Diana, Princess of Wales (Diana Frances;[N 1] née Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997) was the first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, whom she married on 29 July 1981, and an international charity and fundraising figure, as well as a preeminent celebrity of the late 20th century. Her wedding to the Prince of Wales, held at St Paul's Cathedral, was televised and watched by a global audience of over 750 million people. After this marriage she received the courtesy titles Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall, Duchess of Rothesay, Countess of Chester and Baroness of Renfrew. The marriage produced two sons: Princes William and Harry, currently second and third in line to the thrones of the 16 Commonwealth realms, respectively.
A public figure from the announcement of her engagement to Prince Charles, Diana was born into an aristocratic English family with royal ancestry, and remained the focus of worldwide media scrutiny during and after her marriage, which ended in divorce on 28 August 1996, including following her death in a car crash in Paris on 31 August 1997 and the subsequent display of public mourning a week later. Diana also received recognition for her charity work and for her support of the International Campaign to Ban Landmines. From 1989, she was the president of Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, in addition to dozens of other charities.
Spouse Charles, Prince of Wales
(m. 1981, div. 1996)
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge
Prince Harry of Wales
Diana Frances[N 1]
House House of Windsor
Father John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer
Mother Frances Shand Kydd
Born 1 July 1961
Park House, Sandringham, Norfolk
Died 31 August 1997 (aged 36)
Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, in Paris, France
Burial 6 September 1997
Religion Anglican (Church of England)
Diana's interest in supporting and helping young people led to the establishment of the Diana Memorial Award, awarded to youths who have demonstrated the unselfish devotion and commitment to causes advocated by the Princess.
In 2002, Diana was ranked 3rd in 100 Greatest Britons poll, outranking The Queen and other British monarchs.
On 30 August 2007 Peruvian photographer Mario Testino announced that on 20 November he would auction a signed photo of Diana for the benefit of the Peru earthquake (in London by Phillips de Pury & Co). The photo appeared in a 1997 Vanity Fair issue, and shows Diana wearing a black dress.
The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Playground was erected in Kensington Gardens at a cost of £1.7 million.
The Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Walk was dedicated to the memory of Diana, Princess of Wales. It stretches between Kensington Gardens, Green Park, Hyde Park and St. James's Park.
On 6 July 2004, The Queen officially opened the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fountain. It is located in the south-west corner of Hyde Park in London.
In 1999 the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Award for Inspirational Young People was established.
Diana's family announced in 2010 they would auction art and horse-drawn carriages that once belonged to Althorp House.
Fashion designers David and Elizabeth Emanuel, responsible for much of Diana's clothes, including her wedding dress, announced in May 2010 they were auctioning 30 lots of clothing, measurements, and related items.
Diana by birth was a member of the Spencer family, one of the oldest and most prominent noble families in Britain which currently holds the titles of Duke of Marlborough, Earl Spencer and Viscount Churchill. The Spencers claimed to have descended from a cadet branch of the powerful medieval Despenser family, but its validity is still being questioned. Diana's noble ancestors include the legendary John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and Prince of Mindelheim, his equally famous wife, the powerful and influential Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, Britain's first Prime Minister, Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo, 2nd Duke of Alba, one of the most powerful men of his era, Maria, Duchess of Gloucester and Edinburgh, and Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey. She is also a distant relative of the dukes of Abercorn, Bedford, Richmond, Devonshire, Gordon and most of the members of the British aristocracy.
Diana's ancestry also connects her with most of Europe's royal houses. Diana is five times descended from the House of Stuart from Charles II's four illegitimate sons James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, Charles Beauclerk, 1st Duke of St Albans and Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, and from James II's daughter, Henrietta FitzJames, Countess of Newcastle, an ancestry she shares with the current Dukes of Alba. From the House of Stuart, Diana is a descendant of the House of Bourbon from the line Henry IV of France and of the House of Medici from the line of Marie de' Medici. She is also a descendant of powerful Italian noble families such as that of the House of Sforza who ruled as the Dukes of Milan from the line of the legendary Caterina Sforza, Countess of Forlì. Diana also descends from the House of Wittelsbach via morganatic line from Frederick V, Elector Palatine and of the House of Hanover via Sophia von Platen und Hallermund, Countess of Leinster and Darlington, the illegitimate daughter of Ernest Augustus, Arse Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the half sister of George I. Diana also descends from the House of Toledo of the original dukes of Alba and Medina Sidonia.
