A cufflink (also cuff link or cuff-link) is a decorative fastener worn by men and women to fasten the two sides of the cuff on a dress shirt or blouse.
The forerunner of today’s shirt first appeared in the early-16th century, its ruffled wristband finished with small openings on either side that tied together with "cuff strings." Although cuff strings would remain popular well into the nineteenth century, it was during the reign of Louis XIV that shirt sleeves started to be fastened with boutons de manchette, or "sleeve buttons," typically identical pairs of coloured glass buttons joined together by a short, linked chain.
By 1715, simple, paste-glass buttons had given way to pairs of two, decoratively painted or jeweled studs, typically diamonds, connected by ornate gold links.
Hence was born the cuff "link", whether simple glass buttons or gilded and bejeweled studs.
Cufflinks are designed only for use with shirts which have buttonholes on both sides but no buttons. These may be either single or double-length ("French") cuffs, and may be worn either "kissing," with the ends pinched together, or "barrel-style," with one end overlapping the other. The "barrel-style" was popularized by a famous 19th century entertainer and clown, Dan Rice; however, "kissing" cuffs are usually preferred.
Cufflink designs vary widely. The simplest design consists of a short post or chain connecting two disc-shaped parts. The part positioned on the most visible side is usually larger; a variety of designs can connect the smaller piece: It may be small enough to fit through the button hole like a button would; it may be separated and attached from the other side; or it may have a portion that swivels on the central post, aligning with the post while the link is threaded through the button-hole and swiveling into a position at right angles to the post when worn.
"Dumbbell" or shank-style cufflinks were popular during the early-20th century, particularly in America.
The visible part of a cufflink is often monogrammed or decorated in some way. There are numerous styles including novelty cufflinks, traditional cufflinks, contemporary cufflinks, utility cufflinks, and humorous cufflinks.
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Wire wrapped jewelry
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Related topics: Body piercing
Little black dress
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Áo bà ba
Áo tứ thân
Baro't saya / Barong Tagalog
Gho / Kira
History of clothing
Great Britain (Welsh: Prydain Fawr, Scottish Gaelic: Breatainn Mhòr, Cornish: Breten Veur, Scots: Great Breetain), also known as Britain, is an island situated to the north-west of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, the largest European island and the largest of the British Isles. With a population of about 62 million people in mid-2010, it is the third most populous island in the world, after Java (Indonesia) and Honshū (Japan). It is surrounded by over 1,000 smaller islands and islets. The island of Ireland lies to its west. Politically, Great Britain also refers to the island itself together with a number of surrounding islands, which constitute the territory of England, Scotland and Wales.
All of the island is territory of the sovereign state of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and most of the United Kingdom's territory is in Great Britain. Most of England, Scotland, and Wales are on the island of Great Britain, as are their respective capital cities: London, Edinburgh, and Cardiff.
The Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland with the Acts of Union 1707 on 1 May 1707 under Queen Anne. In 1801, under a new Act of Union, this kingdom merged with the Kingdom of Ireland to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After the Irish War of Independence (1919–1921) most of Ireland seceded from the Union, which then became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
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List of urban areas in the United Kingdom
List of most populous built-up areas in England and Wales
The list below shows the most populous Built-up areas in England and Wales as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), showing all those with a population in excess of 100,000 at the 2011 census.
Rank Built-up area Population
Area (km²) Density (People/km²) Major subdivisions Metropolitan Area Notable changes between 2001 and 2011 censuses 
1 Greater London Built-up area 9,787,426 1,737.9 5,630 London Boroughs, Hemel Hempstead, Watford, Woking, Harlow, St Albans London The addition of Guildford, Harlow, Bracknell and St Albans
2 Greater Manchester Built-up area 2,553,379 630.3 4,051 Manchester, Salford, Bolton, Stockport, Oldham, Rochdale, Bury Manchester The addition of Golborne, Glossop and Newton-le-Willows
3 West Midlands Built-up area 2,440,986 598.9 4,076 Birmingham, Wolverhampton, West Bromwich, Dudley, Walsall, Solihull West Midlands
4 West Yorkshire Built-up area 1,777,934 487.8 3,645 Leeds, Bradford, Wakefield, Huddersfield, Dewsbury, Keighley, Halifax Leeds-Bradford The addition of Halifax
5 Liverpool Built-up area 864,122 199.6 4,329 Liverpool, Bootle, Litherland, Crosby, Prescot, St. Helens, Ashton-in-Makerfield Liverpool The addition of Ashton-in-Makerfield
6 South Hampshire Built-up area 855,569 192.0 4,455 Southampton, Portsmouth, Eastleigh, Gosport, Fareham, Havant, Horndean Southampton-Portsmouth Portsmouth Urban Area and Southampton Urban Area combined into one.
