The Year 2014 is considered as the Year of the Horse as per the Chinese Zodiac Calendar which begins on January 31, 2014, and ends on February 18, 2015. 2014 according to Chinese Astrology Calendar. it is the Year of Wood Horse. Wood is related to tree or green, so it is also called Year of Green Horse. 2014 is the jiăwŭ (甲午) year.The Chinese zodiac calendar comprises 12 animal signs and horse is the seventh among all of them. In Chinese culture, the Horse is a symbol of nobility, class, speed and perseverance. People born in the Year of the Horse are smart, fabulous speakers who have a gift for getting through to other people. People bearing the horse sign strive towards seeking freedom and happiness. In general, 2014 would be a better year for those people who were born under The Year of the Horse.
The Shēngxiào (Chinese: 生肖), also known in English as the Chinese zodiac, is a scheme, and a systematic plan of future action, that relates each year to an animal and its reputed attributes, according to a 12-year cycle. It remains popular in several East Asian countries, such as China, Vietnam, Korea, Taiwan and Japan.
Identifying this scheme using the term "zodiac" reflects several similarities to the Western zodiac: both have time cycles divided into 12 parts, each labels at least the majority of those parts with names of animals, and each is widely associated with a culture of attributing influence of a person's relationship to the cycle upon their personality and/or events in their life. Nevertheless, there are major differences: the "Chinese" 12-part cycle corresponds to years rather than months. The Chinese zodiac is represented by 12 animals, whereas some of the signs in the Western zodiac are not animals, despite the implication of the Greek etymology of "zodiac". The animals of the Chinese zodiac are not associated with constellations, let alone those spanned by the ecliptic plane.
The zodiac traditionally begins with the sign of the Rat. The following are the twelve zodiac signs (each with its associated Earthly Branch) in order and their characteristics.
Rat – 鼠 (子) (Yang, 1st Trine, Fixed Element Water)
Ox – 牛 (丑) (Yin, 2nd Trine, Fixed Element Water)
Tiger – 虎 (寅) (Yang, 3rd Trine, Fixed Element Wood)
Rabbit – 兔 or 兎 (卯) (Yin, 4th Trine, Fixed Element Wood)
Dragon – 龍 / 龙 (辰) (Yang, 1st Trine, Fixed Element Earth)
Snake – 蛇 (巳) (Yin, 2nd Trine, Fixed Element Fire)
Horse – 馬 / 马 (午) (Yang, 3rd Trine, Fixed Element Fire)
Goat – 羊 (未) (Yin, 4th Trine, Fixed Element Fire)
Monkey – 猴 (申) (Yang, 1st Trine, Fixed Element Metal)
Rooster – 雞 / 鸡 (酉) (Yin, 2nd Trine, Fixed Element Metal)
Dog – 狗 / 犬 (戌) (Yang, 3rd Trine, Fixed Element Metal)
Pig – 豬 / 猪 (亥) (Yin, 4th Trine, Fixed Element Water)
In Chinese astrology the animal signs assigned by year represent what others perceive you as being or how you present yourself. It is a common misconception that the animals assigned by year are the only signs and many western descriptions of Chinese astrology draw solely on this system. In fact, there are also animal signs assigned by month (called inner animals), by day (called true animals) and hours (called secret animals).
While a person might appear to be a Dragon because they were born in the year of the Dragon, they might also be a Snake internally, an Ox truly, and a Goat secretively.
Depending on the source, the Goat is sometimes interchangeable with a Sheep or Ram.
The Grand National is a National Hunt horse race at Aintree Racecourse near Liverpool, England. First held in 1839, it is a handicap steeplechase run over 4 miles and 4 furlongs with horses jumping 30 fences over two circuits. The next Grand National will be held on 6 April 2013.
The Grand National is the most valuable National Hunt event in Britain with a prize fund of £975,000 in 2012 and is popular amongst people who do not normally watch or bet on horse racing at other times of the year.
The racecourse is triangular in shape with sixteen fences, all jumped twice except The Chair and the Water Jump. The course has a reputation as the ultimate test of horse and jockey. Most starters fail to complete the two circuits with many falling at Becher's Brook, The Chair and the Canal Turn.
The Grand National has been broadcast live on free-to-air terrestrial television in the United Kingdom since 1960. An estimated 500 to 600 million people watch the Grand National in over 140 countries.
The last Grand National, in 2012, was won by Neptune Collonges ridden by jockey Daryl Jacob for trainer Paul Nicholls and owner John Hales.
Location Aintree Racecourse
Race type Steeplechase
Sponsor John Smith's
Distance 4 mi, 3 f, 110 yd
Track Turf, left-handed
Qualification Seven-years-old and up
Rated 120 or more by BHA
Previously placed in a recognised chase of 3 miles or more
Maximum: 11 st 10 lb
Purse £975,000 (2012)
Grand National Legends
In 2009 the race sponsors John Smith's launched a poll to determine five personalities to be inducted into the inaugural Grand National Legends initiative. The winners were announced on the day of the 2010 Grand National and inscribed on commemorative plaques at Aintree. They were:
Ginger McCain and his record three-time winning horse Red Rum;
John Buckingham and Foinavon, the unlikely winners in 1967;
Manifesto, who holds the record for most runs in the race, eight including two victories;
Jenny Pitman, the first woman to train the winner of the race in 1983; and
Sir Peter O'Sullevan, the commentator who called home the winners of fifty Grand Nationals on radio and television from 1947 to 1997.
A panel of experts also selected three additional legends:
George Stevens, the record five-time winning rider between 1856–1870;
Captain Martin Becher, who played a major part in bringing the National to Liverpool, rode the winner of the first precursor to the National in 1836 and was the first rider to fall into the brook at the sixth fence, which forever took his name after 1839; and
Edward Topham, who was assigned the task of framing the weights for the handicap from 1847 and whose descendants played a major role in the race for the next 125 years.
In 2011, nine additional legends were added:
Bob Champion and Aldaniti, the winners of the 1981 Grand National;
West Tip, who ran in six consecutive Nationals and won once in 1986;
Richard Dunwoody, the jockey who rode West Tip and Miinnehoma to victory and who competed in 14 Grand Nationals, being placed in eight;
Brian Fletcher, a jockey who won the race three times (including Red Rum's first victory in 1973, and finished second once and third three times;
Vincent O'Brien, who trained three consecutive winners of the race in the 1950s;
Tom Olliver, who rode in nineteen Nationals, including seventeen consecutively, and won three times, as well as finishing second three times and third once;
Count Karl Kinsky, the first international winner of the race, and at his first attempt, on board the mare Zoedone in 1883;
Jack Anthony, three-time winning jockey in 1911, 1915 and 1920; and
Peter Bromley, the BBC radio commentator who covered 42 Nationals until his retirement.
John Smith's also added five "people's legends" who were introduced on Liverpool Day, the first day of the Grand National meeting. The five were:
Arthur Ferrie, who worked as a groundsman during the 1970s and 1980s;
Edie Roche, a Melling Road resident, who opened her home to jockeys, spectators and members of the media when the course was evacuated following a bomb threat in 1997;
Ian Stewart, a fan who had travelled from Coventry every year to watch the race and was attending his fiftieth National in 2010;
Police Constable Ken Lawson, who was celebrating thirty-one years of service in the mounted section of Merseyside Police and was set to escort his third National winner in 2010; and
Tony Roberts, whose first visit to the National had been in 1948 and who had steadily spread the word to family and friends about the race, regularly bringing a party of up to thirty people to the course.
A public vote announced at the 2012 Grand National saw five more additions to the Legends hall:
Fred Winter, who rode two National winners and trained two more;
Carl Llewellyn, jockey who won two Nationals including on Party Politics in 1992, and Earth Summit (horse) in 1998, the latter being the only horse to have won the Grand National and the Scottish and Welsh Nationals;
Fred Rimell, the trainer of four different National winning horses, including Nicolaus Silver, one of only three greys to have ever won the race;
Michael Scudamore, rider in sixteen consecutive Grand Nationals from 1951, finishing first in 1959 and also achieving a second and a third place;
Tommy Carberry, the jockey who stopped Red Rum's attempt at a third success in 1975 by winning on L'Escargot, also finished second and third before going on to train the winner in 1999.
The selection panel also inducted three more competitors:
Tommy Pickernell, who rode in seventeen Grand Nationals in the 19th century and won three. He allegedly turned down a substantial bribe during the 1860 race from the second-placed jockey and instead rode on to win;
Battleship, the only horse to have won both the Grand National and the American Grand National, and his jockey Bruce Hobbs, who remains the youngest jockey to win the Aintree race;
George Dockeray, who alongside Ginger McCain and Fred Rimell trained four National winners, starting with Lottery in the first official Grand National in 1839.
Races by year
1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Aintree Racecourse Becher's Brook Canal Turn The Chair
Aldaniti Battleship Crisp Devon Loch The Duke E.S.B. Foinavon Golden Miller L'Escargot Lord Gyllene Lottery Peter Simple Red Rum West Tip
Jack Anthony Martin Becher Tommy Carberry Bob Champion Richard Dunwoody Brian Fletcher Dick Francis Josh Gifford Bruce Hobbs Count Karl Kinsky Jem Mason Tony McCoy Tom Olliver Ernest Piggott Richard Pitman Ruby Walsh Fred Winter
Peter Bromley Ginger McCain Vincent O'Brien Michael O'Hehir Peter O'Sullevan Jenny Pitman Fred Rimell Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Lord Oaksey Lord Sefton
List of Grand National winners List of Grand National first four placings List of equine fatalities in the Grand National
The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus, or the wild horse. It is a single-hooved (ungulate) mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began to domesticate horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. These feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's Horse, a separate subspecies, and the only remaining true wild horse. There is an extensive, specialized vocabulary used to describe equine-related concepts, covering everything from anatomy to life stages, size, colors, markings, breeds, locomotion, and behavior.
Horses' anatomy enables them to make use of speed to escape predators and they have a well-developed sense of balance and a strong fight-or-flight instinct. Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down. Female horses, called mares, carry their young for approximately 11 months, and a young horse, called a foal, can stand and run shortly following birth. Most domesticated horses begin training under saddle or in harness between the ages of two and four. They reach full adult development by age five, and have an average lifespan of between 25 and 30 years.
Horse breeds are loosely divided into three categories based on general temperament: spirited "hot bloods" with speed and endurance; "cold bloods", such as draft horses and some ponies, suitable for slow, heavy work; and "warmbloods", developed from crosses between hot bloods and cold bloods, often focusing on creating breeds for specific riding purposes, particularly in Europe. There are over 300 breeds of horses in the world today, developed for many different uses.
Horses and humans interact in a wide variety of sport competitions and non-competitive recreational pursuits, as well as in working activities such as police work, agriculture, entertainment, and therapy. Horses were historically used in warfare, from which a wide variety of riding and driving techniques developed, using many different styles of equipment and methods of control. Many products are derived from horses, including meat, milk, hide, hair, bone, and pharmaceuticals extracted from the urine of pregnant mares. Humans provide domesticated horses with food, water and shelter, as well as attention from specialists such as veterinarians and farriers.
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses, known for their agility, speed and spirit.
The Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian, Barb, and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions originally imported into England in the 17th century and 18th century, and to a larger number of foundation mares of mostly English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world; they were imported into North America starting in 1730 and into Australia, Europe, Japan and South America during the 19th century. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, and more than 118,000 foals are registered each year worldwide.
Thoroughbreds are used mainly for racing, but are also bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage, polo, and fox hunting. They are also commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, and have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Standardbred, Anglo-Arabian, and various warmblood breeds.
Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs, low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof to body mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, and research continues.
Abaco Barb, see Barb horse
Altèr Real, see Lusitano
American Cream Draft
American Indian Horse
American Paint Horse
American Quarter Horse
Andalusian horse some bloodlines also called Pura Raza Española (PRE) or Pure Spanish-bred
Anglo-Arabo-Sardo, see Sardinian Anglo-Arab
"Appendix," see American Quarter Horse
AraAppaloosa, also called Ara-Appaloosa, Arappaloosa or Araloosa
Ardennes horse, or Ardennais
Argentine Criollo, see Criollo horse
Australian Brumby, see Brumby
Australian Draught Horse
Australian Stock Horse
Avelignese, see Haflinger
Baise horse, also known as Guangxi
Balearic horse, see Mallorquín and Menorquín
Bashkir Curly, see Curly horse
Basque Mountain Horse
Belgian Warmblood (includes Belgian Half-blood)
Black Forest Horse, also called Black Forest cold blood or Schwarzwälder Kaltblut
Brabant, see Belgian (horse)
Brazilian Sport Horse (Brasileiro de Hipismo)
Breton horse, or Trait Breton
Budyonny horse or Budenny
Camarillo White Horse
Carolina Marsh Tacky
Carthusian horse, see Andalusian horse
Cavallo Romano della Maremma Laziale
Chickasaw Horse, see Florida Cracker Horse
Colonial Spanish Horse, see Types of Horse, below
Costa Rican Saddle Horse
Cretan horse, see Messara
Criollo horse, also spelled Crioulo
Cuban Criollo horse
Czech warm blood
Daliboz, see Azerbaijan horse
Danube Delta horse
Dole Gudbrandsdal, also called Dole,
Don, see Russian Don
Draft Trotter, also called Light Dole, Dole Trotter, see Coldblood trotter
Dutch harness horse
Dutch Heavy Draft
East Friesian horse, see Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger
Faroese or Faroe horse, see Faroe pony in pony section
Finnhorse, or Finnish Horse
Fleuve, see Fouta
Fjord horse also called Norwegian Fjord Horse
Florida Cracker Horse
Fouta or Foutanké
Friesian cross (includes Friesian Sport Horses)
Friesian Sporthorse (a type of Friesian cross)
Galiceno or Galiceño
Galician Pony (Caballo de pura raza Gallega)
Georgian Grande Horse
German Warmblood or ZfDP, see Types section, below
Gypsy Vanner horse, sometimes called "Gypsy Horse," "Vanner Horse," "Gypsy Cob" or "Coloured Cob"
Hispano-Árabe also known as Hispano or Spanish Anglo-Arab
Irish Draught, also spelled Irish Draft
Irish Sport Horse sometimes called Irish Hunter
Italian Heavy Draft
Kabarda horse, also known as Kabardian or Kabardin
Karabakh horse also known as Azer At
Karossier see Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger
Kentucky Mountain Saddle Horse
Lipizzan or Lipizzaner
Lithuanian Heavy Draught
Lyngshest, see Nordlandshest/ Lyngshest
M'Bayar, see Fouta
Marsh Tacky, see Carolina Marsh Tacky
Mezőhegyesi sport-horse (sportló), or
Mezőhegyes felver, see Hungarian Warmblood
Metis Trotter, see Russian Trotter
Misaki, see pony section
Missouri Fox Trotter
Murakoz horse, Muräkozi, or Muraközi ló (Hungary)
Namib Desert Horse
National Show Horse
Nez Perce Horse
Noma, see Noma pony, in Pony section
Noriker horse, also called Pinzgauer
Norsk Kaldblodstraver (Norwegian coldblood trotter), see Coldblood trotter
North Swedish Horse
Norwegian Fjord, see Fjord horse
Oldenburg horse, also spelled Oldenburgh, Oldenburger
Ostfriesen and Alt-Oldenburger
Paint, see American Paint Horse
Peruvian Paso, sometimes called Peruvian Stepping Horse
Poitevin horse also called Mulassier
Pottok, see pony section
Pryor Mountain Mustang
Przewalski's Horse, also known as Takhi, Mongolian Wild Horse or Asian Wild Horse. (Species, not a "breed" but listed here for convenience)
Quarter Horse, see American Quarter Horse
Rhenish-German Cold-Blood also known as Rhineland
Rocky Mountain Horse
Rottaler, see Heavy warmblood
Russian Heavy Draft
Saddlebred, see American Saddlebred
San Fratello horse
Sardinian Anglo-Arab, also known as Sardinian Horse
Soviet Heavy Draft
Spanish Jennet Horse, modern, not to be confused with the historic Jennet or Spanish Jennet (see Archaic types, below)
Spanish Tarpan, see Sorraia
Spotted Saddle horse
Svensk Kallblodstravare (Swedish coldblood trotter), see Coldblood trotter
Tchernomor, see Budyonny horse
Tennessee Walking Horse
Tinker horse, see Gypsy Vanner horse
Trait Du Nord
Tuigpaard, see Dutch harness horse
Ukrainian Riding Horse
Ventasso horse (Cavallo Del Ventasso)
Vladimir Heavy Draft
Vyatka, see pony section
Waler horse, also known as Waler or Australian
Warmblood, see "Types of horse" below, or
individual warmblood breed articles
Welsh Cob (Section D), see Welsh pony
Württemberger or Württemberg
Žemaitukas, also known as Zemaituka, Zhumd,
Zhemaichu, or Zhmudk, see Pony section.
