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Details about  Union Jack Ring Watch Silver English British Flag Time Fashion Elegant Designer

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Union Jack Ring Watch Silver English British Flag Time Fashion Elegant Designer
Union-Jack-Ring-Watch-Silver-English-British-Flag-Time-Fashion-Elegant-Designer
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Item condition:
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Ended:
23 May, 2014 20:43:51 BST
Price:
£9.99
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Look at my other Items, United Kingdom

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281277165456
Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing.
Last updated on  17 May, 2014 10:52:11 BST  View all revisions
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Item specifics

Condition:
New: A brand-new, unused, unopened and undamaged item. See the seller's listing for full details. See all condition definitions- opens in a new window or tab
Type: Country
Size: Finger Watch Sub-Type: UK & GB
Institution/ Themes: Heraldic Country/ Club: Great Britain
Union Jack
Finger Watch

This is what you get when you cross a watch with a ring

A Brand New Finger Watch with Union Jack Display

Quartz Watch Keeps Excellent Time

Water Resistant

Mad of Stainless Steel

Unisex Suitable for a Man or Woman

Dial Diameter 2cm and weights 20g

With Flexible Strap so One Size Fits All
Brand New In Excellent Condition

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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,[nb 5] commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) and Britain, is a sovereign state located off the north-western coast of continental Europe. The country includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another state—the Republic of Ireland.[nb 6] Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean in the west and north, the North Sea in the east, the English Channel in the south and the Irish Sea in the west.

The UK's form of government is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system and its capital city is London. It consists of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.[9] The latter three have devolved administrations,[10] each with varying powers,[11][12] based in their capital cities, Edinburgh, Cardiff and Belfast respectively. Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man are Crown dependencies and are not part of the UK.[13] The United Kingdom has fourteen British Overseas Territories.[14] These are remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, encompassed almost a quarter of the world's land surface and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies.

The United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and eighth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It was the world's first industrialised country[15] and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries.[16] The UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific and political influence internationally.[17][18] It is a recognised nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth in the world.[19]

The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946. It has been a member of the European Union and its predecessor the European Economic Community since 1973; it is also a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G8, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the World Trade Organization.

Capital
and largest city    London
51°30′N 0°7′W
Official languages    English[1][2]
Recognised regional languages    
Irish Scottish Gaelic Scots Ulster-Scots Welsh Cornish[nb 2]
Ethnic groups (2001a[4])    
92.1% White
4.0% South Asian
2.0% Black
1.2% Mixed
0.4% Chinese
0.4% other
Demonym    British, Briton
Government    Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 -     Monarch    Queen Elizabeth II
 -     Prime Minister    David Cameron MP
 -     Deputy Prime Minister    Nick Clegg MP
Legislature    Parliament
 -     Upper house    House of Lords
 -     Lower house    House of Commons
Formation
 -     Acts of Union 1707    1 May 1707 
 -     Acts of Union 1800    1 January 1801 
 -     Anglo-Irish Treaty    6 December 1922 
Area
 -     Total    243,610 km2 (80th)
94,060 sq mi 
 -     Water (%)    1.34
Population
 -     2011 census    63,181,775[5] (22nd)
 -     Density    255.6/km2 (51st)
661.9/sq mi
GDP (PPP)    2012 estimate
 -     Total    $2.316 trillion[6] (8th)
 -     Per capita    $36,728[6]
GDP (nominal)    2012 estimate
 -     Total    $2.434 trillion[6] (6th)
 -     Per capita    $38,591[6]
Gini (2008–2009)    41[7]
medium
HDI (2013)    0.875[8]
very high · 26th
Currency    Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone    GMT (UTC+0)
 -     Summer (DST)    BST (UTC+1)
Date format    dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the    left[nb 3]
Calling code    +44
ISO 3166 code    GB
Internet TLD    .uk[nb 4]

 talk edit
Largest urban areas of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom Mid-2010 Urban Area Estimates[284][285][286]
Rank    Urban area    Pop.    Principal settlement    Rank    Urban area    Pop.    Principal settlement    

Greater London Urban Area

Greater Manchester Urban Area

1    Greater London Urban Area    8,979,158    London    11    Belfast Metropolitan Urban Area    579,236    Belfast    
West Midlands Urban Area