The addition of Hedge End, Locks Heath, Bursledon and Whiteley. Stubbington and Lee-on-the-Solent are no longer part of the built-up area.
7 Tyneside Built-up area 774,891 180.5 4,292 Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, South Shields, Tynemouth, Wallsend, Whitley Bay, Jarrow Newcastle-Sunderland Washington, Chester-Le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole and Houghton-le-Spring are no longer part of the built-up area.
8 Nottingham Built-up area 729,977 176.4 4,139 Nottingham, Beeston, Carlton, West Bridgford, Ilkeston, Hucknall Nottingham-Derby
9 Sheffield Built-up area 685,368 167.5 4,092 Sheffield, Rotherham, Rawmarsh Sheffield
10 Bristol Built-up area 617,280 144.4 4,274 Bristol, Filton, Pill, Frampton Cotterell, Winterbourne Bristol
11 Leicester Built-up area 508,916 109.4 4,653 Leicester, Syston, Whetstone, Birstall, Narborough, Enderby Leicester Ratby no longer part of the built-up area.
Addition of Narborough and Enderby
12 Brighton and Hove Built-up area 474,485 89.4 5,304 Brighton and Hove, Worthing, Littlehampton, Shoreham-by-Sea Brighton Rottingdean, Saltdean and Findon are no longer part of the built-up area.
13 Bournemouth/Poole Built-up area 466,266 131.0 3,559 Bournemouth, Poole, Christchurch, Ferndown, New Milton, Wimborne Minster Bournemouth/Poole Ferndown and Wimborne Minster now part of the built-up area.
14 Cardiff Built-up area 447,287 102.3 4,370 Cardiff, Caerphilly, Penarth, Pontypridd Cardiff-Newport Caerphilly and Pontypridd now part of the built-up area.
15 Teesside Built-up area 376,633 108.2 3,482 Middlesbrough, Stockton-On-Tees, Billingham, Redcar Middlesbrough
16 Stoke-on-Trent Built-up area 372,775 103.9 3,588 Stoke-on-Trent, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Kidsgrove Stoke-on-Trent
17 Coventry Built-up area 359,262 81.3 4,420 Coventry, Bedworth West Midlands
18 Sunderland Built-up area 335,415 83.5 4,018 Sunderland, Washington, Chester-Le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole, Houghton-le-Spring Newcastle-Sunderland Addition of Washington, Chester-Le-Street, Hetton-le-Hole and Houghton-le-Spring
19 Birkenhead Built-up area 325,264 88.2 3,687 Birkenhead, Wallasey, Ellesmere Port, Bebington Liverpool
20 Reading Built-up area 318,014 83.7 3,800 Reading, Wokingham, Woodley, Crowthorne London Bracknell no longer part of the built-up area.
21 Kingston upon Hull Built-up area 314,018 82.6 3,802 Kingston upon Hull, Cottingham, Hessle Hull
22 Preston Built-up area 313,322 82.4 3,802 Preston, Bamber Bridge, Chorley, Fulwood, Leyland Preston
23 Newport Built-up area 306,844 84.2 3,643 Newport, Pontypool, Cwmbran, Blackwood, Risca, Ystrad Mynach Cardiff-Newport Pontypool, Cwmbran and Blackwood added to the built-up area.
24 Swansea Built-up area 300,352 87.6 3,431 Swansea, Neath, Port Talbot, Ystradgynlais, Pontardawe Swansea Ystradgynlais now part of the built-up area.
25 Southend-on-Sea Built-up area 295,310 71.8 4,111 Southend-on-Sea, Hullbridge, Rayleigh, Rochford London Hullbridge now part of the built-up area.