Main article: Pony
Ponies are usually classified as members of Equus caballus that mature at less than 14.2 hands. However, some pony breeds may occasionally have individuals who mature over 14.2 but retain all other breed characteristics. There are also some breeds that now frequently mature over 14.2 hands due to modern nutrition and management, yet retain the historic classification "pony." For the purposes of this list, if a breed registry classifies the breed as a "pony," it is listed here as such, even if some individuals have horse characteristics.
(Please note: Because of this designation by the preference of a given breed registry, most miniature horse breeds are listed as "horses," not ponies)
American Shetland, see Shetland pony
American Walking Pony
Anadolu pony also called Anadolu Ati
Ariegeois Pony see Mérens horse in horse section
Assateague Pony, see Chincoteague Pony
Asturian pony, see Asturcon in horse section
Australian Riding Pony
Basque Pony, see Pottok
Basuto pony, also spelled Basotho pony
Bhutia Pony, also Bhotia, Bhote ghoda, Bhutan, Bhutani, Bhutua see Indian Country Bred
British Riding Pony, see Riding Pony in "types of horse" section
British Spotted Pony
Carpathian Pony, see Hucul Pony
Canadian rustic pony
Caspian pony, see Caspian horse
Coffin Bay Pony
Czechoslovakian Small Riding Pony
Danish Sport Pony
Deutsches Reitpony see German Riding Pony
Falabella, see Falabella in horse section
Flores pony, see Timor Pony
French Saddle Pony
German Riding Pony, also called Deutsche Reitpony
or Weser-Ems Pony
Guangxi, see Baise horse
Gǔo-xìa pony, see Chinese Guoxia
Highland Pony, see also Garron
Hunter Pony, see "types of horse" section
Icelandic pony, see Icelandic horse in horse section
Indian Country Bred
Kerry bog pony
Merens Pony, see Ariegeois pony
Miniature horse, see horse section
New Forest Pony
Northlands Pony, see Nordlandshest in the horse section
Ob pony also called Priob pony
Pony of the Americas
Riding Pony, see "types of
Sable Island Pony
Sardinian Pony, see Sardinian horse
Skogsruss, see Gotland Pony
Spiti Pony, see Indian Country Bred
Sumba and Sumbawa Pony
Virginia highlander, see horse section
Welsh mountain pony (Section A), see
Welsh pony (Section B), see Welsh Pony
Welsh pony of cob type (Section C),
see Welsh Pony
Western Sudan pony
Yakut Pony, see Yakutian horse
Yonaguni, see horse section
Žemaitukas, also known as Zemaituka,
Zhumd, Zhemaichu, or Zhmudka
Basic coat colors
Bay (left) and chestnut (right) mustangs.
Genetically, all horses start out as either chestnut, called "red" by geneticists, represented by the absence of the extension gene ("e"); or black based on the presence of the extension gene ("E"). Therefore, red ("ee") and black ("EE" or "Ee") are the two base colors. The Bay color is expressed when the common genetic modifier, the Agouti gene works on the Black. The vast range of all other coat colors are created by additional genes action upon one of these three coat colors.
Statistically, the most commonly seen horse color phenotypes are identified by the following terms:
Bay: Body color ranges from a light reddish-brown to very dark brown with "black points." (Points refer to the mane, tail, and lower legs). The main color variations are:
Dark bay: very dark red or brown hair, difficult to distinguish from seal brown. Sometimes also called "black bay," "mahogany bay," or "brown."
Blood bay: bright red hair; often considered simply "bay."
Brown: The word "brown" is used by some breed registries to describe dark bays. There is a distinct allele that darkens a bay coat to seal brown (At), but it is not the cause of all forms of dark bay. Informally, "brown" is applied to many distinct coat colors. Most often, horses described by casual observers as "brown" are actually bay or chestnut. In the absence of DNA testing, chestnut and bay can be distinguished from each other by looking at the mane, tail and legs for the presence of black points.
Chestnut: A reddish body color with no black. Mane and tail are the same shade or lighter than the body coat. The main color variations are:
Liver chestnut: very dark brown coat. Sometimes a liver chestnut is also simply called "brown."
Sorrel: Reddish-tan to red coat, about the color of a new penny. The most common shade of chestnut.
Blond or light chestnut: seldom-used term for lighter tan coat with pale mane and tail that is not quite a dun.
A dapple gray
Gray: A horse with black skin but white or mixed dark and white hairs. Gray horses can be born any color, and lighten as they age. Most will eventually gray out to either a complete white or a "fleabitten" hair coat. Most "white" horses are actually grays with a fully white hair coat. A gray horse is distinguished from a white horse by dark skin, particularly noticeable around the eyes, muzzle, flanks, and other areas of thin or no hair. Variations of gray that a horse may exhibit over its lifetime include:
Salt and Pepper or "steel" gray: Usually a younger horse, an animal with white and dark hairs evenly intermixed over most of the body.
Dapple gray: a dark-colored horse with lighter rings of graying hairs, called dapples, scattered throughout.
Fleabitten gray: an otherwise fully white-haired horse that develops red hairs flecked throughout the coat.
Rose gray: a gray horse with a reddish or pinkish tinge to its coat. This color occurs with a horse born bay or chestnut while the young horse is "graying out."
Other coat colors
A black horse
Black: Black is relatively uncommon, though not "rare." There are two types of black, fading black and non-fading black. Most black horses will fade to a brownish color if the horse is exposed to sunlight on a regular basis. Non-fading black is a blue-black shade that does not fade in the sun. Genetically, the two cannot yet be differentiated, and some claim the difference occurs due to management rather than genetics, though this claim is hotly disputed. Most black foals are usually born a mousy grey or dun color. As their foal coat begins to shed out, their black color will show through, though in some breeds black foals are born jet black. For a horse to be considered black, it must be completely black except for white markings. A sun-bleached black horse is still black, even though it may appear to be a dark bay or brown. A visible difference between a true black and a dark chestnut or bay is seen in the fine hairs around the eyes and muzzle; on a true black these hairs are black, even if the horse is sun-bleached, on other colors, they will be lighter.
Brindle - One of the rarest colors in horses, possibly linked to chimerism. Characteristics are any color with "zebra-like" stripes, but most common is a brown horse with faint yellowish markings.
Buckskin- A bay horse with one copy of the cream gene, a dilution gene that 'dilutes' or fades the coat color to a yellow, cream, or gold while keeping the black points (mane, tail, legs).
Champagne: Produced by a different dilution gene than the cream gene. It lightens both skin and hair, but creates a metallic gold coat color with mottled skin and light colored eyes. Champagne horses are often confused with palomino, cremello, dun, or buckskins.
Cream dilution, an incomplete dominant gene that produces a partially diluted coat color with one copy of the allele and a full dilution with two copies. Colors produced include Palomino, Buckskin, Perlino, Cremello and Smoky Cream or Smoky black.
Cremello - A horse with a chestnut base coat and two cream genes that wash out almost all color until the horse is a pale cream or light tan color. Often called "white," they are not truly white horses, and they do not carry the white (W) gene. A cremello usually has blue eyes.
Dun: Yellowish or tan coat with primitive markings, sometimes called "dun factors:" a darker-colored mane and tail, a dorsal stripe along the back and occasionally faint horizontal zebra stripings on the upper legs and a possible transverse stripe across the withers. There are several variations of dun:
Grullo, Grulla, or Blue Dun: A horse with a black base color and the dun gene. Coat is solid "mouse-colored" gray or silver with black or dark gray primitive markings.
Red dun: A chestnut base coat with dun factors. Coat is usually pale yellow or tan with chestnut (red) primitive markings.
"Bay dun" or "Zebra dun" are terms sometimes used to describe the classic dun color of yellow or tan with black primitive markings, used when necessary to distinguish it from red duns or grullos.
"Buckskin dun" or "Yellow dun" describes a dun that also carries the cream gene dilution and has a coat of pale gold with black mane, tail, legs and primitive markings.
Leopard: There are a group of coat patterns caused by the leopard gene complex. It should be noted that not every horse with leopard genetics will exhibit hair coat spotting. However, even solid individuals will exhibit secondary characteristics such as vertically striped hooves, mottled skin around the eyes, lips, and genitalia, plus a white sclera of the eye. Several breeds of horse can boast leopard-spotted (a term used collectively for all patterns) individuals including the Knabstrupper, Noriker, and the Appaloosa. There are several distinct leopard patterns:
blanket: white over the hip that may extend from the tail to the base of the neck. The spots inside the blanket (if present) are the same color as the horse's base coat.
varnish roan: a mix of body and white hairs that extends over the entire body—no relation to true roan
snowflake: white spots on a dark body. Typically the white spots increase in number and size as the horse ages.
leopard: dark spots of varying sizes over a white body.
few spot leopard: a nearly white horse from birth that retains color just above the hooves, the knees, 'armpits', mane and tail, wind pipe, and face
frost: similar to varnish but the white hairs are limited to the back, loins, and neck.
Palomino: chestnut horse that has one cream dilution gene that turns the horse to a golden, yellow, or tan shade with a flaxen or white mane and tail. Often cited as being a color "within three shades of a newly minted gold coin," palominos range in shades from extremely light, almost cremello, to deep chocolate, but always with a white or flaxen mane and tail.
Pearl: Also called the "barlink factor," A dilution gene that when homozygous, lightens red coats to a uniform apricot-like color, often also resulting in horses with blue eyes. When combined with cream dilution, may produce horses that appear to be cremello or perlino.
Perlino: similar to a cremello, but is genetically a bay base coat with two dilute genes. Eyes are blue. Mane, tail and points are not black, but are usually darker than the body coat, generally a reddish or rust color, not to be confused with a red dun.
Pinto: a multi-colored horse with large patches of brown, white, and/or black and white. Variations include:
Piebald: a black and white spotting pattern (term more commonly used in the UK than the USA)
Skewbald: a spotting pattern of white and any other color other than black, or a spotting pattern of white and two other colors, which may include black. (term more commonly used in the UK than the USA).
Overo: Describes a group of spotting patterns genetically distinct from one another, characterized by sharp, irregular markings with a horizontal orientation, usually more dark than white. In some cases, the face is usually white, often with blue eyes. The white rarely crosses the back, and the lower legs are normally dark. Variations include "Frame Overo" and "Splashed white." Sometimes Sabino below is also classified in the overo family.
Sabino: Often confused with roan or rabicano, a slight spotting pattern characterized by high white on legs, belly spots, white markings on the face extending past the eyes and/or patches of roaning patterns standing alone or on the edges of white markings
Tobiano: Spotting pattern characterized by rounded markings with white legs and white across the back between the withers and the dock of the tail, usually arranged in a roughly vertical pattern and more white than dark, with the head usually dark and with markings like that of a normal horse. i.e. star, snip, strip, or blaze.
Tovero: spotting pattern that is a mix of tobiano and overo coloration, such as blue eyes on a dark head. May also refer to horses with Tobiano coloring that carry a recessive overo gene.
Paint: pinto horses with known Quarter Horse and/or Thoroughbred bloodlines. This is a separate breed of horse.
Left to right: A young gray (with few white hairs), a chestnut, and a bay roan
Rabicano: A roan-like effect that is caused by a genetic modifier that creates a mealy, splotchy, or roaning pattern on only part of the body, usually limited to the underside, flanks, legs, and tail head areas. Unlike a true roan, much of the body will not have white hairs intermingled with solid ones, nor are the legs or head significantly darker than the rest of the horse.
Roan: a color pattern that causes white hairs to be evenly intermixed within the horse's body color. Roans are distinguishable from greys because roans typically do not change color in their lifetimes, unlike gray that gradually gets lighter as a horse ages. Roans also have heads that are either solid-colored or much darker than their body hair, and do not lighten. Variations of roan include:
Red Roan: A chestnut base coat with roaning pattern with the mane and tail being the same red as the body. Red roans are also commonly referred to as a Strawberry Roan, and the term Red Roan is occasionally is used to describe a Bay Roan.
Bay Roan: A Bay base coat with roaning pattern (the mane and tail of the Bay Roan will be Black). Bay roans are sometimes also called Red Roans.
Blue Roan: A black with roaning pattern, not to be confused with a gray or a blue dun/grullo. A roan tends to have a darker head, while grays not only lighten with age, but their heads tend to lighten before the rest of their bodies. A blue roan has mixed-color hairs, a blue dun will usually be a solid color and have dun striping.
Silver dapple horses
Silver dapple: Caused by a dilution gene that only acts upon black hair pigment, it lightens black body hair to a chocolate brown and the mane and tail to silver. The gene may be carried but will not be visible on horses with a red base coat. Silver dapple horses may also be called Chocolate, Flax, or Taffy.
Smoky black: Horse visually appears to be either a black with a mildly bleached-out coat or a dull dark bay, but is actually has a black base coat and one copy of the cream gene.
Smoky Cream: Virtually indistinguishable from a cremello or perlino without DNA testing, a horse with a black base coat and two copies of the cream gene.
White : One of the rarest colors, a white horse has white hair and fully or largely unpigmented (pink) skin. These horses are born white, with blue or brown eyes, and remain white for life. The vast majority of so-called "white" horses are actually grays with a fully white hair coat. A truly white horse that lives to adulthood occurs one of two ways: either by inheriting one copy of a dominant white ("W") gene, of which several have been identified, or is a particular type of sabino that is homozygous for the "SB-1" gene. However, a foal with the genetic disease known as Lethal white syndrome dies shortly after birth. There are no "albinos" in the horse world. Albino, defined as animals with a white coat with pink skin and reddish eyes, is created by genetic mechanisms that do not exist in horses. In some cases, homozygous dominant white is thought to be an embryonic lethal, though this has not been established for all white horses.