West Yorkshire Urban Area

2    Greater Manchester Urban Area    2,362,849    Manchester    12    Edinburgh    491,360    Edinburgh
3    West Midlands Urban Area    2,362,065    Birmingham    13    Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton    484,235    Brighton
4    West Yorkshire Urban Area    1,616,608    Leeds    14    Leicester Urban Area    467,516    Leicester
5    Greater Glasgow    1,195,200    Glasgow    15    Portsmouth Urban Area    463,911    Portsmouth
6    Tyneside    908,446    Newcastle    16    South East Dorset conurbation    395,020    Bournemouth
7    Liverpool Urban Area    805,578    Liverpool    17    Reading/Wokingham Urban Area    390,214    Reading
8    Nottingham Urban Area    714,353    Nottingham    18    Teesside    373,260    Middlesbrough
9    Sheffield Urban Area    678,577    Sheffield    19    The Potteries Urban Area    358,498    Stoke-on-Trent
10    Bristol Urban Area    626,086    Bristol    20    Cardiff Urban Area    355,585    Cardiff

A

Alfred the Great, Julie Andrews, King Arthur, David Attenborough, Jane Austen

B

Charles Babbage, Lord Baden Powell, Douglas Bader, David Beckham, Alexander Graham Bell, Tony Benn, Tim Berners Lee, Aneurin Bevan, Tony Blair, William Blake, William Booth, Boudicca, David Bowie, Richard Branson, Robert the Bruce, Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Richard Burton

C

Donald Campbell, William Caxton, Charlie Chaplin, Geoffrey Chaucer, Leonard Cheshire, Winston Churchill, James Connolly, Captain James Cook, Michael Crawford, Oliver Cromwell, Aleister Crowley

D

Charles Darwin, Diana, Princess of Wales, Charles Dickens, Francis Drake

E

King Edward I, Edward Elgar, Queen Elizabeth I, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother

F

Michael Faraday, Guy Fawkes, Alexander Fleming

G

Bob Geldof, Owain Glyndwr

H

George Harrison, John Harrison, Stephen Hawking, King Henry II, King Henry V, King Henry VIII, Paul Hewson (Bono)

J

Edward Jenner

L

T E Lawrence, John Lennon, David Livingstone, David Lloyd George, John Logie Baird, John Lydon (Johnny Rotten)

M

James Clerk Maxwell, Paul McCartney, Freddie Mercury, Field Marshall Bernard Montgomery, Bobby Moore, Thomas More, Eric Morecambe

N

Admiral Horatio Nelson, Isaac Newton, Florence Nightingale

O

George O'Dowd (Boy George)

P

Thomas Paine, Emmeline Pankhurst, John Peel, Enoch Powell

R

Walter Raleigh, Steve Redgrave, King Richard III, Cliff Richard, J K Rowling

S

Robert Falcon Scott, Ernest Shackleton, William Shakespeare, George Stephenson, Marie Stopes

T

Margaret Thatcher, William Tindale, J R R Tolkien, Alan Turing

U

Unknown soldier

V

Queen Victoria

W

William Wallace, Barnes Wallis, James Watt, Duke of Wellington, John Wesley, Frank Whittle, William Wilberforce, Robbie Williams