Ancestors of Diana, Princess of Wales
Name Birth Marriage Issue Ass
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge 21 June 1982 29 April 2011 Catherine Middleton (Sister of Pipa Middleton)
Prince Harry of Wales 15 September 1984
Elton John performing at the Concert for Diana, London, 1 July 2007
Concert for Diana
Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund
Diana, Princess of Wales: Tribute
Diana - The People's Princess (exhibition)
The New School at West Heath (Mr Al-Fayed's memorial to Diana)
Elisabeth of Bavaria
Morton, Andrew (1992). Diana: Her True Story In Her Own Words. New York, NY: Pocket Books.
Mattern, Joane (2006). Princess Diana (DK Biography). New York, NY: DK Publishing.
Anderson, Christopher (2001). Diana's Boys: William and Harry and the Mother they loved. United States: William Morrow; 1st ed edition. ISBN 9780688172046.
Bradford, Sarah (2006). Diana. London: Penguin Group. ISBN 9780670916788.
Brennan, Kristine (1998). Diana, princess of Wales. Philadelphia: Chelsea House. ISBN 0791047148.
Brown, Tina (2007). The Diana Chronicles. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 9780385517089.
Burrell, Paul (2003). A Royal Duty. United States: HarperCollins Entertainment. ISBN 9780007252633.
Burrell, Paul (2007). The Way We Were: Remembering Diana. United States: HarperCollins Entertainment. ISBN 978- 0061138959 .
Caradec'h, Jean-Michel (2006). Diana. L'enquête criminelle. France: Michel Lafon. ISBN 978-2749904795.
Corby, Tom (1997). Diana, Princess of Wales: A Tribute. United States: Benford Books. ISBN 9781566495998.
Coward, Rosalind (2004). Diana The Portrait. United Kingdom (other publishers worldwide): HarperCollins. ISBN 10-0007182031.
Davies, Jude (2001). Diana, A Cultural History: Gender, Race, Nation, and the People's Princess. Houndmills, Hampshire; New York: Palgrave. ISBN 0333736885. OCLC 46565010.
Denney, Colleen (2005). Representing Diana, Princess of Wales: Cultural Memory and Fairy Tales Revisited. Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 0838640230. OCLC 56490960.
Dimbleby, Jonathan (1994). The Prince of Wales: A Biography. New York: William Morrow and Company Inc.. ISBN 0-688-12996-X.
Edwards, Anne (2001). Ever After: Diana and the Life She Led. United States: St. Martins Press. ISBN 9780312253141. OCLC 43867312.
Rees-Jones, Trevor (2000). The Bodyguard's Story: Diana, the Crash, and the Sole Survivor. United States: Little, Brown. ISBN 9780316855082.
Morton, Andrew (2004). Diana: In Pursuit of Love. United States: Michael O'Mara Books. ISBN 9781843170846.
Morton, Andrew (1992). Diana Her True Story. United States: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780671793630.
Steinberg, Deborah Lynn (1999). Mourning Diana: Nation, Culture and the Performance of Grief. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415193931.
Taylor, John A. (2000). Diana, Self-Interest, and British National Identity. Westport, CN: Praeger. ISBN 027596826X. OCLC 42935749.
Thomas, James (2002). Diana's Mourning: A People's History. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0708317537. OCLC 50099981.
Turnock, Robert (2000). Interpreting Diana: Television Audiences and the Death of a Princess. London, UK: British Film Institute. ISBN 0851707882. OCLC 43819614.
Diana, Princess of Wales
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Henrietta Hunter · Diana: Warrior Princess
Charles, Prince of Wales
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John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy pronunciation (help·info) (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was the 35th President of the United States, serving from 1961 until his assassination in 1963.
After military service as commander of the Motor Torpedo Boats PT-109 and PT-59 during World War II in the South Pacific, Kennedy represented Massachusetts's 11th congressional district in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1947 to 1953 as a Democrat. Thereafter, he served in the U.S. Senate from 1953 until 1960. Kennedy defeated then Vice President and Republican candidate Richard Nixon in the 1960 U.S. presidential election. He was the youngest elected to the office, at the age of 43, the second-youngest President (after Theodore Roosevelt), and the first president to have been born in the 20th century. Kennedy is the only Catholic president, and is the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize. Events during his presidency included the Bay of Pigs Invasion, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the building of the Berlin Wall, the Space Race, the African American Civil Rights Movement and early stages of the Vietnam War.
Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas. Lee Harvey Oswald was charged with the crime, but was shot and killed two days later by Jack Ruby before a trial could take place. The FBI, the Warren Commission, and the House Select Committee on Assassinations (HSCA) concluded that Oswald was the lone assassin, with the HSCA allowing for the possibility of conspiracy based on disputed acoustic evidence. Today, Kennedy continues to rank highly in public opinion ratings of former U.S. presidents.
John F. Kennedy
May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963
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February 22, 1932 – August 25, 2009
1962 Senate · 1964 Senate · 1970 Senate · 1976 Senate · 1980 Presidential · 1982 Senate · 1988 Senate · 1994 Senate · 2000 Senate · 2006 Senate
My Senator and Me: A Dog's-Eye View of Washington, D.C. · True Compass
Joan Bennett Kennedy (first wife) · Victoria Reggie Kennedy (second wife) · Kara Kennedy Allen (daughter) · Ted Kennedy, Jr. (son) · Patrick Joseph Kennedy II (son) · Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Sr. (father) · Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald Kennedy (mother) · Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Jr. (brother) · John Fitzgerald Kennedy (brother) · Robert Francis Kennedy (brother)
Awards and honors · Political positions · Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States Senate · Edward M. Kennedy Serve America Act · Chappaquiddick incident · Mary Jo Kopechne
Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Sr.
James Kennedy and Maria Kennedy parents of
--- Patrick Kennedy (m.) Bridget Murphy parents of
------ P. J. Kennedy (m.) Mary Augusta Hickey parents of Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.
Rose Elizabeth Fitzgerald
Philip and Mary Cox • Thomas Fitzgerald and Rosanna Cox • Michael Hannon and Mary Ann Fitzgerald • John Francis "Honey Fitz" Fitzgerald (m.) Mary Josephine Hannon parents of Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy
Joseph P. Kennedy, Sr.
Rose Fitzgerald Kennedy
(in birth order) Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Jr. • John Fitzgerald Kennedy (m.) Jacqueline Lee Bouvier • Rose Marie "Rosemary" Kennedy • Kathleen Agnes Kennedy (m.) William John Robert Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington • Eunice Mary Kennedy (m.) Robert Sargent Shriver, Jr. • Patricia Kennedy (m./div.) Peter Lawford • Robert Francis Kennedy (m.) Ethel Skakel • Jean Ann Kennedy (m.) Stephen Edward Smith • Edward Moore Kennedy (m./div. 1st) Virginia Joan Bennett; (m. 2nd) Victoria Anne Reggie
(in birth order)
Joseph Patrick Kennedy, Jr. (1915–1944)
John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1917–1963)
Arabella Kennedy • Caroline Bouvier Kennedy (m.) Edwin Arthur Schlossberg • John Fitzgerald Kennedy, Jr. (m.) Carolyn Jeanne Bessette • Patrick Bouvier Kennedy
Rose Marie Kennedy (1918–2005)
Kathleen Cavendish, Marchioness
of Hartington (1920–1948)
Eunice Kennedy Shriver (1921–2009)
Robert Sargent Shriver III (m.) Malissa Feruzzi • Maria Owings Shriver (m./div.) Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger • Timothy Perry Shriver (m.) Linda Potter • Mark Kennedy Shriver (m.) Jeannie Eileen Ripp • Anthony Paul Kennedy Shriver (m.) Alina Mojica
Patricia Kennedy Lawford (1924–2006)
Christopher Kennedy Lawford • Sydney Maleia Kennedy Lawford • Victoria Francis Lawford • Robin Elizabeth Lawford
Robert Francis Kennedy (1925–1968)
Kathleen Hartington Kennedy (m.) David Lee Townsend • Joseph Patrick Kennedy II (m./div. 1st) Sheila Brewster Rauch; (m. 2nd) Anne Elizabeth "Beth" Kelly • Robert Francis Kennedy, Jr. (m./div. 1st) Emily Ruth Black (m. 2nd) Mary Richardson • David Anthony Kennedy • Mary Courtney Kennedy (m/div. 1st) Jeffrey Robert Ruhe; (m./sep. 2nd) Paul Michael Hill • Michael LeMoyne Kennedy (m.) Victoria Denise Gifford • Mary Kerry Kennedy (m./div.) Andrew Mark Cuomo • Christopher George Kennedy (m.) Sheila Sinclair Berner • Matthew Maxwell Taylor Kennedy (m.) Victoria Anne Strauss • Douglas Harriman Kennedy (m.) Molly Elizabeth Stark • Rory Elizabeth Katherine Kennedy (m.) Mark Bailey
Jean Kennedy Smith (born 1928)
Stephen Edward Smith, Jr. • William Kennedy Smith • Amanda Mary Smith • Kym Maria Smith
Edward Moore Kennedy (1932–2009)
Kara Anne Kennedy (m.) Michael Allen • Edward Moore Kennedy, Jr. (m.) Katherine Anne "Kiki" Gershman • Patrick Joseph Kennedy (m.) Amy Petitgout
m. = married; div. = divorced; sep. = separated.