List of British National Hunt races
A list of notable National Hunt horse races which take place annually in Great Britain, under the authority of the British Horseracing Authority, including all races which currently hold Grade 1, 2 or 3 status.
November Betfair Chase Chase Haydock 3m 5yo +
November Fighting Fifth Hurdle Hurdle Newcastle 2m 4yo +
December Tingle Creek Chase Chase Sandown 2m 4yo +
December Long Walk Hurdle Hurdle Ascot 3m 1f 4yo +
December Christmas Hurdle Hurdle Kempton 2m 4yo +
December King George VI Chase Chase Kempton 3m 4yo +
December Feltham Novices' Chase Chase Kempton 3m 4yo +
December Finale Juvenile Hurdle Hurdle Chepstow 2m ½f 3yo
Dec / Jan Challow Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Newbury 2m 5f 4yo +
January Tolworth Hurdle Hurdle Sandown 2m ½f 4yo +
January Victor Chandler Chase Chase Ascot 2m 1f 5yo +
Jan / Feb Scilly Isles Novices' Chase Chase Sandown 2m 4½f 5yo +
February Ascot Chase Chase Ascot 2m 5½f 5yo +
March Supreme Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 2m ½f 4yo +
March Arkle Challenge Trophy Chase Cheltenham 2m 5yo +
March Champion Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 2m ½f 4yo +
March Neptune Investment Management Hurdle
Cheltenham 2m 5f 4yo +
March RSA Chase Chase Cheltenham 3m ½f 5yo +
March Queen Mother Champion Chase Chase Cheltenham 2m 5yo +
March Champion Bumper Flat Cheltenham 2m ½f 4–6yo
March Ryanair Chase Chase Cheltenham 2m 5f 5yo +
March World Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 3m 4yo +
March Triumph Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 2m 1f 4yo
March Spa Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 3m 4yo +
March Cheltenham Gold Cup Chase Cheltenham 3m 2½f 5yo +
April Liverpool Hurdle Hurdle Aintree 3m ½f 4yo +
April Anniversary 4-Y-O Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Aintree 2m ½f 4yo
April Totesport Bowl Chase Aintree 3m 1f 5yo +
April Melling Chase Chase Aintree 2m 4f 5yo +
April Sefton Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Aintree 3m ½f 4yo +
April Maghull Novices' Chase Chase Aintree 2m 5yo +
April Aintree Hurdle Hurdle Aintree 2m 4f 4yo +
October Persian War Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Chepstow 2m 4f 4yo +
October Old Roan Chase Chase Aintree 2m 4f 4yo +
Oct / Nov West Yorkshire Hurdle Hurdle Wetherby 3m 1f 4yo +
Oct / Nov Charlie Hall Chase Chase Wetherby 3m 1f 5yo +
Oct / Nov Haldon Gold Cup Chase Exeter 2m 1½f 4yo +
November Rising Stars Novices' Chase Chase Wincanton 2m 5f 4yo +
November Elite Hurdle Hurdle Wincanton 2m 4yo +
November Sharp Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 2m ½f 4yo +
November Prestbury Juvenile Novices' Hurdle
Cheltenham 2m ½f 3yo
November November Novices' Chase Chase Cheltenham 2m 4yo +
November Hyde Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 2m 5f 4yo +
November Amlin 1965 Chase Chase Ascot 2m 3f 4yo +
November Ascot Hurdle Hurdle Ascot 2m 3½f 4yo +
Nov / Dec Worcester Novices' Chase Chase Newbury 3m 4yo +
Nov / Dec Berkshire Novices' Chase Chase Newbury 2m 4f 4yo +
Nov / Dec Long Distance Hurdle Hurdle Newbury 3m ½f 4yo +
Nov / Dec Peterborough Chase Chase Huntingdon 2m 4½f 4yo +
December Winter Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Sandown 2m 4½f 4yo +
December Henry VIII Novices' Chase Chase Sandown 2m 4yo +
December Relkeel Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 2m 4½f 4yo +
December Boylesports.com International
Cheltenham 2m 1f 4yo +
December Bristol Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 3m 4yo +
December December Novices' Chase Chase Lingfield 3m 4yo +
December Summit Junior Hurdle Hurdle Lingfield 2m ½f 3yo
December Kennel Gate Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Ascot 2m 4yo +
December Noel Novices' Chase Chase Ascot 2m 3f 4yo +
December Championship Standard Open NHF Race Flat Ascot 2m 4–6yo
December Wayward Lad Novices' Chase Chase Kempton 2m 4yo +
December Desert Orchid Chase Chase Kempton 2m 4yo +
January Dipper Novices' Chase Chase Cheltenham 2m 5f 5yo +
January Leamington Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Warwick 2m 5f 4yo +
January Warfield Mares' Hurdle Hurdle Ascot 3m 4yo +
January Holloway's Hurdle Hurdle Ascot 2m 3½f 4yo +
January Rossington Main Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Haydock 2m ½f 4yo +
January Altcar Novices' Chase Chase Haydock 2m 4f 5yo +
January Champion Hurdle Trial Hurdle Haydock 2m ½f 4yo +
January Peter Marsh Chase Chase Haydock 3m 5yo +
January Finesse Juvenile Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 2m 1f 4yo
January Cotswold Chase Chase Cheltenham 3m 1½f 5yo +
January Classic Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 2m 4½f 4yo +
January Cleeve Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 3m 5yo +
Jan / Feb River Don Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Doncaster 3m ½f 4yo +
Jan / Feb Lightning Novices' Chase Chase Doncaster 2m ½f 5yo +
Jan / Feb Doncaster Mares' Hurdle Hurdle Doncaster 2m ½f 4yo +
Jan / Feb Towton Novices' Chase Chase Wetherby 3m 1f 5yo +
February Kingmaker Novices' Chase Chase Warwick 2m 5yo +
February Aon Chase Chase Newbury 3m 5yo +
February Game Spirit Chase Chase Newbury 2m 1f 5yo +
February Winter Bumper Flat Newbury 2m ½f 4–6yo
February Reynoldstown Novices' Chase Chase Ascot 3m 5yo +
February Rendlesham Hurdle Hurdle Haydock 3m 1f 4yo +
February Prestige Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Haydock 3m 1f 4yo +
February Kingwell Hurdle Hurdle Wincanton 2m 4yo +
February Adonis Juvenile Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Kempton 2m 4yo
February Pendil Novices' Chase Chase Kempton 2m 4½f 5yo +
February Dovecote Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Kempton 2m 4yo+
February National Spirit Hurdle Hurdle Fontwell 2m 4f 4yo +
Feb / March Premier Kelso Hurdle Hurdle Kelso 2m 2f 4yo +
March David Nicholson Mares' Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 2m 4f 4yo +
March Jewson Novices' Chase Chase Cheltenham 2m 4f 5yo +
April Manifesto Novices' Chase Chase Aintree 2m 4f 5yo +
April Top Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Aintree 2m ½f 4yo +
April Mildmay Novices' Chase Chase Aintree 3m 1f 5yo +
April Mersey Novices' Hurdle Hurdle Aintree 2m 4f 4yo +
April Champion Standard Open NH Flat Race Flat Aintree 2m 1f 4–6yo
April Silver Trophy Chase Chase Cheltenham 2m 5f 5yo +
April Future Champion Novices' Chase Chase Ayr 2m 4f 5yo +
April Scottish Champion Hurdle Hurdle Ayr 2m 4yo +
April Celebration Chase Chase Sandown 2m 5yo +
November Morson Group Handicap Chase Chase Cheltenham 3m 3½f 4yo +
November Paddy Power Gold Cup Chase Cheltenham 2m 4½f 4yo +
November Greatwood Handicap Hurdle Hurdle Cheltenham 2m ½f 4yo +
Nov / Dec Hennessy Gold Cup Chase Newbury 3m 2½f 4yo +
December Boylesports.com Gold Cup Chase Cheltenham 2m 5f 4yo +
December Rowland Meyrick Handicap Chase Chase Wetherby 3m 1f 4yo +
December Welsh National Chase Chepstow 3m 5½f 4yo +
January Victorchandler.com Chase Chase Cheltenham 2m 5f 5yo +
January Classic Chase Chase Warwick 3m 5f 5yo +
January Betfair Trophy Chase Chase Cheltenham 2m 5f 5yo +
Jan / Feb Heroes Handicap Hurdle Hurdle Sandown 2m 6f 4yo +
February Totesport Trophy Hurdle Newbury 2m ½f 4yo +
February Grand National Trial Chase Haydock 3m 4f 5yo +
February Racing Post Chase Chase Kempton 3m 5yo +
Feb / March Greatwood Gold Cup Chase Newbury 2m 4f 5yo +
March Paddy Power Novices' Handicap Hurdle
Sandown 2m 4f 4–7yo
March Festival Trophy Handicap Chase Chase Cheltenham 3m ½f 5yo +
March Coral Cup Hurdle Cheltenham 2m 5f 4yo +
March Fred Winter Juvenile Novices' Hurdle
Cheltenham 2m ½f 4yo
March Byrne Group Plate Chase Cheltenham 2m 5f 5yo +
March Vincent O'Brien County Handicap Hurdle
Cheltenham 2m 1f 5yo +
March Johnny Henderson Grand Annual Chase
Cheltenham 2m ½f 5yo +
April Red Rum Handicap Chase Chase Aintree 2m 5yo +
April John Smith's Handicap Hurdle Hurdle Aintree 3m ½f 4yo +
April Grand National Chase Aintree 4m 4f 6yo +
April Scottish Grand National Chase Ayr 4m 1f 5yo +
April Bet365 Gold Cup Chase Sandown 3m 5½f 5yo +
May Swinton Handicap Hurdle Hurdle Haydock 2m 4yo +
Selected other races
November Becher Chase Chase Aintree 3m 2f 5yo +
December Castleford Chase Chase Wetherby 2m 5yo +
January Lanzarote Hurdle Hurdle Kempton 2m 5f 4yo +
Jan / Feb Contenders Hurdle Hurdle Sandown 2m ½f 5yo +
February Eider Chase Chase Newcastle 4m 1f 5yo +
March Imperial Cup Hurdle Sandown 2m 4yo +
March Glenfarclas Cross Country Chase Chase Cheltenham 3m 7f 5yo +
March Centenary Novices' Handicap Chase
Cheltenham 2m 5f 5yo +
March National Hunt Chase Challenge Cup
4m 5yo +
March Pertemps Final Hurdle Cheltenham 3m 5yo +
March Fulke Walwyn Kim Muir Challenge Cup
Cheltenham 3m 1½f 5yo +
March Christie's Foxhunter Chase Chase Cheltenham 3m 2½f 5yo +
March Martin Pipe Conditional Jockeys' Hurdle
Cheltenham 2m 4½f 4yo +
March Midlands Grand National Chase Uttoxeter 4m 1f 5yo +
Jan 2006 Churchill Road Hurdle Hurdle Lingfield 2m 3½f 4yo +
March 2004 Cathcart Challenge Cup Chase Cheltenham 2m 5f 5yo +
List of historical horses
Adios, leading sire of harness racehorses
Adios Butler, famous harness racer
Affirmed, last horse to win the U.S. Triple Crown (1978)
Ajax, 18 consecutive race wins, before he was defeated at 1/40.
Albatross, harness racer who won 59 of 71 races, and as a sire produced winners of over $130 million, including Niatross
Allez France, French Arc winner and first filly to win a million dollars
Alydar, finished second to Affirmed in all three Triple Crown races, and one of the great sires in North American history
Aristides, winner of the first Kentucky Derby
Arkle, reckoned the greatest steeplechaser of all time
Assault, U.S. Triple Crown winner (1946)
Best Mate, 2002, 2003 and 2004 Cheltenham Gold Cup winner, often given title 'Greatest Steeplechaser' since Arkle, and an equal to him
Big Brown, 2008 Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes winner, first horse since Clyde Van Dusen to win the Kentucky Derby from the 20th post position
Bret Hanover one of only nine pacers to win the Triple Crown of Harness Racing for Pacers and he had 62 wins from 68 starts. The only horse to have even been made Harness Horse of the Year three times.
Buckpasser, won 15 consecutive races, and one of the greatest broodmare sires in history
Bulle Rock in 1730 was the first Thoroughbred imported into America.
Carbine, outstanding racehorse and sire. Winner of the Melbourne Cup
Cardigan Bay, New Zealand's "million dollar pacer", the first to win a million in the US; appeared on the Ed Sullivan Show
Cigar, a great champion in the 1990s who won 16 consecutive races
Citation, U.S. Triple Crown winner (1948)
Crisp, remembered for his epic race in the Grand National with Red Rum
Curlin, the richest North American-based horse of all time
Dan Patch, America's greatest pacer
Dawn Run, great racemare and the only horse ever to complete Champion Hurdle, Cheltenham Gold Cup double
Deep Impact, Japanese horse who smashed the world record over 3200 metres
Desert Gold, racemare who won 19 races successive races during World War I.
Desert Orchid, won King George four times and Cheltenham Gold Cup; national icon and beautiful grey loved by children
Easy Goer, Hall of Fame champion who ran the fastest mile of all time on dirt by any three year old thoroughbred in 1:32.2, and ran the second fastest Belmont Stakes of all time behind Secretariat. Great rivalry with Sunday Silence
Eight Belles, the first filly to win the Martha Washington Stakes, by a record 13½ lengths.
Eclipse, celebrated 18th century racehorse that won 18 races in 18 starts and was a very influential sire
Exterminator exceedingly popular, "iron horse" of American racing history
Funny Cide, first gelding since Clyde Van Dusen to win the Kentucky Derby
Genuine Risk, the second filly to win the Kentucky Derby (1980)
Gloaming, won 19 successive races in New Zealand and Australia.
Goldsmith Maid, famous harness racing mare of the 19th century
Go Man Go, a Champion Running Quarter Horse
Greyhound, named trotting horse of the century in the US
Hambletonian 10, known as the "father of American trotting"
Iroquois was the first American-bred racehorse to win the prestigious Epsom Derby
John Henry, U.S. Champion Turf Horse (1980, 1981, 1983, 1984)
Kelso, only five-time winner of U.S. Horse of the Year
Kincsem, Hungarian racemare and most successful racehorse ever, winning all 54 starts in five countries
Kindergarten, weighted more than Phar Lap in the Melbourne Cup
Kingston Town, "the King", won three Cox Plates
Kissin George one of America's premier sprinting Thoroughbred racehorses.