. England (i/ˈɪŋɡlənd/) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.[5][6][7] It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, while the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separate it from continental Europe. Most of England comprises the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic. The country also includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but it takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in AD 927, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world.[8] The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law—the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations.[9] The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation.[10] England's terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District, Pennines, and Yorkshire Dales) and in the south west (for example, Dartmoor and the Cotswolds). The former capital of England was Winchester until replaced by London in 1066. Today London is the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures.[nb 3] England's population is about 53 million, around 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, and is largely concentrated in London, the South East and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century. Meadowlands and pastures are found beyond the major cities. The Kingdom of England—which after 1284 included Wales—was a sovereign state until 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain.[11][12] In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, the Irish Free State was established as a separate dominion, but the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 reincorporated into the kingdom six Irish counties to officially create the current United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Motto: "Dieu et mon droit" (French) "God and my right" [1][2] Anthem: None (de jure) God Save the Queen (de facto) Location of England (dark green) – in European continent (light green & dark grey) – in United Kingdom (light green) Capital and largest city London 51°30′N 0°7′W Official languages English (de facto)[nb 1] Recognised regional languages Cornish Ethnic groups (2011[3]) 85.5% White 7.7% Asian 3.4% Black 2.2% Mixed race 1.0% other Demonym English Government Non-devolved constituent country within a constitutional monarchy - Monarch Elizabeth II - Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron MP Legislature Parliament of the United Kingdom Area - Total 130,395 km2 50,346 sq mi Population - 2011 census 53,013,000[4] - Density 407/km2 1,054.1/sq mi GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate - Total $2.68 trillion - Per capita $50,566 Currency Pound sterling (GBP) Time zone GMT (UTC0) - Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1) Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD) Drives on the left Calling code +44 Patron saint Saint George Internet TLD .uk[nb 2] The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles".[13] The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea.[14] According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of "England" to refer to the southern part of the island of Great Britain occurs in 897, and its modern spelling was first used in 1538.[15][dead link] The earliest attested mention of the name occurs in the 1st century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used.[16] The etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars; it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape.[17][dead link] How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe that was less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons.[18] In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England (Sasunn),[19] and the Welsh use "Saesneg" - a form derived from "Saxon" - to describe the English language. An alternative name for England is Albion. The name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo:[20] "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth. In it are two very large islands called Britannia; these are Albion and Ierne".[20] The word Albion (Ἀλβίων) or insula Albionum has two possible origins. It either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover, the only part of Britain visible from the European Continent,[21] or from the phrase in Massaliote Periplus, the "island of the Albiones".[22] Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity.[23] Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend. Major conurbations See also: List of places in England The Greater London Urban Area is by far the largest urban area in England[126] and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.[126] Other urban areas of considerable size and influence tend to be in northern England or the English Midlands.[126] There are fifty settlements which have been designated city status in England, while the wider United Kingdom has sixty-six. While many cities in England are quite large in size, such as Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Newcastle, Bradford, Nottingham and others, a large population is not necessarily a prerequisite for a settlement to be afforded city status.[127] Traditionally the status was afforded to towns with diocesan cathedrals and so there are smaller cities like Wells, Ely, Ripon, Truro and Chichester.[127] According to the Office for National Statistics the ten largest, continuous built-up urban areas are:[126] Rank Urban area Population Localities Major localities 1 Greater London Urban Area 8,278,251 67 Greater London, divided into the City of London and 32 London boroughs including Croydon, Barnet, Ealing, Bromley[128] 2 West Midlands Urban Area 2,284,093 22 Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Dudley, Walsall, Aldridge 3 Greater Manchester Urban Area 2,240,230 57 Manchester, Salford, Bolton, Stockport, Oldham 4 West Yorkshire Urban Area 1,499,465 26 Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield, Wakefield 5 Tyneside 879,996 25 Newcastle, North Shields, South Shields, Gateshead, Jarrow 6 Liverpool Urban Area 816,216 8 Liverpool, St Helens, Bootle, Huyton-with-Roby 7 Nottingham Urban Area 666,358 15 Nottingham, Beeston and Stapleford, Carlton, Long Eaton 8 Sheffield Urban Area 640,720 7 Sheffield, Rotherham, Chapeltown, Mosborough 9 Bristol Urban Area 551,066 7 Bristol, Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Stoke Gifford 10 Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton 461,181 10 Brighton, Worthing, Hove, Littlehampton, Shoreham, Lancing Demography Population Main articles: Demography of England, English people, and English diaspora The metropolitan, non-metropolitan counties and unitary authorities of England, colour-coded to show population. Population by administrative areas. Their size is approximately in proportion to their population. The darker colour the bigger is the real area. With over 53 million inhabitants, England is by far the most populous country of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84% of the combined total.