See also: Kennedy tragedies, Kennedy Compound, Hickory Hill (McLean, Virginia), and Merchandise Mart
United States presidential election, 1956
Convention · Primaries
Nominee: Dwight D. Eisenhower
VP Nominee: Richard Nixon
Convention · Primaries
Nominee: Adlai Stevenson
VP Nominee: Estes Kefauver
Candidates: John S. Battle · Happy Chandler · James C. Davis · William Averell Harriman · Lyndon B. Johnson · Frank Lausche · George Bell Timmerman, Jr.
Third party and independent candidates
American Vegetarian Party
Nominee: Herbert M. Shelton
VP Nominee: Symon Gould
Nominee: Enoch A. Holtwick
VP Nominee: Herbert C. Holdridge
Socialist Labor Party
Nominee: Eric Hass
VP Nominee: Georgia Cozzini
Socialist Party of America
Nominee: Darlington Hoopes
VP Nominee: Samuel H. Friedman
Socialist Workers Party
Nominee: Farrell Dobbs
Independents and other candidates:
T. Coleman Andrews · Gerald L. K. Smith
Other 1956 elections: House · Senate
United States presidential election, 1960
Convention · Primaries
Nominee: John F. Kennedy
VP Nominee: Lyndon B. Johnson
Candidates: Ross Barnett · Pat Brown · Michael DiSalle · Paul C. Fisher · Hubert Humphrey · Lyndon B. Johnson · George H. McLain · Robert B. Meyner · Wayne Morse · Albert S. Porter · Adlai Stevenson · George Smathers · Stuart Symington
Convention · Primaries
Nominee: Richard Nixon
VP Nominee: Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Candidiates: Barry Goldwater · Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. · James M. Lloyd · Nelson Rockefeller
Third party and independent candidates
American Vegetarian Party
Nominee: Symon Gould
National States' Rights Party
Nominee: Orval Faubus
VP Nominee: J. B. Stoner
Nominee: Rutherford Decker
VP Nominee: E. Harold Munn
Socialist Labor Party
Nominee: Eric Hass
VP Nominee: Georgia Cozzini
Socialist Workers Party
Nominee: Farrell Dobbs
Independents and other candidates:
Harry F. Byrd · Merritt B. Curtis · Lar Daly · George Lincoln Rockwell · Charles L. Sullivan
Other 1960 elections: House · Senate
Cabinet of President John F. Kennedy (1961–1963)
Lyndon B. Johnson (1961–1963)
Secretary of State
Dean Rusk (1961–1963)
Secretary of the Treasury
C. Douglas Dillon (1961–1963)
Secretary of Defense
Robert McNamara (1961–1963)
Robert F. Kennedy (1961–1963)
J. Edward Day (1961–1963) • John A. Gronouski (1963)
Secretary of the Interior
Stewart Udall (1961–1963)
Secretary of Agriculture
Orville Freeman (1961–1963)
Secretary of Commerce
Luther H. Hodges (1961–1963)
Secretary of Labor
Arthur Goldberg (1961–1962) • W. Willard Wirtz (1962–1963)
Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare
Abraham A. Ribicoff (1961–1962) • Anthony J. Celebrezze (1962–1963)
Time Persons of the Year
Mohammad Mosaddegh (1951) Elizabeth II (1952) Konrad Adenauer (1953) John Foster Dulles (1954) Harlow Curtice (1955) Hungarian Freedom Fighter (1956) Nikita Khrushchev (1957) Charles de Gaulle (1958) Dwight D. Eisenhower (1959) U.S. Scientists (1960) George Beadle Charles Draper John Enders Donald A. Glaser Joshua Lederberg Willard Libby Linus Pauling Edward Purcell Isidor Rabi Emilio Segrè William Shockley Edward Teller Charles Townes James Van Allen Robert Woodward John F. Kennedy (1961) Pope John XXIII (1962) Martin