Lady Suffolk, the "old gray mare", the first horse to beat the 2.5 minute mile
La Troienne, most important broodmare of the twentieth century
Lexington, America's leading 19th Century sire
Longfellow, 19th century's great runner and great stallion
Lottery, winner of the Grand National steeplechase in 1839
Makybe Diva, won Melbourne Cup three successive times
Master Charlie, winner 1924 Remsen Stakes, Tijuana Futurity, Hopeful Stakes, Kentucky Jockey Club Stakes, awarded 1924 American Champion Two-Year-Old-Male/Colt
Man o' War, often considered America's greatest racehorse; won 20 of 21 career starts
Might and Power World Champion Stayer (1997); Australian Horse of the Year (1998, 1999)
Mr. Prospector, one of the great U.S. sires of the late 20th century
Nasrullah, one of the great Thoroughbred sires of the 20th century
Native Dancer,won 21 of 22 career races, with only loss in the Kentucky Derby, and sire whose descendants have come to dominate modern Triple Crown racing
Niatross, pacer who won 37 of his 39 races and broke many records, considered to be one of the greatest harness racers of all time
Nijinsky II, last horse to win the English Triple Crown (1970)
Northern Dancer, Canada's champion on the racetrack; most successful sire of the 20th Century
Phar Lap, Australia and New Zealand's most famed thoroughbred racehorse; won 37 of his 51 career starts
Rachel Alexandra, filly and winner of the 2009 Preakness Stakes.
Red Rum, only horse in the history of the Aintree Grand National to win the race three times (and place second on two other occasions)
Regret, the first filly to win the Kentucky Derby (1915)
Rock Sand, English Triple Crown winner (1903) and sire of the dam of Man o' War
Ruffian, the great filly champion who won every race she started until her final (and fatal) race
Sadler's Wells, one of Europe's greatest sires of the late 20th century
Sea Bird II, highest ever Timeform rated horse (rated 145)
Sea the Stars, first horse ever to win the 2,000 Guineas, Epsom Derby, and Arc de Triomphe in the same year (2009)
Seabiscuit, beat War Admiral in a match race; like Phar Lap, raced during the Depression.
Seattle Slew, U.S. Triple Crown winner (1977), one of the greatest sires in history
Secretariat, U.S. Triple Crown winner (1973), and one of North America's greatest broodmare sires of all time
Shergar, the kidnapped winner of the 1981 Epsom Derby
Silky Sullivan, arguably the fastest closer of all time
Smarty Jones became the first unbeaten Kentucky Derby winner since Seattle Slew in 1977.
Spectacular Bid, Hall of Fame champion who went undefeated as a four year old, and won 26 of 30 career starts.
Steel Dust, 19th Century quarter-mile racing horse
Skewball, (sometimes called "Stewball") immortalized in 18th century poetry as a sku-ball winning against a Thoroughbred
Storm Cat, one of the great U.S. sires of the late 20th century
Sunday Silence, big winner in the US and champion sire in Japan
Varenne Italy most famous harness horse
War Admiral, the fourth U.S. Triple Crown winner (1937)
Winning Colors, the third (and currently last) filly to win the Kentucky Derby (1988)
Zenyatta, undefeated in 19 starts and the first mare to win the Breeders' Cup Classic (2009), plus the first to win two different Breeders' Cup races (2008, 2009).
Arko, an Olympic level show jumping horse
Big Ben, a Canadian international show jumper and Olympian
Milton, a British international show jumper and Olympian ridden by John Whitaker
Noble Flaire, a Morgan horse who was the first to win three Park Harness World Championships at the American Morgan Horse World Championship Horse Show
Radium, outstanding campdrafter and a very influential sire in Australia.
The Golden Machine, also called "Medicine Man", Owned by Heather Parish – Vernon was the first Palomino Quarter Horse to compete at the Olympics. Ridden by Richard Phelps of Great Brittan Modern Pentathlon 1996 Olympics . The Golden Machine was featured with Phelps on the cover of the August 1996 issue of the Quarter Horse Journal.
See also: List of horses of the American Civil War.
Babieca, horse of El Cid
Bijou, horse of Count Johan Augustus Sandels, Swedish Fieldmarshall, Finnish War 1808-1809
Black Jack, the last Quartermaster-issued U.S. Army horse, died February 6, 1976
Blackie, belonged to Chief Sitting Bull
Blueskin, one of General Washington's horses
Bucephalus, Alexander the Great's horse
Chetak, war horse of Rana Pratap of Mewar in India
Cincinnati, one of Ulysses S. Grant's horses
Comanche, only documented survivor of General Custer's 7th Cavalry detachment at the Battle of Little Big Horn
Copenhagen, the Duke of Wellington's favourite horse, which he rode at the Battle of Waterloo
Dhūljānāḥ, the horse of Husayn ibn Ali in the Battle of Karbala
Dilu, the personal steed of Liu Bei which was said to have a hex and marking on his face which would bring misfortune upon its rider
Gazala, horse of Baldwin I of Jerusalem
Kasztanka, horse of Józef Piłsudski, likely the most famous Polish horse
Kitty, horse belonging to Marshal of Finland Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Little Sorrel, Stonewall Jackson's horse
Llamrei, steed of King Arthur
Magnolia, one of General Washington's horses
Marengo, Napoleon's horse which was captured by the British, and outlived Napoleon by eight years
Matsukaze, personal horse of Maeda Keiji
(Old) Nelson, one of General Washington's horses
Palomo, the main horse of Simon Bolivar
Reckless was a small mare that became a decorated Marine for carrying ammunition into battle for the US Marine platoon
Red Hare, also known as Chitu, was Lü Bu's horse from the Three Kingdoms; inspired the phrase "Among men: Lü Bu. Among horses: Red Hare."
Shadowless, the personal steed of Cao Cao
Rienzi, Philip H. Sheridan's horse
Roger Leo, one of General Washington's horses at Valley Forge
Streiff, the horse of Gustavus Adolphus at the battle of Lützen 1632. The hide was mounted on a wooden frame and can still today be seen at the Royal Armoury in Stockholm.
Traveller, Robert E. Lee's horse
Warrior, called "Old Warrior", the mount of General Jack Seely which led many charges "over the top" in WW1.
Horses of various other fames
Black Bess, highwayman Dick Turpin's horse
Brown Beauty, the horse Paul Revere borrowed for his famous ride.
Burmese, the favourite mount of Queen Elizabeth II, which was a gift from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Buttermilk, Dale Evans' horse
Champion, Gene Autrey's horse
Chetak, horse of Rana Pratap Rana Pratap
Clever Hans, a smart horse
Cloud, the wild mustang stallion documented from birth for a PBS Nature series
Darley Arabian, Godolphin Arabian and Byerly Turk, stallions from whom all Thoroughbreds are descended
Diablo, The Cisco Kid's horse
Figure (also known by the name of one of his owners, Justin Morgan) – the foundation sire of the Morgan horse breed
Grated Coconut Calgary Stampede’s six-time world champion bucking horse
Gun Rock, the offspring of Man O' War used in the 1920s at UC Davis to breed horses for the U.S. Army Cavalry
Halla, the famed show jumping champion, with two world championships (1954 and 1955) and three Olympic gold medals (1956 and 1960)
Hollywood Dun It, the all-time leading reining sire and Quarter Horse
Huaso, Chilean bred horse, holder of the high jump world record set in Chile on February 5 of 1949, one of the world's longest unbroken sport records.
Incitatus, Emperor Caligula's favorite horse, may have been made a Senator
Jim Key, "Smartest Horse in the World," a star attraction at 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis
Jim, a former milk cart horse used to produce diphtheria antitoxin; contamination of this antitoxin inspired the Biologics Control Act of 1902
King, a foundation sire of the Quarter Horse breed
Marocco or Bankes's Horse, a late 16th- and early 17th-century English performing horse
Muhamed, the German horse allegedly capable of solving cubic roots
Papoose, Little Beaver's horse Red Ryder's Navajo Ward Sidekick
Prince and Lady, Almanzo Wilder's Morgan horse driving team of Laura Ingalls Wilder's Little House books
Prometea, born May 28, 2003, the first cloned horse and the first to be born from and carried by its cloning mother
Red Buck, the horse of Emmett Dalton
Red Fox, a horse of Jesse James
Rocinante, Don Quixote's horse
Sampson, the tallest horse ever recorded; he was a Shire and stood 21.2½ hands high
Scout, Tonto's horse
Silver, The Lone Ranger's horse
Sportsman, John Mytton's horse, died when forced to drink a bottle of port wine
Tarzan, white stallion of actor Ken Maynard
Thunder, Red Ryder's horse
Tony, horse of actor Tom Mix
Trigger, Roy Rogers' Palomino
Zippo Pine Bar
In horse racing, a trainer prepares a horse for races, with responsibility for exercising it, getting it race-ready and determining which races it should enter. Leading horse trainers can earn a great deal of money from a percentage of the winnings that they charge the owner for training the horse.
Outside horse racing, most trainers specialize in a certain equestrianism discipline, such as show jumping, reining, rodeo, sport horse disciplines, training of a specific horse breed, starting young horses, or working with problem horses. There are a wide variety of horse training methods used to teach the horse to do the things humans want them to do. Some fields can be very lucrative, usually depending on the value of the horses once trained or prize money available in competition. However, as a rule, most horse trainers earn, at best, a modest income which often requires supplementation from a second job or additional horse-related business, such as horse boarding or riding lessons.
Prominent race horse trainers
United Kingdom & Ireland
Patrick L. Biancone
Robert J. Frankel
H. Allen Jerkens
D. Wayne Lukas
Michael R. Matz
William I. Mott
According to The American Racing Manual, the thoroughbred horse racing trainers who have led the annual money-earning list more than twice since 1908 are:
D. Wayne Lukas (14)
Sam Hildreth (9)
Charlie Whittingham (7)
Sunny Jim Fitzsimmons, Horace A. "Jimmy" Jones (5)
Bob Baffert, Laz Barrera, Ben A. Jones, William Molter (4)
Hirsch Jacobs, Edward A. Neloy, James G. Rowe, Sr. (3)
David A. Hayes
In horse racing, a trainer prepares a horse for races, with responsibility for exercising it, getting it race-ready and determining which races it should enter. Leading horse trainers can earn a great deal of money from a percentage of the winnings that they charge the owner for training the horse.
Outside horse racing, most trainers specialize in a certain equestrianism discipline, such as show jumping, reining, rodeo, sport horse disciplines, training of a specific horse breed, starting young horses, or working with problem horses. There are a wide variety of horse training methods used to teach the horse to do the things humans want them to do. Some fields can be very lucrative, usually depending on the value of the horses once trained or prize money available in competition. However, as a rule, most horse trainers earn, at best, a modest income which often requires supplementation from a second job or additional horse-related business, such as horse boarding or riding lessons.
Type Private company
Headquarters Halifax, West Yorkshire
Timeform Publications is a publishing company in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England founded in 1948 to provide information to fans, bettors, and others involved in the horse racing industry. The company was purchased by the sports betting exchange Betfair in December 2006.
Portway Press Ltd was formed in 1948 by Phil Bull, who wanted to establish a mathematical link to a horse's performance, based on the time the horse recorded. At a time when such data were virtually unheard of, Bull started publishing a racing annual, which evolved into the "Racehorses Of.." series. The company was purchased for a reputed £15 million by the sports betting exchange Betfair in December 2006.
According to the publishers, a Timeform rating represents "the merit of the horse expressed in pounds and is arrived at by careful examination of its running against other horses using a scale of weight for distance beaten which ranges from around 3 lb a length at five furlongs and 2 lb a length at a mile and a quarter to 1 lb a length at two miles".
The Beyer Speed Figure used in the United States is similar to a Timeform rating. The popular rule of thumb for comparing these two numbers is to add 12-14 points to the Beyer score to estimate the Timeform number.
Timeform ratings for 3-year-olds & up are as follows:
140+ - An outstanding horse
130-135 - Above average Group 1 winner
125-129 - Average Group 1 winner
115-120 - Average Group 2 winner
110-115 - Average Group 3 winner
100-105 - Average listed race winner
Timeform states that 2-year-old averages are slightly lower.
The Daily Racing Form gives an example of the evolution of ratings for horses from age two upwards in the American Grade I Arlington Million.
Flat vs Hurdle vs Steeplechase
Timeform maintains different scales for horses racing on the flat, over hurdles and over fences. The scores cannot be compared for the obvious differences between the race types. For instance Arkle at 212, Flyingbolt at 210, Mill House and Kauto Star both at 191 are the highest rated steeplechasers ever, whilst the highest rated horses over hurdles are Night Nurse at 182, Istabraq and Monksfield both at 180 and Persian War at 179. The table below lists scores for flat horses only starting with the highest, rated at 145 which is the legendary French horse Sea Bird.
Annually in March, the company puts out its book Racehorses of .... which currently contains more than 1,200 pages and provides information and ratings on the top flat horses in Australasia, Dubai, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Italy, Japan, North America and Scandinavia. Also, annually in October the company publishes Chasers and Hurdlers, a thorough review of every horse that ran under National Hunt rules in Britain, as well as the best National Hunt horses to have run in Ireland and France.
Timeform publishes a number of other books. Its Horses to Follow: Flat Season is composed of short essays on fifty horses deemed worthy of following in the upcoming year's classics. The horses are selected by Timeform's own team of experts along with five leading broadcasters. The book also provides a guide to the most significant two-year-old performances from the previous year.
Timeform also compiles a system based on speed and class which appears in the Daily Racing Form for all horse racing events run in the United Kingdom, Ireland, France and the United Arab Emirates.
Top-rated Thoroughbreds on Flat Courses
Steven A. Roman, Ph.D., a professor at Columbia University created the Chef-de-Race website, a resource that contains significant information on speed ratings for Thoroughbred racehorses. The figures below are official All-Time Highweights for horses who raced in Australasia, Dubai, Europe, Hong Kong, Japan, and Scandinavia as supplied by Mr. Neil O'Connor of Timeform. Until very recently (generally after 2000), notable post-war horses who raced in America were never given Timeform ratings, so they can not be compared directly to their European counterparts. The most notable of these would be Secretariat.
Horse Born Rating
Sea Bird 1962 145
Brigadier Gerard 1968 144
Tudor Minstrel 1944 144
Abernant 1946 142
Ribot 1952 142
Frankel 2008 142
Mill Reef 1968 141
Dancing Brave 1983 140
Dubai Millennium 1996 140
Harbinger 2006 140
Sea The Stars 2006 140
Shergar 1978 140
Vaguely Noble 1965 140
Generous 1988 139
Pappa Fourway 1952 139
Reference Point 1984 139
Alleged 1974 138
Alycidon 1945 138
Celtic Swing 1992 138
Cigar 1990 138
Daylami 1994 138
Exbury 1959 138
Nijinsky 1967 138
Star of India 1953 138
Tulloch 1954 138
Easy Goer 1986 137
Sunday Silence 1986 137
Apalachee 1971 137
Dayjur 1987 137
Ghostzapper 2000 137
Grundy 1972 137
Kingston Town 1976 137
Mark of Esteem 1993 137
Molvedo 1958 137
Montjeu 1996 137
Moorestyle 1977 137
Never Say Die 1951 137
Peintre Celebre 1994 137
Pinza 1950 137
Princely Gift 1951 137
Ragusa 1960 137
Rheingold 1969 137
Reliance 1962 137
Right Boy 1954 137
Troy 1976 137
Zilzal 1986 137
Alcide 1955 136
Allez France 1970 136
Ballymoss 1954 136
Bering 1983 136
Black Tarquin 1945 136
Bustino 1971 136
Crepello 1954 136
El Condor Pasa 1995 136
El Gran Senor 1981 136
Floribunda 1958 136
Gentlemen 1992 136
Habibti 1980 136
Hafiz 1952 136
Hawk Wing 1999 136
Helissio 1993 136
Herbager 1956 136
My Babu 1945 136
Manikato 1975 136
Northjet 1977 136
Old Vic 1986 136
Relko 1960 136
Slip Anchor 1982 136
Suave Dancer 1988 136
Sakhee 1997 136
Tantieme 1947 136
Texana 1955 136
Thatch 1970 136
Warning 1985 136
All Along 1979 135
Arazi 1989 135
Arbar 1944 135
Arctic Prince 1948 135
Chanteur 1942 135
Charlottesville 1957 135
Coronation 1946 135
Dahlia 1970 135
Intikhab 1994 135
Known Fact 1977 135
Kris 1976 135
La Tendresse 1959 135
Le Moss 1975 135
Match II 1958 135
Nashwan 1986 135
Never So Bold 1980 135
Pebbles 1981 135
Petingo 1965 135
Petoski 1982 135
Right Royal 1958 135
Royal Anthem 1995 135
Sagace 1980 135
Sassafras 1967 135
Shadeed 1982 135
Shahrastani 1983 135
Shareef Dancer 1980 135
Sicambre 1948 135
Sir Ivor 1965 135
Souverain 1943 135
St Jovite 1989 135
Supreme Court 1948 135
Teenoso 1980 135
Tenerani 1944 135
The Bug 1943 135
The Minstrel 1974 135
Trempolino 1984 135
Youth 1973 135
Horseracing in Great Britain
Horse racing is a popular spectator sport in Great Britain, with hundreds of years of unique heritage. Gambling on horseraces is also considered the cornerstone of the British betting industry.