[4][162] England taken as a unit and measured against international states has the fourth largest population in the European Union and would be the 25th largest country by population in the world.[163] With a density of 407 people per square kilometre, it would be the second most densely populated country in the European Union after Malta.[164][165] The English people are a British people.[166] Some genetic evidence suggests that 75–95% descend in the paternal line from prehistoric settlers who originally came from the Iberian Peninsula, as well as a 5% contribution from Angles and Saxons, and a significant Norse element.[167][168][169] However, other geneticists place the Norse-Germanic estimate up to half.[170][171][172] Over time, various cultures have been influential: Prehistoric, Brythonic,[173] Roman, Anglo-Saxon,[174] Norse Viking,[175] Gaelic cultures, as well as a large influence from Normans. There is an English diaspora in former parts of the British Empire; especially the United States, Canada, Australia, Chile, South Africa and New Zealand.[nb 6] Since the late 1990s, many English people have migrated to Spain.[180][181] 2009 estimates of ethnic groups in England and Wales.[182] At the time of the Domesday Book, compiled in 1086, more than 90% of the English population of about two million lived in the countryside.[183] By 1801 the population had grown to 8.3 million, and by 1901 had grown to 30.5 million.[184] Due in particular to the economic prosperity of South East England, it has received many economic migrants from the other parts of the United Kingdom.[166] There has been significant Irish migration.[185] The proportion of ethnically European residents totals at 87.50%, including Germans[186] and Poles.[166] Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the 1950s: in particular, 6% of people living in England have family origins in the Indian subcontinent, mostly India and Pakistan.[166][186] 2.90% of the population are black, from both the Caribbean and countries in Africa itself, especially former British colonies.[166][186] There is a significant number of Chinese and British Chinese.[166][186] As of 2007, 22% of primary school children in England were from ethnic minority families.[187] About half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001 was due to immigration.[188] Debate over immigration is politically prominent;[189] according to a Home Office poll, 80% of people want to cap it.[190] The ONS has projected that the population will grow by six million between 2004 and 2029.[191] Language Main articles: English language, English language in England, and History of the English language The English-speaking world. Countries in dark blue have a majority of native speakers. Countries in light blue have English as an official language, de jure or de facto. English is also one of the official languages of the European Union.[192] As its name suggests, the English language, today spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the world, originated as the language of England, where it remains the principal tongue today. It is an Indo-European language in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family.[193] After the Norman conquest, the Old English language was displaced and confined to the lower social classes as Norman French and Latin were used by the aristocracy. By the 15th century, English came back into fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling. During the English Renaissance, many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins.[194] Modern English has extended this custom of flexibility, when it comes to incorporating words from different languages. Thanks in large part to the British Empire, the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca.[195] English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity, and includes language schooling, tourism spending, and publishing. There is no legislation mandating an official language for England,[196] but English is the only language used for official business. Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents, and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country. Cornish, which died out as a community language in the 18th century, is being revived,[197][198][199][200] and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[201] It is spoken by 0.1% of people in Cornwall,[202] and is taught to some degree in several primary and secondary schools.[203][204] State schools teach students a second language, usually French, German or Spanish.[205] Due to immigration, it was reported in 2007 that around 800,000 school students spoke a foreign language at home,[187] the most common being Punjabi and Urdu.[206] Religion Main article: Religion in England Canterbury Cathedral, seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury Christianity is the most widely practised religion in England, as it has been since the Early Middle Ages, although it was first introduced much earlier, in Gaelic and Roman times. It continued through Early Insular Christianity, and today about 59% of English people identify as Christians.[207] The largest form practised in the present day is Anglicanism,[208] dating from the 16th century Reformation period, with the 1536 split from Rome over Henry VIII wanting to divorce Catherine of Aragon, and the need for the Bible in the English tongue. The religion regards itself as both Catholic and Reformed. There are High Church and Low Church traditions, and some Anglicans regard themselves as Anglo-Catholics, after the Tractarian movement. The monarch of the United Kingdom is a titular leader of the Church, acting as its Supreme Governor. It has the status of established church in England. There are around 26 million adherents to the Church of England and they form part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as the symbolic worldwide head.