Luther King, Jr. (1963) Lyndon B. Johnson (1964) William Westmoreland (1965) Baby boomers (1966) Lyndon B. Johnson (1967) The Apollo 8 Astronauts (1968) William Anders Frank Borman Jim Lovell The Middle Americans (1969) Willy Brandt (1970) Richard Nixon (1971) Henry Kissinger Richard Nixon (1972) John Sirica (1973) King Faisal (1974) American Women (1975) Susan Brownmiller Kathleen Byerly Alison Cheek Jill Conway Betty Ford Ella Grasso Carla Hills Barbara Jordan Billie Jean King Carol Sutton Susie Sharp Addie L. Wyatt
Complete roster 1927–1950 1951–1975 1976–2000 2001–present
Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography (1951–1975)
Margaret Louise Coit (1951) Merlo J. Pusey (1952) David J. Mays (1953) Charles A. Lindbergh (1954) William S. White (1955) Talbot Faulkner Hamlin (1956) John F. Kennedy (1957) Douglas S. Freeman, John Alexander Carroll and Mary Wells Ashworth (1958) Arthur Walworth (1959) Samuel Eliot Morison (1960) David Donald (1961) Leon Edel (1963) Walter Jackson Bate (1964) Ernest Samuels (1965) Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. (1966) Justin Kaplan (1967) George Frost Kennan (1968) Benjamin Lawrence Reid (1969) Thomas Harry Williams (1970) Lawrence Thompson (1971) Joseph P. Lash (1972) W. A. Swanberg (1973) Louis Sheaffer (1974) Robert Caro (1975)
Complete list (1917–1925) (1926–1950) (1951–1975) (1976–2000) (2001–2025)
National Football Foundation Gold Medal Winners
1958: Dwight D. Eisenhower 1959: Douglas MacArthur 1960: Herbert Hoover & Amos Alonzo Stagg 1961: John F. Kennedy 1962: Byron "Whizzer" White 1963: Roger Q. Blough 1964: Donold B. Lourie 1965: Juan T. Trippe 1966: Earl H. "Red" Blaik 1967: Frederick L. Hovde 1968: Chester J. LaRoche 1969: Richard Nixon 1970: Thomas J. Hamilton 1971: Ronald Reagan 1972: Gerald Ford 1973: John Wayne 1974: Gerald B. Zornow 1975: David Packard 1976: Edgar B. Speer 1977: Louis H. Wilson 1978: Vincent dePaul Draddy 1979: William P. Lawrence 1980: Walter J. Zable 1981: Justin W. Dart 1982: Silver Anniversary Awards (NCAA) - All Honored Jim Brown, Willie Davis, Jack Kemp, Ron Kramer, Jim Swink 1983: Jack Kemp 1984: John F. McGillicuddy 1985: William I. Spencer 1986: William H. Morton 1987: Charles R. Meyer 1988: Clinton E. Frank 1989: Paul Brown 1990: Thomas H. Moorer 1991: George H. W. Bush 1992: Donald R. Keough 1993: Norman Schwarzkopf 1994: Thomas S. Murphy 1995: Harold Alfond 1996: Gene Corrigan 1997: Jackie Robinson 1998: John H. McConnell 1999: Keith Jackson 2000: Fred M. Kirby II 2001: Billy Joe "Red" McCombs 2002: George Steinbrenner 2003: Tommy Franks 2004: William V. Campbell 2005: Jon F. Hanson 2006: Joe Paterno & Bobby Bowden 2007: Pete Dawkins & Roger Staubach 2008: John Glenn 2009: Phil Knight & Bill Bowerman 2010: Bill Cosby
Assassination of John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy · Lee Harvey Oswald
Rifle · Timeline · J. D. Tippit · John Connally · James Tague · Zapruder film
Autopsy · Reaction · Johnson inauguration · Funeral (Foreign Dignitaries) · Jack Ruby · Ruby v. Texas · Warren Commission · House Select Committee on Assassinations · Dictabelt evidence · Conspiracy theories · Single bullet theory · In popular culture · The Kennedy Half-Century