The two main forms of horse racing in Great Britain are unobstructed distances races, known as flat racing, and races over fences or over hurdles, known as National Hunt racing. Additionally there is another form of racing which is run on an altogether more informal and ad hoc basis, known as point to point racing. Point to point is a form of steeplechasing for amateur riders. It, like professional racing, is nevertheless run under the auspices of the governing and regulatory body for horse-racing in Great Britain, the British Horseracing Authority.
The UK has produced some of the greatest jockeys, including Sir Gordon Richards, usually considered the greatest ever jockey. There are between four and five hundred professional jockeys based in the United Kingdom.
It is thought that the first races to take place in Britain were organised by soldiers of the Roman Empire in Yorkshire around 200 AD, although the first recorded race meeting was during the reign of Henry II at Smithfield, London in 1174 during a horse fair.
It is believed that the first occurrence of a trophy being presented to the winner of a race was in 1512 by organisers of a fair in Chester and was a small wooden ball decorated with flowers.
Early in the 16th century Henry VIII imported a large number of stallions and mares for breeding although it was not until the 17th and 18th centuries that the breeding of Thoroughbreds began as we know it now.
Newmarket is known as the home of horse racing in England and James I was prominent in introducing racing there after discovering the little village in 1605 whilst out hawking or riding. He spent so much time there that the House of Commons petitioned him to concentrate more of his time on running the country. This region had a long association with horses going back to the time of Boudica and the Iceni. Around the time that Charles I of England came to the throne, Spring and Autumn race meetings were introduced to Newmarket and in 1634 the first Gold Cup event was held.
All horse racing was then banned in 1654 by Oliver Cromwell, and many horses were requisitioned by the state. Despite this Cromwell himself kept a stud running of his own.
Jockey, Edwardian painting by the famous Irish artist William Orpen
With the restoration of Charles II racing flourished and he instituted the Newmarket Town Plate in 1664, writing the rules himself:
Articles ordered by His Majestie to be observed by all persons that put in horses to ride for the Plate, the new round heat at Newmarket set out on the first day of October, 1664, in the 16th year of our Sovereign Lord King Charles II, which Plate is to be rid for yearly, the second Thursday in October for ever.
In the early 18th century, Queen Anne kept a large string of horses and was instrumental in the founding of Royal Ascot where the opening race each year is still called the Queen Anne Stakes. This has now stopped since the Queen Anne Stakes was elevated to Group 1 status in 2004 and therefore the Coventry Stakes is the first race on the first day of Royal Ascot.
In 1740, Parliament introduced an act "to restrain and to prevent the excessive increase in horse racing", though this was largely ignored, but in the 1752 the Jockey Club was formed to create and apply the Rules of Racing.
The Jockey Club governed the sport from 1752 until its governance role was handed to the British Horseracing Board, (formed in June 1993) and while the BHB became responsible for strategic planning, finance, politics, race planning, training and marketing, the Jockey Club continued to regulate the sport. In 2006 it formed the Horseracing Regulatory Authority to carry out the regulatory process whilst it focused on owning 13 racecourses and the gallops in Newmarket and Lambourn. In July 2007 the HRA merged with the BHB to form the British Horseracing Authority.
Key data for 2005 (2004 in brackets) extracted from the British Horseracing Board's annual reports for 2004 and 2005:
Fixtures 1,299 1,300
Races 8,757 8,588
Runners 92,761 94,659
Prize Money (Total) £101.3 million 99.3 million
Prize Money (Flat) £65.4 million 63.9 million
Prize Money (Jump) £35.9 million 35.4 million
Racegoers (Total) 6,048,517 5,896,922
Racegoers (Flat) 3,873,508 3,704,567
Racegoers (Jump) 2,175,009 2,192,435
Monthly average horses in training 13,914 14,388
Monthly average owners with horses in training
British racing is going through a period of growth, but the Chief Executive of the BHB states in the 2005 annual report that in 2005, as in other recent years, "Success was achieved in an environment of great uncertainty." The sport is struggling to adapt to the loss of income from pre-race data following court ruling prohibiting the practice of charging for such in 2004 and 2005, to which the BHB attributes the fall in prize money in 2005. The data charges were themselves designed to replace income lost when a statutory levy was abolished. In 2004 attendances exceeded 6 million for the first time since the 1950s (2004 annual report). The decrease in 2005 is attributable to the closure of Ascot Racecourse for redevelopment for the entire year. With Ascot reopened the BHB estimates that 2006 attendances will exceed 6.5 million.
There are 60 licenced racecourses in Great Britain, with a further two in Northern Ireland (Down Royal and Downpatrick). Apart from Great Leighs and Ffos Las (which opened in 2009), all the courses date back to 1927 or earlier. The oldest is Chester Racecourse, which dates to the early 16th century.
Aintree Racecourse in Merseyside - (national hunt)
Ascot Racecourse in Berkshire -(mixed)
Ayr Racecourse in Ayrshire - (mixed)
Bangor on Dee Racecourse in Wrexham - (national hunt)
Bath Racecourse in Somerset - (flat)
Beverley Racecourse in the East Riding of Yorkshire - (flat)
Brighton Racecourse in East Sussex - (flat)
Carlisle Racecourse in Cumbria - (mixed)
Cartmel Racecourse in Cumbria - (national hunt)
Catterick Bridge in North Yorkshire - (mixed)
Cheltenham Racecourse in Gloucestershire - (national hunt)
Chepstow Racecourse in Monmouthshire - (mixed)
Chester Racecourse in Cheshire - (flat)
Doncaster Racecourse in South Yorkshire - (mixed)
Epsom Downs Racecourse in Surrey - (flat)
Exeter Racecourse in Devon - (national hunt)
Fakenham Racecourse in Norfolk - (national hunt)
Ffos Las Racecourse in Carmarthenshire - (mixed)
Folkestone Racecourse in Kent - (mixed)
Fontwell Park Racecourse in West Sussex - (national hunt)
Goodwood Racecourse in West Sussex - (flat)
Great Yarmouth Racecourse in Norfolk - (flat)
Hamilton Park in South Lanarkshire - (flat)
Haydock Park Racecourse in Merseyside - (mixed)
Hereford Racecourse in Herefordshire - (national hunt)
Hexham Racecourse in Northumberland - (national hunt)
Huntingdon Racecourse in Cambridgeshire - (national hunt)
Kelso Racecourse in the Scottish Borders - (national hunt)
Kempton Park in Surrey - (mixed)
Leicester Racecourse in Leicestershire - (mixed)
Lingfield Park Racecourse in Surrey - (mixed)
Ludlow Racecourse in Shropshire - (national hunt)
Market Rasen Racecourse in Lincolnshire - (national hunt)
Musselburgh Racecourse in East Lothian - (mixed)
Newbury Racecourse in Berkshire - (mixed)
Newcastle Racecourse in Tyne and Wear - (mixed)
Newmarket Racecourses in Suffolk - (flat)
Newton Abbot Racecourse in Devon - (national hunt)
Nottingham Racecourse in Nottinghamshire - (flat)
Perth Racecourse in Perth and Kinross - (national hunt)
Plumpton Racecourse in East Sussex - (national hunt)
Pontefract Racecourse in West Yorkshire - (flat)
Redcar Racecourse in North Yorkshire - (flat)
Ripon Racecourse in North Yorkshire - (flat)
Salisbury Racecourse in Wiltshire - (flat)
Sandown Park Racecourse in Surrey - (mixed)
Sedgefield Racecourse in County Durham - (national hunt)
Southwell Racecourse in Nottinghamshire - (mixed)
Stratford-on-Avon Racecourse in Warwickshire - (national hunt)
Taunton Racecourse in Somerset - (national hunt)
Thirsk Racecourse in North Yorkshire - (flat)
Towcester Racecourse in Northamptonshire - (national hunt)
Uttoxeter Racecourse in Staffordshire - (national hunt)
Warwick Racecourse in Warwickshire - (mixed)
Wetherby Racecourse in West Yorkshire - (national hunt)
Wincanton Racecourse in Somerset - (national hunt)
Windsor Racecourse in Berkshire - (flat)
Wolverhampton Racecourse in the West Midlands - (flat)
Worcester Racecourse in Worcestershire - (national hunt)
York Racecourse in Yorkshire - (flat)
Former race courses
Between 1900 and 1981, 97 racecourses closed their doors. 
Alexandra Park Racecourse - north London; closed in 1970.
Atherstone Racecourse - Warwickshire
Banbury Racecourse - Oxfordshire
Bromford Bridge Racecourse - Birmingham
Buckfastleigh Racecourse - Devon; held its first race on 21 June 1883 and its final race on 27 August 1960. The dilapidated main grandstand survives, and is a well known local landmark, and the fields around it are still in use for point-to-point races.
Chelmsford Racecourse - Essex
Croxton Racecourse - Leicestershire
Eglinton Racecourse - County Londonderry, Northern Ireland
Eridge Racecourse - East Sussex
Gatwick Racecourse - West Sussex; in use from 1891 to 1940 and the land is now part of London Gatwick Airport.
Great Leighs Racecourse in Essex - opened in 2008, racing licence suspended in 2009.
Harpenden Racecourse - Hertfordshire; closed before 1914, the land is now the site of Bamville Cricket Club.
Hurst Park Racecourse - Surrey; in use from 1890 to 1962.
Lanark Racecourse - Lanarkshire, Scotland
Lewes Racecourse - East Sussex; closed in September 1964 after some 200 years of racing.
Lincoln Racecourse - Lincolnshire
Maghull Racecourse - Sefton, Merseyside
Manchester Racecourse - Greater Manchester
Mansfield racecourse. Little is known but Old Mansfield Society is likely to have information
Melton Racecourse - Leicestershire
Northampton Racecourse - Northampton; closed 1904
Plymouth Racecourse - Devon; in use from about 1827 until the last race on 4 September 1930.
Portsmouth Racecourse - Farlington, Portsmouth; opened 1891 and closed at the outbreak of World War 1 and turned into an ammunition dump for the War Office.
Portsmouth Racecourse - Paulsgrove, Portsmouth; opened in the 1920s and closed shortly after the end of World War 2. The land was redeveloped as a housing estate.
Rugby Racecourse - Clifton-upon-Dunsmore, Warwickshire; still used annually for point-to-point races
Shincliffe Racecourse - Durham; in use from 1895 until about 1913.
Shirley Racecourse - West Midlands; the land is now the home of Shirley Golf Club.
South Brent Racecourse - Devon
Teesside Park, Stockton
Torquay Racecourse - Devon
Totnes Racecourse - Devon; closed in 1939 and requisitioned by the Admiralty, it was sold in the early 1950s. At this course long distance steeplechases involved crossing the River Dart and the Totnes-Newton Abbot road.
Wrexham Racecourse - north Wales
Wye Racecourse- Kent; in use from 1881 to 1975.
The three main operators of British racecourses are Jockey Club Racecourses, which owns fourteen courses, Northern Racing with ten, and Arena Leisure with seven.