26 Derby Built-up area 270,468 64.1 4,219 Derby, Borrowash, Duffield Nottingham-Derby
27 Plymouth Built-up area 260,203 59.7 4,356 Plymouth, Plymstock Plymouth
28 Luton Built-up area 258,018 50.7 5,088 Luton, Dunstable, Houghton Regis London
29 Farnborough/Aldershot Built-up area 252,397 78.5 3,217 Farnborough, Aldershot, Camberley, Farnham, Frimley, Sandhurst, Yateley London
30 Medway Towns Built-up area 243,931 52.2 4,677 Gillingham, Chatham, Rochester London
31 Blackpool Built-up area 239,409 61.3 3,908 Blackpool, Lytham St Annes, Poulton-le-Fylde, Thornton, Cleveleys Blackpool Fleetwood no longer forms part of the built-up area.
32 Milton Keynes Built-up area 229,941 62.5 3,678 Milton Keynes, Bletchley, Newport Pagnell, Woburn Sands Milton Keynes The addition of Woburn Sands.
33 Barnsley/Dearne Valley Built-up area 223,281 59.7 3,739 Barnsley, Wath upon Dearne, Wombwell, Hoyland Sheffield
34 Northampton Built-up area 215,963 57.9 3,731 Northampton, Collingtree Northampton
35 Norwich Built-up area 213,166 61.9 3,444 Norwich, Taverham, Costessey, Cringleford Norwich
36 Swindon Built-up area 185,609 47.1 3,945 Swindon, Broad Blunsdon, Blunsdon St Andrew Swindon
37 Crawley Built-up area 180,508 58.1 3,107 Crawley, Horley, East Grinstead, Copthorne, Crawley Down London The addition of East Grinstead, Copthorne and Crawley Down.
Reigate and Redhill no longer part of the built-up area.
38 Ipswich Built-up area 178,835 49.1 3,639 Ipswich, Kesgrave, Woodbridge Ipswich
39 Wigan Built-up area 175,405 43.8 4,009 Wigan, Skelmersdale, Standish, Ince-in-Makerfield Manchester/Liverpool
40 Mansfield Built-up area 171,958 48.4 3,556 Mansfield, Sutton-in-Ashfield, Kirkby-in-Ashfield, Mansfield Woodhouse Nottingham-Derby
41 Oxford Built-up area 171,380 37.4 4,585 Oxford, Kennington, Wheatley Oxford The addition of Kennington and Wheatley.
42 Warrington Built-up area 165,456 44.9 3,686 Warrington Manchester/Liverpool
43 Slough Built-up area 163,777 34.1 4,797 Slough, Stoke Poges, Poyle London
44 Peterborough Built-up area 163,379 44.2 3,693 Peterborough, Farcet Peterborough
45 Cambridge Built-up area 158,434 42.1 3,760 Cambridge, Fen Ditton, Girton, Histon Cambridge
46 Doncaster Built-up area 158,141 43.5 3,634 Doncaster, Bentley, Armthorpe, Sprotbrough Sheffield
47 York Built-up area 153,717 34.0 4,518 York, Earswick York
48 Gloucester Built-up area 150,053 40.4 3,718 Gloucester, Innsworth Gloucester-Cheltenham
49 Burnley Built-up area 149,422 35.7 4,183 Burnley, Colne, Nelson Blackburn-Burnley
50 Telford Built-up area 147,980 47.7 3,103 Telford, Broseley Telford
51 Blackburn Built-up area 146,521 35.6 4,115 Blackburn, Darwen Blackburn-Burnley
52 Basildon Built-up area 144,859 37.1 3,902 Basildon, Wickford, Ramsden Heath, North Benfleet London The addition of Wickford to the urban area.
53 Grimsby Built-up area 134,160 35.3 3,804 Grimsby, Cleethorpes, Waltham Grimsby
54 Hastings Built-up area 133,422 33.2 4,019 Hastings, Bexhill Hastings
55 High Wycome Built-up area 133,204 39.2 3398 High Wycombe, Cookham, Hughenden Valley London
56 Thanet Built-up area 125,370 27.9 4,495 Margate, Ramsgate, Broadstairs Thanet
57 Accrington/Rossendale Built-up area 125,059 30.0 4,168 Accrington, Rawtenstall, Bacup, Great Harwood, Haslingden, Oswaldtwistle Blackburn-Burnley Accrington Urban Area and Rossendale Urban Area combined.