[209] Many cathedrals and parish churches are historic buildings of significant architectural importance, such as Westminster Abbey, York Minster, Durham Cathedral and Salisbury Cathedral. Saint George, the patron saint of England The second largest Christian practice is the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, which traces its formal, corporate history in England to the 6th century with Augustine's mission and was the main religion on the entire island for around a thousand years. Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation, the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.5 million members (most of whom are English).[210] There has been one Pope from England to date, Adrian IV; while saints Bede and Anselm are regarded as Doctors of the Church. A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley.[211] It gained popularity in the mill towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and amongst tin miners in Cornwall.[212] There are other non-conformist minorities, such as Baptists, Quakers, Congregationalists, Unitarians and The Salvation Army.[213] The patron saint of England is Saint George; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.[214][214] There are many other English and associated saints; some of the best known include: Cuthbert, Edmund, Alban, Wilfrid, Aidan, Edward the Confessor, John Fisher, Thomas More, Petroc, Piran, Margaret Clitherow and Thomas Becket. There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since 1070.[215] They were expelled from England in 1290 following the Edict of Expulsion, only to be allowed back in 1656.[215] Especially since the 1950s, Eastern religions from the former British colonies have begun to appear, due to foreign immigration; Islam is the most common of these, accounting for around 5% of the population in England.[216] Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism are next in number, adding up to 2.8% combined,[216] introduced from India and South East Asia.[216] Around 25% have no religion.[216] Education Main articles: Education in England and List of universities in England Senate House, the administrative centre of the University of London The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.[217] State-run and -funded schools are attended by approximately 93% of English schoolchildren.[218] Of these, a minority are faith schools, primarily Church of England or Catholic. Between three and four is nursery school, 4 and 11 is primary school, and 11 to 16 is secondary school. After finishing compulsory education, pupils take a GCSE examination, following which they may decide to continue in further education for two years. Further education colleges, such as sixth form colleges are either separate or attached to the secondary school institution and prepare students to sit A-Level examinations, for higher education at universities. Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive, in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools, to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven plus exam. Around 7.2% of English schoolchildren attend private schools, which are funded by private sources.[219] Standards in state schools are monitored by the Office for Standards in Education, and in private schools by the Independent Schools Inspectorate.[220] King's College, University of Cambridge Students normally enter universities in the United Kingdom from 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. There are over 90 universities England, all but one of which are public. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England.[221] Students are generally entitled to student loans for maintenance.[nb 7] The first degree offered to undergraduates is the Bachelor's degree, which usually takes three years to complete. Students are then eligible for a postgraduate degree, a Master's degree, taking one year, or a Doctorate degree, which takes three. England's universities include some of the highest-ranked universities in the world; the University of Cambridge, Imperial College London, the University of Oxford and University College London are all ranked in the global top 10 in the 2010 QS World University Rankings.[222] The London School of Economics has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research.[223] The London Business School is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2010 its MBA programme was ranked best in the world by the Financial Times.[224] Academic degrees in England are usually split into classes: first class (I), upper second class (II:1), lower second class (II:2) and third (III), and unclassified (below third class). The King's School, Canterbury and King's School, Rochester are the oldest schools in the English-speaking world.[225] Many of England's better-known schools, such as Winchester College, Eton College, St Paul's School, Rugby School, and Harrow School are fee-paying institutions.[226] Culture Main articles: Culture of England and English Renaissance Architecture St Paul's Cathedral, English Baroque, and a red telephone box Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period, amongst the best known are Stonehenge, Devil's Arrows, Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg.[227] With the introduction of Ancient Roman architecture there was a development of basilicas, baths, amphitheaters, triumphal arches, villas, Roman temples, Roman roads, Roman forts, stockades and aqueducts.[228] It was the Romans who founded the first cities and towns such as London, Bath, York, Chester and St Albans. Perhaps the best known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England.[228] Another well preserved example is the Roman Baths at Bath, Somerset.[228] Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing. Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno—Saxon monasticism,[229][230] to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings. After the Norman conquest in 1066 various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion. Some of the best known medieval castles include the Tower of London, Warwick Castle, Durham Castle and Windsor Castle amongst others.[231] The Broadway Tower is a folly, or mock tower, in Worcestershire. Throughout the Plantagenet era an English Gothic architecture flourished—the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral, Westminster Abbey and York Minster are prime examples.[231] Expanding on the Norman base there was also castles, palaces, great houses, universities and parish churches. Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th century Tudor style; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically. In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity, synthesised with Christianity appeared—the English Baroque style, architect Christopher Wren was particularly championed.[232] Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this. With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched—in addition to this around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace. Since the 1930s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.[nb 8] Folklore Main article: English folklore Robin Hood illustrated in 1912 wearing Lincoln green English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies, giants, elves, bogeymen, trolls, goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith,[234] others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.[235] During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore—the Arthurian myth.[236][237][238] These were derived from Anglo-Norman, French and Welsh sources,[237] featuring King Arthur, Camelot, Excalibur, Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table such as Lancelot. These stories are most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae.[nb 9] Another early figure from British tradition, King Cole, may have been based on a real figure from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain, a collection of shared British folklore. Morris dance, an English folk dance Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry, Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.[240] On 5 November people make bonfires, set off fireworks and eat toffee apples in commemoration of the foiling of the Gunpowder Plot centred around Guy Fawkes. The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin, is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing, Maypole dancing, Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays, bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill.[241] There is no official national costume, but a few are well established such as the Pearly Kings and Queens associated with cockneys, the Royal Guard, the Morris costume and Beefeaters.[242] Cuisine Main article: English cuisine Fish and chips is a widely consumed part of English cuisine. Since the Early Modern Period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.[243] During the Middle Ages and through the Renaissance period, English cuisine enjoyed an excellent reputation, though a decline began during the Industrial Revolution with the move away from the land and increasing urbanisation of the populace. The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by the food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant's best restaurant in the world charts.[244] An early book of English recipes is the Forme of Cury from the royal court of Richard II.[245] Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages. Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast, featuring a roasted joint (usually beef, lamb, chicken or pork) served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding, stuffing and gravy.[246] Other prominent meals include fish and chips and the full English breakfast (generally consisting of bacon, sausages, grilled tomatoes, fried bread, black pudding, baked beans, mushrooms, and eggs). Various meat pies are consumed such as steak and kidney pie, steak and ale pie, cottage pie, pork pie (usually eaten cold)[246] and the Cornish Pasty. Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well known stew. Some of the most popular cheeses are Cheddar and Wensleydale. Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries, have been created such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Sweet English dishes include apple pie, mince pies, spotted dick, scones, Eccles cakes, custard and sticky toffee pudding. Common drinks include tea, whose popularity was increased by Catherine of Braganza,[247] whilst frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wines, ciders and English beers, such as bitter, mild, stout, and brown ale.[248] Visual arts Main articles: English art and Arts Council England The Lady of Shalott by John William Waterhouse in the Pre-Raphaelite style. The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire, Northumberland and Cumbria, but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.[249] With the arrival of Roman culture in the 1st century, various forms of art utilising statues, busts, glasswork and mosaics were the norm. There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough.[250] During the Early Middle Ages the style was sculpted crosses and ivories, manuscript painting, gold and enamel jewellery, demonstrating a love of intricate, interwoven designs such as in the Staffordshire Hoard discovered in 2009. Some of these blended Gaelic and Anglian styles, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and Vespasian Psalter.[251] Later Gothic art was popular at Winchester and Canterbury, examples survive such as Benedictional of St. Æthelwold and Luttrell Psalter.[252] The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein, natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.[252] Under the Stuarts, Continental artists were influential especially the Flemish, examples from the period include—Anthony van Dyck, Peter Lely, Godfrey Kneller and William Dobson.[252] The 18th century was a time of significance with the founding of the Royal Academy, a classicism based on the High Renaissance prevailed—Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds became two of England's most treasured artists.[252] The Norwich School continued the landscape tradition, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood with their vivid and detailed style revived the Early Renaissance style—Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais were leaders.[252] Prominent amongst 20th-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism in general.[253] Contemporary painters include Lucian Freud, whose work Benefits Supervisor Sleeping in 2008 set a world record for sale value of a painting by a living artist.[254] Literature, poetry and philosophy Main article: English literature Geoffrey Chaucer was an English author, poet and philosopher, best remembered for his unfinished frame narrative The Canterbury Tales. Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin.[255] The period of Old English literature provided the epic poem Beowulf and the secular prose of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,[256] along with Christian writings such as Judith, Cædmon's Hymn and hagiographies.