List of British flat horse races
April / May 2,000 Guineas Stakes Newmarket 1m 3yo c&f
April / May 1,000 Guineas Stakes Newmarket 1m 3yo f
May Lockinge Stakes Newbury 1m 4yo+
June Coronation Cup Epsom 1m 4f 10y 4yo+
June Oaks Stakes Epsom 1m 4f 10y 3yo f
June Derby Stakes Epsom 1m 4f 10y 3yo c&f
June Queen Anne Stakes Ascot 1m 4yo+
June King's Stand Stakes Ascot 5f 3yo+
June St. James's Palace Stakes Ascot 1m 3yo c
June Prince of Wales's Stakes Ascot 1m 2f 4yo+
June Gold Cup Ascot 2m 4f 4yo+
June Coronation Stakes Ascot 1m 3yo f
June Golden Jubilee Stakes Ascot 6f 3yo+
July Eclipse Stakes Sandown 1m 2f 7y 3yo+
July Falmouth Stakes Newmarket 1m 3yo+ f
July July Cup Newmarket 6f 3yo+
July King George VI and Queen Elizabeth Stakes Ascot 1m 4f 3yo+
July / Aug Sussex Stakes Goodwood 1m 3yo+
July / Aug Nassau Stakes Goodwood 1m 1f 192y 3yo+ f
August International Stakes York 1m 2f 88y 3yo+
August Yorkshire Oaks York 1m 4f 3yo+ f
August Nunthorpe Stakes York 5f 2yo+
September Sprint Cup Haydock 6f 3yo+
September St. Leger Stakes Doncaster 1m 6f 132y 3yo c&f
September Fillies' Mile Newmarket 1m 2yo f
September Cheveley Park Stakes Newmarket 6f 2yo f
September Sun Chariot Stakes Newmarket 1m 3yo+ f
Sept / Oct Middle Park Stakes Newmarket 6f 2yo c
October Dewhurst Stakes Newmarket 7f 2yo c&f
October Queen Elizabeth II Stakes Ascot 1m 3yo+
October Champion Stakes Ascot 1m 2f 3yo+
October Racing Post Trophy Doncaster 1m 2yo c&f
April Sandown Mile Sandown 1m 14y 4yo+
April / May Jockey Club Stakes Newmarket 1m 4f 4yo+
May Duke of York Stakes York 6f 3yo+
May Middleton Stakes York 1m 2f 88y 4yo+ f
May Dante Stakes York 1m 2f 88y 3yo
May Yorkshire Cup York 1m 6f 4yo+
May Temple Stakes Haydock 5f 3yo+
May Henry II Stakes Sandown 2m 78y 4yo+
June Coventry Stakes Ascot 6f 2yo
June Windsor Forest Stakes Ascot 1m 4yo+ f
June Queen Mary Stakes Ascot 5f 2yo f
June Norfolk Stakes Ascot 5f 2yo
June Ribblesdale Stakes Ascot 1m 4f 3yo f
June King Edward VII Stakes Ascot 1m 4f 3yo c&g
June Hardwicke Stakes Ascot 1m 4f 4yo+
July Lancashire Oaks Haydock 1m 3f 200y 3yo+ f
July July Stakes Newmarket 6f 2yo c&g
July Princess of Wales's Stakes Newmarket 1m 4f 3yo+
July Cherry Hinton Stakes Newmarket 6f 2yo f
July Superlative Stakes Newmarket 7f 2yo
July Summer Mile Stakes Ascot 1m 4yo+
July York Stakes York 1m 2f 88y 3yo+
July / Aug Lennox Stakes Goodwood 7f 3yo+
July / Aug Vintage Stakes Goodwood 7f 2yo
July / Aug King George Stakes Goodwood 5f 3yo+
July / Aug Goodwood Cup Goodwood 2m 3yo+
July / Aug Richmond Stakes Goodwood 6f 2yo c&g
August Hungerford Stakes Newbury 7f 3yo+
August Great Voltigeur Stakes York 1m 4f 3yo c&g
August Lonsdale Cup York 2m 88y 3yo+
August Gimcrack Stakes York 6f 2yo c&g
August Lowther Stakes York 6f 2yo f
August Celebration Mile Goodwood 1m 3yo+
September Park Hill Stakes Doncaster 1m 6f 132y 3yo+ f
September Flying Childers Stakes Doncaster 5f 2yo
September Doncaster Cup Doncaster 2m 2f 3yo+
September May Hill Stakes Doncaster 1m 2yo f
September Champagne Stakes Doncaster 7f 2yo c&g
September Park Stakes Doncaster 7f 3yo+
September Mill Reef Stakes Newbury 6f 8y 2yo
Sept / Oct Joel Stakes Newmarket 1m 3yo+
September Royal Lodge Stakes Newmarket 1m 2yo c&g
October Challenge Stakes Newmarket 7f 3yo+
October Rockfel Stakes Newmarket 7f 2yo f
October British Champions Sprint Stakes Ascot 6f 3yo+
October British Champions Fillies & Mares Stakes Ascot 1m 4f 3yo+ f
March Winter Derby Lingfield 1m 2f 4yo+
April Nell Gwyn Stakes Newmarket 7f 3yo f
April Craven Stakes Newmarket 1m 3yo c&g
April Earl of Sefton Stakes Newmarket 1m 1f 4yo+
April John Porter Stakes Newbury 1m 4f 5y 4yo+
April Fred Darling Stakes Newbury 7f 3yo f
April Greenham Stakes Newbury 7f 3yo c&g
April Gordon Richards Stakes Sandown 1m 2f 7y 4yo+
April Sandown Classic Trial Sandown 1m 2f 7y 3yo
April / May Sagaro Stakes Ascot 2m 4yo+
April / May Palace House Stakes Newmarket 5f 3yo+
April / May Dahlia Stakes Newmarket 1m 1f 4yo+ f
May Huxley Stakes Chester 1m 2f 75y 4yo+
May Chester Vase Chester 1m 4f 66y 3yo c&g
May Dee Stakes Chester 1m 2f 75y 3yo c&g
May Ormonde Stakes Chester 1m 5f 89y 4yo+
May Chartwell Fillies' Stakes Lingfield 7f 3yo+ f
May Lingfield Derby Trial Lingfield 1m 3f 106y 3yo c&g
May Musidora Stakes York 1m 2f 88y 3yo f
May / June Brigadier Gerard Stakes Sandown 1m 2f 7y 4yo+
May / June John of Gaunt Stakes Haydock 7f 4yo+
June Princess Elizabeth Stakes Epsom 1m 114y 3yo+ f
June Diomed Stakes Epsom 1m 114y 3yo+
June Jersey Stakes Ascot 7f 3yo
June Tercentenary Stakes Ascot 1m 2f 3yo
June Albany Stakes Ascot 6f 2yo f
June Queen's Vase Ascot 2m 3yo
June / July Chipchase Stakes Newcastle 6f 3yo+
June / July Criterion Stakes Newmarket 7f 3yo+
July Sprint Stakes Sandown 5f 6y 3yo+
July Bahrain Trophy Newmarket 1m 5f 3yo
July Summer Stakes York 6f 3yo+ f
July Hackwood Stakes Newbury 6f 8y 3yo+
July Princess Margaret Stakes Ascot 6f 2yo f
July / Aug Gordon Stakes Goodwood 1m 4f 3yo
July / Aug Molecomb Stakes Goodwood 5f 2yo
July / Aug Lillie Langtry Stakes Goodwood 1m 6f 3yo+ f
July / Aug Glorious Stakes Goodwood 1m 4f 4yo+
July / Aug Oak Tree Stakes Goodwood 7f 3yo+ f
August Rose of Lancaster Stakes Haydock 1m 2f 95y 3yo+
August Sweet Solera Stakes Newmarket 7f 2yo f
August Sovereign Stakes Salisbury 1m 3yo+ c&g
August Geoffrey Freer Stakes Newbury 1m 5f 61y 3yo+
August Acomb Stakes York 7f 2yo
August Strensall Stakes York 1m 208y 3yo+
August Solario Stakes Sandown 7f 16y 2yo
August Prestige Stakes Goodwood 7f 2yo f
August Winter Hill Stakes Windsor 1m 2f 7y 3yo+
Aug / Sept Supreme Stakes Goodwood 7f 3yo+
September September Stakes Kempton 1m 4f 3yo+
September Sirenia Stakes Kempton 6f 2yo
September Sceptre Stakes Doncaster 7f 3yo+ f
September Select Stakes Goodwood 1m 1f 192y 3yo+
September Arc Trial Newbury 1m 3f 5y 3yo+
September Firth of Clyde Stakes Ayr 6f 2yo f
September World Trophy Newbury 5f 34y 3yo+
Sept / Oct Somerville Tattersall Stakes Newmarket 7f 2yo c&g
Sept / Oct Oh So Sharp Stakes Newmarket 7f 2yo f
October Cornwallis Stakes Ascot 5f 2yo
October Cumberland Lodge Stakes Ascot 1m 4f 3yo+
October Bengough Stakes Ascot 6f 3yo+
October Autumn Stakes Newmarket 1m 2yo
October Darley Stakes Newmarket 1m 1f 3yo+
October British Champions Long Distance Cup Ascot 2m 3yo+
October Horris Hill Stakes Newbury 7f 2yo c&g
October St. Simon Stakes Newbury 1m 4f 5y 3yo+
March / April Lincoln Handicap Doncaster 1m 4yo+
March / April Rosebery Stakes Kempton 1m 2f 4yo+
April European Free Handicap Newmarket 7f 3yo
April / May Victoria Cup Ascot 7f 4yo+
May Chester Cup Chester 2m 2f 147y 4yo+
May Silver Bowl Haydock 1m 30y 3yo
May / June Zetland Gold Cup Redcar 1m 2f 3yo+
June Royal Hunt Cup Ascot 1m 3yo+
June Wokingham Stakes Ascot 6f 3yo+
June / July Northumberland Plate Newcastle 2m 19y 3yo+
July Old Newton Cup Haydock 1m 3f 200y 3yo+
July Bunbury Cup Newmarket 7f 3yo+
July John Smith's Cup York 1m 2f 88y 3yo+
July / Aug Stewards' Cup Goodwood 6f 3yo+
August Great St. Wilfrid Stakes Ripon 6f 3yo+
August Ebor Handicap York 1m 6f 3yo+
September Portland Handicap Doncaster 5f 140y 3yo+
September Ayr Gold Cup Ayr 6f 3yo+
Sept / Oct Cambridgeshire Handicap Newmarket 1m 1f 3yo+
October Cesarewitch Handicap Newmarket 2m 2f 3yo+
November November Handicap Doncaster 1m 4f 3yo+
Selected other races
March / April Easter Stakes Kempton 1m 3yo c&g
April Feilden Stakes Newmarket 1m 1f 3yo
April Abernant Stakes Newmarket 6f 3yo+
April Leicestershire Stakes Leicester 7f 9y 4yo+
April Investec Derby Trial Epsom 1m 2f 18y 3yo
April / May Newmarket Stakes Newmarket 1m 2f 3yo c
April / May Pretty Polly Stakes Newmarket 1m 2f 3yo f
May Cheshire Oaks Chester 1m 3f 79y 3yo f
May Lingfield Oaks Trial Lingfield 1m 3f 106y 3yo f
May Fillies' Trial Stakes Newbury 1m 2f 6y 3yo f
May Cocked Hat Stakes Goodwood 1m 3f 3yo c&g
May Height of Fashion Stakes Goodwood 1m 1f 192y 3yo f
May Heron Stakes Sandown 1m 14y 3yo
May Fairway Stakes Newmarket 1m 2f 3yo
June Chesham Stakes Ascot 7f 2yo
June Queen Alexandra Stakes Ascot 2m 5f 159y 4yo+
July Glasgow Stakes Hamilton 1m 3f 16y 3yo
July Weatherbys Super Sprint Newbury 5f 34y 2yo
July Winkfield Stakes Ascot 7f 2yo
August Washington Singer Stakes Newbury 7f 2yo
August March Stakes Goodwood 1m 6f 3yo+
September Stardom Stakes Goodwood 7f 2yo
September Haynes, Hanson and Clark Stakes Newbury 1m 2yo
October Silver Tankard Stakes Pontefract 1m 4y 2yo
Oct / Nov Zetland Stakes Newmarket 1m 2f 2yo
April 1986 1,000 Guineas Trial Stakes Salisbury 7f 3yo f
April 1986 2,000 Guineas Trial Stakes Salisbury 7f 3yo c&g
April 1993 White Rose Stakes Ascot 1m 2f 3yo
July 2005 Golden Daffodil Stakes Chepstow 1m 2f 36y 3yo+ f
July 2005 Scottish Derby Ayr 1m 2f 3yo+
July 1999 Beeswing Stakes Newcastle 7f 3yo+
Aug 1985 Seaton Delaval Stakes Newcastle 7f 2yo
† Distances in miles, furlongs and yards
Wagering money on horse races is as old as the sport itself, but in the United Kingdom the links between horseracing and nationwide wagering are very strong. "Betting shops" are common sights in most towns, tending to be sited wherever a significant number of people with disposable cash can be expected. At one point in the 1970s it was said that the ideal location was "close to a pub, the Labour Exchange and the Post Office", the first being a source of customers in a good mood, the other two being sources of ready cash in the form of "The Dole" and state pension money, which was dispensed through Post Offices at the time.
Betting is taxed under the authority of various acts of Parliament, the revenue being collected by the Horserace Betting Levy Board, a "non-departmental public body" sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. According to the Board website, 90% of the tax raised by the levy is used for the improvement of horseracing, the rest presumably being absorbed by the Board's expenses. For the latest year reported, the levy resulted in £103.5 million being collected.
Member of Parliament Clement Freud, who himself has owned racehorses, alleged in an article published in the 1970s, before his election to Parliament, that horseracing was organized purely to generate taxes. He cited the large number of otherwise non-viable racecourses kept open (to ensure sufficient races being run) even as the financial rewards to the owners and trainers declined to the point where most could barely cover their expenses.
On 6 October 2001 the Government abolished the tax on betting, which had been 9% of the stake or the winnings, the punter having the choice to pay a certain small amount or an uncertain large amount. The tax is now effectively indirectly levied on the punters, the cost being absorbed in the odds that bookmakers offer.
The last 10 years in the UK, has seen massive growth in online gambling. Punters are now going online to place their bets, where technology gives them access to a greater wealth of information and knowledge. Now racing punters exchange information on online forums, tipping sites etc.
A 2006 investigation by The Observer found that each year 6-10,000 horses are slaughtered for consumption abroad, a significant proportion of which are horses bred for racing.  The industry produces approximately 5,000 foals, whilst 4-5,000 racehorses are retired each year, 90 being taken into care by the industries charity Retraining of Racehorses.  Research conducted by the Equine Fertility Unit found that 66% of thoroughbred foals were never entered for a race, and more than 80% were no longer in training after four years.  Foal production has increased threefold since 1966.  Racehorses are capable of living for more than 30 years on average. 
The main meetings held are:
Cheltenham - The Cheltenham Festival
Lingfield Park - Bet Direct Winter Derby
Aintree - Aintree Grand National Meeting
Ayr - Scottish Grand National
Newmarket - Craven Meeting
Sandown Park - Bet365 Gold Cup Celebration
Newmarket - Guineas Meeting
Chester - May Meeting
York - Dante Meeting
Epsom Downs - Epsom Derby Meeting
Ascot - Royal Ascot
Newcastle - John Smith's Northumberland Plate
Sandown Park - Coral-Eclipse Meeting
Newmarket - July Meeting
Ascot - King George Day
Goodwood - Glorious Goodwood
York - Ebor Festival
Haydock Park - William Hill Sprint Cup
Doncaster - St. Leger Meeting
Ayr - Western Meeting
Ascot - Ascot Festival
Newmarket - Totesport Cambridgeshire Meeting
Newmarket - October Meeting
Doncaster - Racing Post Trophy
Cheltenham - The Paddy Power Open
Haydock & Aintree - North West Masters
Newbury - Hennessy Meeting
Sandown Park - Tingle Creek Meeting
Kempton Park - Stan James Christmas Festival
Chepstow - Coral Welsh National
The Sporting Life
The Sporting Times
Horseracing in Scotland
Horse racing in Wales
Aintree · Bangor-on-Dee · Cartmel · Cheltenham · Exeter · Fakenham · Fontwell Park · Hereford · Hexham · Huntingdon · Kelso · Ludlow · Market Rasen · Newton Abbot · Perth · Plumpton · Sedgefield · Stratford-on-Avon · Taunton · Towcester · Uttoxeter · Wetherby · Wincanton · Worcester
Bath · Beverley · Brighton · Chester · Epsom Downs · Goodwood · Great Yarmouth · Great Leighs (licence suspended) · Hamilton Park · Newmarket · Nottingham · Pontefract · Redcar · Ripon · Salisbury · Thirsk · Windsor · Wolverhampton · York
Ascot · Ayr · Carlisle · Catterick Bridge · Chepstow · Doncaster · Ffos Las · Folkestone · Haydock Park · Kempton Park · Leicester · Lingfield Park · Musselburgh · Newbury · Newcastle · Sandown Park · Southwell · Warwick
British Horseracing Authority
British flat racing Champion Trainer
This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2006)
The Champion Trainer of flat racing in Great Britain is the trainer whose horses have won the most prize money during a season. The list below shows the Champion Trainer for each year since 1896.
1896 - Alfred Hayhoe
1897 - Richard Marsh
1898 - Richard Marsh
1899 - John Porter
1900 - Richard Marsh
1901 - John Huggins
1902 - Bob Sievier
1903 - George Blackwell
1904 - Peter Gilpin
1905 - Jack Robinson
1906 - George Lambton
1907 - Alec Taylor, Jr.
1908 - Charles Morton
1909 - Alec Taylor, Jr.
1910 - Alec Taylor, Jr.
1911 - George Lambton
1912 - George Lambton
1913 - Richard Wootton
1914 - Alec Taylor, Jr.