58 Burton-upon-Trent Built-up area 122,199 35.0 3,487 Burton-upon-Trent, Swadlincote Burton-upon-Trent The addition of Swadlincote, Stapenhill and Winshill
59 Colchester Built-up area 121,859 32.7 3,732 Colchester, Marks Tey Colchester
60 Eastbourne Built-up area 118,219 25.1 4,705 Eastbourne, Polegate Eastbourne
61 Exeter Built-up area 117,763 28.5 4,133 Exeter, Topsham Exeter
62 Cheltenham Built-up area 116,447 28.9 4,034 Cheltenham, Gloucester-Cheltenham
63 Paignton/Torquay Built-up area 115,410 31.5 3,667 Paignton, Torquay, Marldon Torbay
64 Lincoln Built-up area 114,879 32.7 3,518 Lincoln, North Hykeham Lincoln
65 Chesterfield Built-up area 113,057 34.6 3,263 Chesterfield, Staveley, Wingerworth, Holymoorside Sheffield
66 Chelmsford Built-up area 111,511 26.2 4,259 Chelmsford, Little Waltham London
67 Basingstoke 107,642 29.4 3,662 Basingstoke Basingstoke
68 Maidstone 107,627 25.4 4,229 Maidstone London
69 Bedford Built-up area 106,940 24.8 4,309 Bedford, Kempston Bedford
70 Worcester Built-up area 101,659 24.7 4,121 Worcester, Norton Worcester
List of most populous urban areas in Scotland
The list below shows the most populous Built-up areas in Scotland as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), showing all those with a population in excess of 50,000 at the 2001 census.
Rank Urban Area Population
Area (km²) Density (People/km²) Major subdivisions Metropolitan Area
1 Greater Glasgow 1,199,629 368.47 3,171.0 Glasgow, Paisley, Coatbridge, Clydebank, Motherwell, Wishaw Glasgow
2 Edinburgh 420,893 120.11 3,765.0 Edinburgh, Musselburgh Edinburgh
3 Aberdeen 193,379 60.94 3,238 Aberdeen, Cove Bay, Dyce Aberdeen
4 Dundee 157,808 67 3,298 Dundee Dundee
5 Falkirk 88,109 36.10 2,532 Falkirk, Grangemouth, Carron, Polmont, Stenhousemuir Falkirk
6 East Kilbride 70,579 24.12 3,060 East Kilbride Glasgow
7 Blantyre/Hamilton 68,572 22.63 2,911 Blantyre, Hamilton Glasgow
8 Ayr/Prestwick 61,411 23.57 2,604 Ayr, Prestwick Ayr
9 Livingston 50,771 26.07 2,283 Livingston, East Calder, Mid Calder Edinburgh
List of most populous urban areas in Northern Ireland
The list below shows the most populous Built-up areas in Northern Ireland as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), showing all those with a population in excess of 50,000 at the 2001 census.
Rank Urban Area Population
Area (km²) Density (People/km²) Major subdivisions Metropolitan Area
1 Belfast Metropolitan Urban Area 579,554 161.67 2,990.2 Belfast, Castlereagh, Newtownabbey, Lisburn, Bangor Belfast
2 Derry Urban Area 90,736 37.18 2,440 Derry, Culmore, Strathfoyle, Newbuildings, Creggan Londonderry
3 Craigavon 57,685 37.70 1,530 Craigavon, Lurgan, Portadown, Bleary Craigavon
There is a spectrum that can be drawn between the conurbations that have a clear 'head' (such as Bristol and Leicester) to those that do not, known as multi-centred conurbations (such as Bournemouth/Poole and Teesside), via ones that are more borderline (West Midlands). In the case of the West Midlands, for example, the largest city, Birmingham did expand massively and is now considered to include areas that were formerly independent towns, such as Sutton Coldfield and Aston. However, here it stopped, with the Black Country and Wolverhampton retaining strong identities.
There are also various places where whilst not actually running into each other, the amount of development in a large area is substantial. Heavily built up areas of this type include :
West Yorkshire and South Yorkshire, which are all heavily built up but not entirely devoid of countryside (both are metropolitan counties).
The area consisting of Greater Manchester, Merseyside and parts of Cheshire (mainly Halton (borough) and Warrington) is heavily built up and considered by some to be a conurbation
The London Commuter Belt consisting of Greater London and large densely populated parts of the home counties is heavily built up and is considered one of the world's largest cities.
Cardiff/Newport, consisting of the cities of Cardiff and Newport, Cwmbran, much of the eastern South Wales Valleys with towns such as Risca, Pontypool and Caerphilly and part of the Vale of Glamorgan including Penarth and Barry.
The Nottingham-Derby Metropolitan area which mainly consists of three large conurbations, the Nottingham Urban Area, the Derby Urban Area and the Mansfield Urban Area.