive uncle.
Théoden, King of Rohan.
Éomer, the 3rd Marshal of the Mark, Théoden's nephew. Later King of Rohan after Théoden's death.
Éowyn, sister of Éomer, who disguises herself as a male warrior named Dernhelm to fight beside Théoden.
Treebeard, an Ent, who rescues Merry and Pippin from orcs and who helps to turn the tide of battle.
Sauron, the Dark Lord and titular Lord of the Rings, a fallen Maia who helped the Elves forge the Rings of Power long ago. He forged the One Ring in secret to control all the other Rings of Power.
The Nazgûl or Ringwraiths, nine servants of Sauron. Kings of old, they were enslaved to the One Ring through nine of the Rings of Power.
The Witch-king of Angmar, the Lord of the Nazgûl, and Sauron's most powerful servant, who commands Sauron's army.
Saruman, a corrupted wizard who seeks the One Ring for himself. Brainwashed by Sauron through use of the palantír. Like Gandalf, he is in fact a Maia, lesser (but still mighty) member of godlike kin of Valar.
Gríma Wormtongue, a servant of Saruman and traitor of Rohan, a go-between from Saruman to Théoden who poisons Théoden's perceptions with well placed "advice".
Gollum (named Sméagol in earlier life), who once possessed the Ring, which warped his mind and body and gave him unnaturally long life and poisoned his soul.
Various Orcs, soldiers of Mordor or Isengard. Those who play significant roles in the story include Uglúk, captain of the Uruk-hai of Isengard, Grishnákh, orc of Mordor and Uglúk's antagonist, Shagrat of Cirith Ungol, and Gorbag of Minas Morgul.
Shelob, a giant spider who dwells in the passes above Minas Morgul.
The Balrog, a fire-demon dwelling beneath the Mines of Moria awakened by the digging and mining of Dwarves.
The Haradrim, evil men south of Gondor. Allies with Sauron
Easterlings, men of the East of Middle-earth.
Corsairs of Umbar, enemies of Gondor
|Roger Garland (born 1933) who was educated at Castleknock College, was the Green Party's first candidate to be elected to Dáil Éireann in the 1989 general election. He represented Dublin South until 1992. In the 2002 general elections Green Party politician Eamon Ryan was elected to represent that same constituency. One of his Dáil advisors was Patricia McKenna who later became one of Ireland's first Green MEPs. He is not only known for being the first Green Party Teachta Dála (TD) but also for campaigning against the Single European Act. The success of Roger Garland was built on with the election of 13 councillors in the June 1991 Local Elections. On Dublin Corporation the Greens formed a governing coalition, the Civic Alliance, to run the capital city. Garland lost his seat with a dramatic fall in his vote. In 1989 he received 8.8% and in 1992 he received 3.8% which is among the lowest votes for a sitting TD. In the 1994 European Elections, Garland backed an independent Green candidate over the official Green candidate, Nuala Ahern, in the Leinster constituency. Ahern went on to win the seat, to the surprise of many, and an attempt was made to throw Garland out of the party for his disloyalty. Garland is still a member of the party, but is not active within it, and has not stood for any election since 1992. Some of Garland's conservative views also conflicted somewhat with members of the party during his time in the Dáil. Following the 2007 general election Garland was one of the leading internal critics of the Greens' decision to enter coalition with Fianna Fáil. He is currently chairman of the Keep Ireland Open (KIO) group. He is also a current member of the environmental board of An Taisce the National Trust For Ireland, its most influential environmental body. |