1915 - Charles Peck
1916 - Dick Dawson
1917 - Alec Taylor, Jr.
1918 - Alec Taylor, Jr.
1919 - Alec Taylor, Jr.
1920 - Alec Taylor, Jr.
1921 - Alec Taylor, Jr.
1922 - Alec Taylor, Jr.
1923 - Alec Taylor, Jr.
1924 - Dick Dawson
1925 - Alec Taylor, Jr.
1926 - Fred Darling
1927 - Frank Butters
1928 - Frank Butters
1929 - Dick Dawson
1930 - Atty Persse
1931 - Joe Lawson
1932 - Frank Butters
1933 - Fred Darling
1934 - Frank Butters
1935 - Frank Butters
1936 - Joe Lawson
1937 - Cecil Boyd-Rochfort
1938 - Cecil Boyd-Rochfort
1939 - Jack Jarvis
1940 - Fred Darling
1941 - Fred Darling
1942 - Fred Darling
1943 - Walter Nightingall
1944 - Frank Butters
1945 - Walter Earl
1946 - Frank Butters
1947 - Fred Darling
1948 - Noel Murless
1949 - Frank Butters
1950 - Charles Semblat
1951 - Jack Jarvis
1952 - Marcus Marsh
1953 - Jack Jarvis
1954 - Cecil Boyd-Rochfort
1955 - Cecil Boyd-Rochfort
1956 - Charles Elsey
1957 - Noel Murless
1958 - Cecil Boyd-Rochfort
1959 - Noel Murless
1960 - Noel Murless
1961 - Noel Murless
1962 - Dick Hern
1963 - Paddy Prendergast
1964 - Paddy Prendergast
1965 - Paddy Prendergast
1966 - Vincent O'Brien
1967 - Noel Murless
1968 - Noel Murless
1969 - Arthur Budgett
1970 - Noel Murless
1971 - Ian Balding
1972 - Dick Hern
1973 - Noel Murless
1974 - Peter Walwyn
1975 - Peter Walwyn
1976 - Henry Cecil
1977 - Vincent O'Brien
1978 - Henry Cecil
1979 - Henry Cecil
1980 - Dick Hern
1981 - Michael Stoute
1982 - Henry Cecil
1983 - Dick Hern
1984 - Henry Cecil
1985 - Henry Cecil
1986 - Michael Stoute
1987 - Henry Cecil
1988 - Henry Cecil
1989 - Michael Stoute
1990 - Henry Cecil
1991 - Paul Cole
1992 - Richard Hannon
1993 - Henry Cecil
1994 - Michael Stoute
1995 - John Dunlop
1996 - Saeed bin Suroor
1997 - Michael Stoute
1998 - Saeed bin Suroor
1999 - Saeed bin Suroor
2000 - Sir Michael Stoute
2001 - Aidan O'Brien
2002 - Aidan O'Brien
2003 - Sir Michael Stoute
2004 - Saeed bin Suroor
2005 - Sir Michael Stoute
2006 - Sir Michael Stoute
2007 - Aidan O'Brien
2008 - Aidan O'Brien
2009 - Sir Michael Stoute
2010 - Richard Hannon
British flat racing Champion Jockey
British flat racing Champion Apprentice
British flat racing Champion Owner
British jump racing Champion Trainer
Leading sire in Great Britain & Ireland
This article does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2006)
The Champion Trainer of National Hunt racing in Great Britain is the trainer whose horses have won the most prizemoney during a season. The list below shows the Champion Trainer for each season since 1945-46.
1945-46 - Tommy Rayson
1946-47 - Fulke Walwyn
1947-48 - Fulke Walwyn
1948-49 - Fulke Walwyn
1949-50 - Peter Cazalet
1950-51 - Fred Rimell
1951-52 - Neville Crump
1952-53 - Vincent O'Brien
1953-54 - Vincent O'Brien
1954-55 - Ryan Price
1955-56 - William Hall
1956-57 - Neville Crump
1957-58 - Fulke Walwyn
1958-59 - Ryan Price
1959-60 - Peter Cazalet
1960-61 - Fred Rimell
1961-62 - Ryan Price
1962-63 - Keith Piggott
1963-64 - Fulke Walwyn
1964-65 - Peter Cazalet
1965-66 - Ryan Price
1966-67 - Ryan Price
1967-68 - Denys Smith
1968-69 - Fred Rimell
1969-70 - Fred Rimell
1970-71 - Fred Winter
1971-72 - Fred Winter
1972-73 - Fred Winter
1973-74 - Fred Winter
1974-75 - Fred Winter
1975-76 - Fred Rimell
1976-77 - Fred Winter
1977-78 - Fred Winter
1978-79 - Peter Easterby
1979-80 - Peter Easterby
1980-81 - Peter Easterby
1981-82 - Michael Dickinson
1982-83 - Michael Dickinson
1983-84 - Michael Dickinson
1984-85 - Fred Winter
1985-86 - Nicky Henderson
1986-87 - Nicky Henderson
1987-88 - David Elsworth
1988-89 - Martin Pipe
1989-90 - Martin Pipe
1990-91 - Martin Pipe
1991-92 - Martin Pipe
1992-93 - Martin Pipe
1993-94 - David Nicholson
1994-95 - David Nicholson
1995-96 - Martin Pipe
1996-97 - Martin Pipe
1997-98 - Martin Pipe
1998-99 - Martin Pipe
1999-00 - Martin Pipe
2000-01 - Martin Pipe
2001-02 - Martin Pipe
2002-03 - Martin Pipe
2003-04 - Martin Pipe
2004-05 - Martin Pipe
2005-06 - Paul Nicholls
2006-07 - Paul Nicholls
2007-08 - Paul Nicholls
2008-09 - Paul Nicholls
List of jockeys
List of notable jockeys, both male and female, covering jockeys who compete worldwide in all forms of horse racing.
Anna Lee Aldred
Paddy Brennan (jockey)
G. R. Carter
Angel Cordero Jr.
Anthony S. Cruz
John R. Davila Jr.
Mark Du Plessis
David Romero Flores
Harold Russell Maddock
T. J. Pereira
Laffit Pincay Jr.
Sir Gordon Richards
Jean Luc Samyn
Emanuel Jose Sanchez
Eurico Rosa da Silva
Mike E. Smith
John R. Velazquez
England (i/ˈɪŋɡlənd/) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, while the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separate it from continental Europe. Most of England comprises the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic. The country also includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but it takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in AD 927, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law—the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation.
England's terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District, Pennines, and Yorkshire Dales) and in the south west (for example, Dartmoor and the Cotswolds). The former capital of England was Winchester until replaced by London in 1066. Today London is the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures.[nb 3] England's population is about 53 million, around 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, and is largely concentrated in London, the South East and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century. Meadowlands and pastures are found beyond the major cities.
The Kingdom of England—which after 1284 included Wales—was a sovereign state until 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, the Irish Free State was established as a separate dominion, but the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 reincorporated into the kingdom six Irish counties to officially create the current United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
"Dieu et mon droit" (French)
"God and my right" 
None (de jure)
God Save the Queen (de facto)
Location of England (dark green)
– in European continent (light green & dark grey)
– in United Kingdom (light green)
and largest city London
Official languages English (de facto)[nb 1]
Recognised regional languages Cornish
Ethnic groups (2011)
2.2% Mixed race
Government Non-devolved constituent country within a constitutional monarchy
- Monarch Elizabeth II
- Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron MP
Legislature Parliament of the United Kingdom
- Total 130,395 km2
50,346 sq mi
- 2011 census 53,013,000
- Density 407/km2
GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate
- Total $2.68 trillion
- Per capita $50,566
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
- Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the left
Calling code +44
Patron saint Saint George
Internet TLD .uk[nb 2]
The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles". The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of "England" to refer to the southern part of the island of Great Britain occurs in 897, and its modern spelling was first used in 1538.[dead link]
The earliest attested mention of the name occurs in the 1st century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used. The etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars; it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape.[dead link] How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe that was less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England (Sasunn), and the Welsh use "Saesneg" - a form derived from "Saxon" - to describe the English language.
An alternative name for England is Albion. The name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth. In it are two very large islands called Britannia; these are Albion and Ierne". The word Albion (Ἀλβίων) or insula Albionum has two possible origins. It either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover, the only part of Britain visible from the European Continent, or from the phrase in Massaliote Periplus, the "island of the Albiones". Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend.
See also: List of places in England
The Greater London Urban Area is by far the largest urban area in England and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself. Other urban areas of considerable size and influence tend to be in northern England or the English Midlands. There are fifty settlements which have been designated city status in England, while the wider United Kingdom has sixty-six.
While many cities in England are quite large in size, such as Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Newcastle, Bradford, Nottingham and others, a large population is not necessarily a prerequisite for a settlement to be afforded city status. Traditionally the status was afforded to towns with diocesan cathedrals and so there are smaller cities like Wells, Ely, Ripon, Truro and Chichester. According to the Office for National Statistics the ten largest, continuous built-up urban areas are:
Rank Urban area Population Localities Major localities
1 Greater London Urban Area 8,278,251 67 Greater London, divided into the City of London and 32 London boroughs including Croydon, Barnet, Ealing, Bromley
2 West Midlands Urban Area 2,284,093 22 Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Dudley, Walsall, Aldridge
3 Greater Manchester Urban Area 2,240,230 57 Manchester, Salford, Bolton, Stockport, Oldham
4 West Yorkshire Urban Area 1,499,465 26 Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield, Wakefield
5 Tyneside 879,996 25 Newcastle, North Shields, South Shields, Gateshead, Jarrow
6 Liverpool Urban Area 816,216 8 Liverpool, St Helens, Bootle, Huyton-with-Roby
7 Nottingham Urban Area 666,358 15 Nottingham, Beeston and Stapleford, Carlton, Long Eaton
8 Sheffield Urban Area 640,720 7 Sheffield, Rotherham, Chapeltown, Mosborough
9 Bristol Urban Area 551,066 7 Bristol, Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Stoke Gifford
10 Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton 461,181 10 Brighton, Worthing, Hove, Littlehampton, Shoreham, Lancing
Main articles: Demography of England, English people, and English diaspora
The metropolitan, non-metropolitan counties and unitary authorities of England, colour-coded to show population.
Population by administrative areas. Their size is approximately in proportion to their population. The darker colour the bigger is the real area.
With over 53 million inhabitants, England is by far the most populous country of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84% of the combined total. England taken as a unit and measured against international states has the fourth largest population in the European Union and would be the 25th largest country by population in the world. With a density of 407 people per square kilometre, it would be the second most densely populated country in the European Union after Malta.
The English people are a British people. Some genetic evidence suggests that 75–95% descend in the paternal line from prehistoric settlers who originally came from the Iberian Peninsula, as well as a 5% contribution from Angles and Saxons, and a significant Norse element. However, other geneticists place the Norse-Germanic estimate up to half. Over time, various cultures have been influential: Prehistoric, Brythonic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Norse Viking, Gaelic cultures, as well as a large influence from Normans. There is an English diaspora in former parts of the British Empire; especially the United States, Canada, Australia, Chile, South Africa and New Zealand.[nb 6] Since the late 1990s, many English people have migrated to Spain.
2009 estimates of ethnic groups in England and Wales.
At the time of the Domesday Book, compiled in 1086, more than 90% of the English population of about two million lived in the countryside. By 1801 the population had grown to 8.3 million, and by 1901 had grown to 30.5 million. Due in particular to the economic prosperity of South East England, it has received many economic migrants from the other parts of the United Kingdom. There has been significant Irish migration. The proportion of ethnically European residents totals at 87.50%, including Germans and Poles.
Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the 1950s: in particular, 6% of people living in England have family origins in the Indian subcontinent, mostly India and Pakistan. 2.90% of the population are black, from both the Caribbean and countries in Africa itself, especially former British colonies. There is a significant number of Chinese and British Chinese. As of 2007, 22% of primary school children in England were from ethnic minority families. About half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001 was due to immigration. Debate over immigration is politically prominent; according to a Home Office poll, 80% of people want to cap it. The ONS has projected that the population will grow by six million between 2004 and 2029.
Main articles: English language, English language in England, and History of the English language
The English-speaking world. Countries in dark blue have a majority of native speakers. Countries in light blue have English as an official language, de jure or de facto. English is also one of the official languages of the European Union.
As its name suggests, the English language, today spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the world, originated as the language of England, where it remains the principal tongue today. It is an Indo-European language in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family. After the Norman conquest, the Old English language was displaced and confined to the lower social classes as Norman French and Latin were used by the aristocracy.
By the 15th century, English came back into fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling. During the English Renaissance, many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. Modern English has extended this custom of flexibility, when it comes to incorporating words from different languages. Thanks in large part to the British Empire, the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca.
English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity, and includes language schooling, tourism spending, and publishing. There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, but English is the only language used for official business. Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents, and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.
Cornish, which died out as a community language in the 18th century, is being revived, and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. It is spoken by 0.1% of people in Cornwall, and is taught to some degree in several primary and secondary schools. State schools teach students a second language, usually French, German or Spanish. Due to immigration, it was reported in 2007 that around 800,000 school students spoke a foreign language at home, the most common being Punjabi and Urdu.
Main article: Religion in England
Canterbury Cathedral, seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury
Christianity is the most widely practised religion in England, as it has been since the Early Middle Ages, although it was first introduced much earlier, in Gaelic and Roman times. It continued through Early Insular Christianity, and today about 59% of English people identify as Christians. The largest form practised in the present day is Anglicanism, dating from the 16th century Reformation period, with the 1536 split from Rome over Henry VIII wanting to divorce Catherine of Aragon, and the need for the Bible in the English tongue. The religion regards itself as both Catholic and Reformed.
There are High Church and Low Church traditions, and some Anglicans regard themselves as Anglo-Catholics, after the Tractarian movement. The monarch of the United Kingdom is a titular leader of the Church, acting as its Supreme Governor. It has the status of established church in England. There are around 26 million adherents to the Church of England and they form part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as the symbolic worldwide head. Many cathedrals and parish churches are historic buildings of significant architectural importance, such as Westminster Abbey, York Minster, Durham Cathedral and Salisbury Cathedral.
Saint George, the patron saint of England
The second largest Christian practice is the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, which traces its formal, corporate history in England to the 6th century with Augustine's mission and was the main religion on the entire island for around a thousand years. Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation, the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.5 million members (most of whom are English). There has been one Pope from England to date, Adrian IV; while saints Bede and Anselm are regarded as Doctors of the Church.
A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley. It gained popularity in the mill towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and amongst tin miners in Cornwall. There are other non-conformist minorities, such as Baptists, Quakers, Congregationalists, Unitarians and The Salvation Army.
The patron saint of England is Saint George; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination. There are many other English and associated saints; some of the best known include: Cuthbert, Edmund, Alban, Wilfrid, Aidan, Edward the Confessor, John Fisher, Thomas More, Petroc, Piran, Margaret Clitherow and Thomas Becket. There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since 1070. They were expelled from England in 1290 following the Edict of Expulsion, only to be allowed back in 1656.