[255] Following the Norman conquest Latin continued amongst the educated classes, as well as an Anglo-Norman literature. Middle English literature emerged with Geoffrey Chaucer, author of The Canterbury Tales, along with Gower, the Pearl Poet and Langland. William of Ockham and Roger Bacon, who were Franciscans, were major philosophers of the Middle Ages. Julian of Norwich, who wrote Revelations of Divine Love, was a prominent Christian mystic. With the English Renaissance literature in the Early Modern English style appeared. William Shakespeare, whose works include Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer Night's Dream, remains one of the most championed authors in English literature.[257] Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Philip Sydney, Thomas Kyd, John Donne, and Ben Jonson are other established authors of the Elizabethan age.[258] Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes wrote on empiricism and materialism, including scientific method and social contract.[258] Filmer wrote on the Divine Right of Kings. Marvell was the best known poet of the Commonwealth,[259] while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration. This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself. This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. William Shakespeare.[260] Some of the most prominent philosophers of the Enlightenment were John Locke, Thomas Paine, Samuel Johnson and Jeremy Bentham. More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism.[261] The poet Alexander Pope with his satirical verse became well regarded. The English played a significant role in romanticism: Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, John Keats, Mary Shelley, Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Blake and William Wordsworth were major figures.[262] In response to the Industrial Revolution, agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett, G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism, Arthur Penty, and cooperative movement advocate G. D. H. Cole are somewhat related.[263] Empiricism continued through John Stuart Mill and Bertrand Russell, while Bernard Williams was involved in analytics. Authors from around the Victorian era include Charles Dickens, the Brontë sisters, Jane Austen, George Eliot, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, H. G. Wells, Lewis Carroll and Evelyn Underhill.[264] Since then England has continued to produce novelists such as C. S. Lewis, George Orwell, D. H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, Enid Blyton, Aldous Huxley, Agatha Christie, Terry Pratchett, J. R. R. Tolkien, and J. K. Rowling.[265] Performing arts Main articles: Folk music of England and Music of the United Kingdom Traditional "Greensleeves" MENU0:00 Elgar's "Pomp & Circumstance March No. 1" MENU0:00 The Rolling Stones' "Paint It, Black" MENU0:00 The Beatles' "Get Back" MENU0:00 Problems listening to these files? See media help. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music. It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. Wynkyn de Worde printed ballads of Robin Hood from the 16th century are an important artefact, as are John Playford's The Dancing Master and Robert Harley's Roxburghe Ballads collections.[266] Some of the best known songs are The Good Old Way, Pastime with Good Company, Maggie May and Spanish Ladies amongst others. Many nursery rhymes are of English origin such as Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, Roses are red, Jack and Jill, Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush and Humpty Dumpty.[267] Early English composers in classical music include Renaissance artists Thomas Tallis and William Byrd, followed up by Henry Purcell from the Baroque period. German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject[268] and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah, Water Music, and Music for the Royal Fireworks. There was a revival in the profile of composers from England in the 20th century led by Benjamin Britten, Frederick Delius, Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams and others.[269] Present-day composers from England include Michael Nyman, best known for The Piano. In the field of popular music many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time. Acts such as The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Elton John, Queen, Rod Stewart and The Rolling Stones are among the highest selling recording artists in the world.[270] Many musical genres have origins or strong associations with England, such as British invasion, hard rock, glam rock, heavy metal, mod, britpop, drum and bass, progressive rock, punk rock, indie rock, gothic rock, shoegazing, acid house, UK garage, trip hop and dubstep.[271] Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury, V Festival, Reading and Leeds Festivals. The most prominent opera house in England is the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden.[272] The Proms, a season of orchestral classical music concerts held at the Royal Albert Hall, is a major cultural event held annually.[272] The Royal Ballet is one of the world's foremost classical ballet companies, its reputation built on two prominent figures of 20th century dance, prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick Ashton. Museums, libraries, and galleries Further information: Museums in England The Natural History Museum in London English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty holds a contrasting role. 17 of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites fall within England.[273] Some of the best known of these include; Hadrian's Wall, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and various others.[274] There are many museums in England, but the most notable is London's British Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects[275] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world,[276] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present. The British Library in London is the national library and is one of the world's largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books.[277] The most senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900.[278] The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art; they also host the famously controversial Turner Prize.