Especially since the 1950s, Eastern religions from the former British colonies have begun to appear, due to foreign immigration; Islam is the most common of these, accounting for around 5% of the population in England. Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism are next in number, adding up to 2.8% combined, introduced from India and South East Asia. Around 25% have no religion.
Main articles: Education in England and List of universities in England
Senate House, the administrative centre of the University of London
The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education. State-run and -funded schools are attended by approximately 93% of English schoolchildren. Of these, a minority are faith schools, primarily Church of England or Catholic. Between three and four is nursery school, 4 and 11 is primary school, and 11 to 16 is secondary school. After finishing compulsory education, pupils take a GCSE examination, following which they may decide to continue in further education for two years. Further education colleges, such as sixth form colleges are either separate or attached to the secondary school institution and prepare students to sit A-Level examinations, for higher education at universities.
Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive, in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools, to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven plus exam. Around 7.2% of English schoolchildren attend private schools, which are funded by private sources. Standards in state schools are monitored by the Office for Standards in Education, and in private schools by the Independent Schools Inspectorate.
King's College, University of Cambridge
Students normally enter universities in the United Kingdom from 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. There are over 90 universities England, all but one of which are public. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England. Students are generally entitled to student loans for maintenance.[nb 7] The first degree offered to undergraduates is the Bachelor's degree, which usually takes three years to complete. Students are then eligible for a postgraduate degree, a Master's degree, taking one year, or a Doctorate degree, which takes three.
England's universities include some of the highest-ranked universities in the world; the University of Cambridge, Imperial College London, the University of Oxford and University College London are all ranked in the global top 10 in the 2010 QS World University Rankings. The London School of Economics has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research. The London Business School is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2010 its MBA programme was ranked best in the world by the Financial Times. Academic degrees in England are usually split into classes: first class (I), upper second class (II:1), lower second class (II:2) and third (III), and unclassified (below third class).
The King's School, Canterbury and King's School, Rochester are the oldest schools in the English-speaking world. Many of England's better-known schools, such as Winchester College, Eton College, St Paul's School, Rugby School, and Harrow School are fee-paying institutions.
Main articles: Culture of England and English Renaissance
St Paul's Cathedral, English Baroque, and a red telephone box
Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period, amongst the best known are Stonehenge, Devil's Arrows, Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg. With the introduction of Ancient Roman architecture there was a development of basilicas, baths, amphitheaters, triumphal arches, villas, Roman temples, Roman roads, Roman forts, stockades and aqueducts. It was the Romans who founded the first cities and towns such as London, Bath, York, Chester and St Albans. Perhaps the best known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England. Another well preserved example is the Roman Baths at Bath, Somerset.
Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing. Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno—Saxon monasticism, to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings. After the Norman conquest in 1066 various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion. Some of the best known medieval castles include the Tower of London, Warwick Castle, Durham Castle and Windsor Castle amongst others.
The Broadway Tower is a folly, or mock tower, in Worcestershire.
Throughout the Plantagenet era an English Gothic architecture flourished—the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral, Westminster Abbey and York Minster are prime examples. Expanding on the Norman base there was also castles, palaces, great houses, universities and parish churches. Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th century Tudor style; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically. In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity, synthesised with Christianity appeared—the English Baroque style, architect Christopher Wren was particularly championed.
Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this. With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched—in addition to this around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace. Since the 1930s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.[nb 8]
Main article: English folklore
Robin Hood illustrated in 1912 wearing Lincoln green
English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies, giants, elves, bogeymen, trolls, goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith, others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.
During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore—the Arthurian myth. These were derived from Anglo-Norman, French and Welsh sources, featuring King Arthur, Camelot, Excalibur, Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table such as Lancelot. These stories are most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae.[nb 9] Another early figure from British tradition, King Cole, may have been based on a real figure from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain, a collection of shared British folklore.
Morris dance, an English folk dance
Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry, Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch. On 5 November people make bonfires, set off fireworks and eat toffee apples in commemoration of the foiling of the Gunpowder Plot centred around Guy Fawkes. The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin, is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing, Maypole dancing, Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays, bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill. There is no official national costume, but a few are well established such as the Pearly Kings and Queens associated with cockneys, the Royal Guard, the Morris costume and Beefeaters.
Main article: English cuisine
Fish and chips is a widely consumed part of English cuisine.
Since the Early Modern Period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce. During the Middle Ages and through the Renaissance period, English cuisine enjoyed an excellent reputation, though a decline began during the Industrial Revolution with the move away from the land and increasing urbanisation of the populace. The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by the food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant's best restaurant in the world charts. An early book of English recipes is the Forme of Cury from the royal court of Richard II.
Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages.
Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast, featuring a roasted joint (usually beef, lamb, chicken or pork) served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding, stuffing and gravy. Other prominent meals include fish and chips and the full English breakfast (generally consisting of bacon, sausages, grilled tomatoes, fried bread, black pudding, baked beans, mushrooms, and eggs). Various meat pies are consumed such as steak and kidney pie, steak and ale pie, cottage pie, pork pie (usually eaten cold) and the Cornish Pasty.
Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well known stew. Some of the most popular cheeses are Cheddar and Wensleydale. Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries, have been created such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Sweet English dishes include apple pie, mince pies, spotted dick, scones, Eccles cakes, custard and sticky toffee pudding. Common drinks include tea, whose popularity was increased by Catherine of Braganza, whilst frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wines, ciders and English beers, such as bitter, mild, stout, and brown ale.
Main articles: English art and Arts Council England
The Lady of Shalott by John William Waterhouse in the Pre-Raphaelite style.
The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire, Northumberland and Cumbria, but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags. With the arrival of Roman culture in the 1st century, various forms of art utilising statues, busts, glasswork and mosaics were the norm. There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. During the Early Middle Ages the style was sculpted crosses and ivories, manuscript painting, gold and enamel jewellery, demonstrating a love of intricate, interwoven designs such as in the Staffordshire Hoard discovered in 2009. Some of these blended Gaelic and Anglian styles, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and Vespasian Psalter. Later Gothic art was popular at Winchester and Canterbury, examples survive such as Benedictional of St. Æthelwold and Luttrell Psalter.
The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein, natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this. Under the Stuarts, Continental artists were influential especially the Flemish, examples from the period include—Anthony van Dyck, Peter Lely, Godfrey Kneller and William Dobson. The 18th century was a time of significance with the founding of the Royal Academy, a classicism based on the High Renaissance prevailed—Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds became two of England's most treasured artists.
The Norwich School continued the landscape tradition, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood with their vivid and detailed style revived the Early Renaissance style—Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais were leaders. Prominent amongst 20th-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism in general. Contemporary painters include Lucian Freud, whose work Benefits Supervisor Sleeping in 2008 set a world record for sale value of a painting by a living artist.
Literature, poetry and philosophy
Main article: English literature
Geoffrey Chaucer was an English author, poet and philosopher, best remembered for his unfinished frame narrative The Canterbury Tales.
Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. The period of Old English literature provided the epic poem Beowulf and the secular prose of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, along with Christian writings such as Judith, Cædmon's Hymn and hagiographies. Following the Norman conquest Latin continued amongst the educated classes, as well as an Anglo-Norman literature.
Middle English literature emerged with Geoffrey Chaucer, author of The Canterbury Tales, along with Gower, the Pearl Poet and Langland. William of Ockham and Roger Bacon, who were Franciscans, were major philosophers of the Middle Ages. Julian of Norwich, who wrote Revelations of Divine Love, was a prominent Christian mystic. With the English Renaissance literature in the Early Modern English style appeared. William Shakespeare, whose works include Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer Night's Dream, remains one of the most championed authors in English literature.
Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Philip Sydney, Thomas Kyd, John Donne, and Ben Jonson are other established authors of the Elizabethan age. Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes wrote on empiricism and materialism, including scientific method and social contract. Filmer wrote on the Divine Right of Kings. Marvell was the best known poet of the Commonwealth, while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.
This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself. This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England.
Some of the most prominent philosophers of the Enlightenment were John Locke, Thomas Paine, Samuel Johnson and Jeremy Bentham. More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. The poet Alexander Pope with his satirical verse became well regarded. The English played a significant role in romanticism: Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, John Keats, Mary Shelley, Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Blake and William Wordsworth were major figures.
In response to the Industrial Revolution, agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett, G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism, Arthur Penty, and cooperative movement advocate G. D. H. Cole are somewhat related. Empiricism continued through John Stuart Mill and Bertrand Russell, while Bernard Williams was involved in analytics. Authors from around the Victorian era include Charles Dickens, the Brontë sisters, Jane Austen, George Eliot, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, H. G. Wells, Lewis Carroll and Evelyn Underhill. Since then England has continued to produce novelists such as C. S. Lewis, George Orwell, D. H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, Enid Blyton, Aldous Huxley, Agatha Christie, Terry Pratchett, J. R. R. Tolkien, and J. K. Rowling.
Main articles: Folk music of England and Music of the United Kingdom
Elgar's "Pomp & Circumstance March No. 1"
The Rolling Stones' "Paint It, Black"
The Beatles' "Get Back"
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The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music. It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. Wynkyn de Worde printed ballads of Robin Hood from the 16th century are an important artefact, as are John Playford's The Dancing Master and Robert Harley's Roxburghe Ballads collections. Some of the best known songs are The Good Old Way, Pastime with Good Company, Maggie May and Spanish Ladies amongst others. Many nursery rhymes are of English origin such as Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, Roses are red, Jack and Jill, Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush and Humpty Dumpty.
Early English composers in classical music include Renaissance artists Thomas Tallis and William Byrd, followed up by Henry Purcell from the Baroque period. German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah, Water Music, and Music for the Royal Fireworks. There was a revival in the profile of composers from England in the 20th century led by Benjamin Britten, Frederick Delius, Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams and others. Present-day composers from England include Michael Nyman, best known for The Piano.
In the field of popular music many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time. Acts such as The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Elton John, Queen, Rod Stewart and The Rolling Stones are among the highest selling recording artists in the world. Many musical genres have origins or strong associations with England, such as British invasion, hard rock, glam rock, heavy metal, mod, britpop, drum and bass, progressive rock, punk rock, indie rock, gothic rock, shoegazing, acid house, UK garage, trip hop and dubstep.
Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury, V Festival, Reading and Leeds Festivals. The most prominent opera house in England is the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. The Proms, a season of orchestral classical music concerts held at the Royal Albert Hall, is a major cultural event held annually. The Royal Ballet is one of the world's foremost classical ballet companies, its reputation built on two prominent figures of 20th century dance, prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick Ashton.
Museums, libraries, and galleries
Further information: Museums in England
The Natural History Museum in London
English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty holds a contrasting role. 17 of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites fall within England. Some of the best known of these include; Hadrian's Wall, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and various others.
There are many museums in England, but the most notable is London's British Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present. The British Library in London is the national library and is one of the world's largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books. The most senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art; they also host the famously controversial Turner Prize.
Main article: Sport in England
Inside Wembley Stadium, one of the most expensive stadiums ever built
England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world. Sports originating in England include association football, cricket, rugby union, rugby league, tennis, badminton, squash, rounders, hockey, boxing, snooker, billiards, darts, table tennis, bowls, netball, thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting. It has helped the development of sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team, whose home venue is Wembley Stadium, won the 1966 FIFA World Cup against the West Germany national football team where they won 4–2, with Geoff Hurst scoring a hatrick. That was the year the country hosted the competition.
At club level England is recognised by FIFA as the birthplace of club football, due to Sheffield FC founded in 1857 being the oldest club. The Football Association is the oldest of its kind, FA Cup and The Football League were the first cup and league competitions respectively. In the modern day the Premier League is the world's most lucrative football league and amongst the elite. The European Cup (now the UEFA Champions League) has been won by Liverpool, Manchester United, Nottingham Forest, Aston Villa and Chelsea, while Arsenal, and Leeds United have reached the final.
England on the way to victory against Australia in the 2009 Ashes series at Lord's Cricket Ground
Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald. The England cricket team is a composite England and Wales team. One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia, contested since 1882. The finale of the 2009 Ashes was watched by nearly 2 million people, although the climax of the 2005 Ashes was viewed by 7.4 million as it was available on terrestrial television. England are the current holders of the trophy and are ranked 1st in Test and 4th in One Day International cricket.
England has hosted four Cricket World Cups (1975, 1979, 1983, 1999) and the ICC World Twenty20 in 2009. There are several domestic level competitions, including the County Championship in which Yorkshire are by far the most successful club having won the competition 31 times. Lord's Cricket Ground situated in London is sometimes referred to as the "Mecca of Cricket". William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. London has hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times, in 1908, 1948, and 2012. England competes in the Commonwealth Games, held every four years. Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England. A Grand Prix is held at Silverstone.
The England rugby union team during their victory parade after winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup
The England rugby union team won the 2003 Rugby World Cup, the country was one of the host nations of the competition in the 1991 Rugby World Cup and is set to host the 2015 Rugby World Cup. The top level of club participation is the English Premiership. Leicester Tigers, London Wasps, Bath Rugby and Northampton Saints have had success in the Europe-wide Heineken Cup.
Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in 1895. The England national rugby league team are ranked third in the world and first in Europe. Since 2008 England has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team, which won three World Cups but is now retired. Club sides play in Super League, the present-day embodiment of the Rugby Football League Championship. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors, St Helens, Leeds Rhinos and Huddersfield Giants; the former three have all won the World Club Challenge previously. The United Kingdom is to host the 2013 Rugby League World Cup.
In tennis, the Wimbledon Championships are the oldest tennis tournament in the world and is widely considered the most prestigious.
Main article: National symbols of England
The Royal Arms of England
The St George's Cross has been the national flag of England since the 13th century. Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa. The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from 1190 onwards, so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean. A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George, along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner. Since 1606 the St George's Cross has formed part of the design of the Union Flag, a Pan-British flag designed by King James I.
The Tudor rose, England's national floral emblem
There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose, the nation's floral emblem, and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England. The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace. It is a syncretic symbol in that it merged the white rose of the Yorkists and the red rose of the Lancastrians—cadet branches of the Plantagenets who went to war over control of the nation. It is also known as the Rose of England. The oak tree is a symbol of England, representing strength and endurance. The Royal Oak symbol and Oak Apple Day commemorate the escape of King Charles II from the grasp of the parliamentarians after his father's execution: he hid in an oak tree to avoid detection before safely reaching exile.
The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in 1198. It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy. England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: Jerusalem, Land of Hope and Glory (used for England during the 2002 Commonwealth Games), and I Vow to Thee, My Country. England's National Day is 23 April which is St George's Day: St George is the patron saint of England
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This is a list of the 936 towns in England. Historically, towns were any settlement with a charter, including market towns and ancient boroughs. The process of incorporation was reformed in 1835 and many more places received borough charters, whilst others were lost. All existing boroughs were abolished on 1 April 1974 and borough status was reformed as a civic honour for local government districts. At the same time a limited number of former boroughs and other settlements became successor parishes, with the right to be known as a town and preserve their charter. Boroughs that did not become successor parishes formed unparished areas, but were able to preserve their charters without a corporate body by appointing charter trustees. Since 1 April 1974 any parish council in England has the right to resolve to call itself a town and several communities have taken up this right, including areas that preserved continuity with charter trustees.