[279] Sports Main article: Sport in England Inside Wembley Stadium, one of the most expensive stadiums ever built[280] England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world. Sports originating in England include association football,[281] cricket, rugby union, rugby league, tennis, badminton, squash,[282] rounders,[283] hockey, boxing, snooker, billiards, darts, table tennis, bowls, netball, thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting. It has helped the development of sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team, whose home venue is Wembley Stadium, won the 1966 FIFA World Cup against the West Germany national football team where they won 4–2, with Geoff Hurst scoring a hatrick.[284] That was the year the country hosted the competition. At club level England is recognised by FIFA as the birthplace of club football, due to Sheffield FC founded in 1857 being the oldest club.[281] The Football Association is the oldest of its kind, FA Cup and The Football League were the first cup and league competitions respectively. In the modern day the Premier League is the world's most lucrative football league[285] and amongst the elite.[286] The European Cup (now the UEFA Champions League) has been won by Liverpool, Manchester United, Nottingham Forest, Aston Villa and Chelsea, while Arsenal, and Leeds United have reached the final.[287] England on the way to victory against Australia in the 2009 Ashes series at Lord's Cricket Ground Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.[288] The England cricket team is a composite England and Wales team. One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia, contested since 1882. The finale of the 2009 Ashes was watched by nearly 2 million people, although the climax of the 2005 Ashes was viewed by 7.4 million as it was available on terrestrial television.[289] England are the current holders of the trophy and are ranked 1st in Test and 4th in One Day International cricket.[290] England has hosted four Cricket World Cups (1975, 1979, 1983, 1999) and the ICC World Twenty20 in 2009. There are several domestic level competitions, including the County Championship in which Yorkshire are by far the most successful club having won the competition 31 times.[291] Lord's Cricket Ground situated in London is sometimes referred to as the "Mecca of Cricket".[292] William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. London has hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times, in 1908, 1948, and 2012. England competes in the Commonwealth Games, held every four years. Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England. A Grand Prix is held at Silverstone.[293] The England rugby union team during their victory parade after winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup The England rugby union team won the 2003 Rugby World Cup, the country was one of the host nations of the competition in the 1991 Rugby World Cup and is set to host the 2015 Rugby World Cup.[294] The top level of club participation is the English Premiership. Leicester Tigers, London Wasps, Bath Rugby and Northampton Saints have had success in the Europe-wide Heineken Cup. Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in 1895. The England national rugby league team are ranked third in the world and first in Europe. Since 2008 England has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team, which won three World Cups but is now retired. Club sides play in Super League, the present-day embodiment of the Rugby Football League Championship. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors, St Helens, Leeds Rhinos and Huddersfield Giants; the former three have all won the World Club Challenge previously. The United Kingdom is to host the 2013 Rugby League World Cup.[295] In tennis, the Wimbledon Championships are the oldest tennis tournament in the world and is widely considered the most prestigious.[296][297] National symbols Main article: National symbols of England The Royal Arms of England The St George's Cross has been the national flag of England since the 13th century. Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa. The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from 1190 onwards, so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean. A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George, along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner.[298] Since 1606 the St George's Cross has formed part of the design of the Union Flag, a Pan-British flag designed by King James I.[214] The Tudor rose, England's national floral emblem There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose, the nation's floral emblem, and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England. The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace.[299] It is a syncretic symbol in that it merged the white rose of the Yorkists and the red rose of the Lancastrians—cadet branches of the Plantagenets who went to war over control of the nation. It is also known as the Rose of England.[300] The oak tree is a symbol of England, representing strength and endurance. The Royal Oak symbol and Oak Apple Day commemorate the escape of King Charles II from the grasp of the parliamentarians after his father's execution: he hid in an oak tree to avoid detection before safely reaching exile. The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in 1198. It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy. England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: Jerusalem, Land of Hope and Glory (used for England during the 2002 Commonwealth Games),[301] and I Vow to Thee, My Country. 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See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus.› v t e Constituent countries and affiliations of the United Kingdom Countries of the United Kingdom England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland Overseas territories Akrotiri and Dhekelia† Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory‡ British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands Crown dependencies Guernsey* Isle of Man Jersey* Former colonies List of countries that gained independence from the United Kingdom †Sovereign Base Areas ‡Partial suspension of sovereignty due to the Antarctic Treaty *Including adjacent smaller islands and rocks v t e British Isles Terminology Britain Éire Naming dispute Politics Sovereign states Ireland United Kingdom (England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales) Crown dependencies Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man Political cooperation Politics in the British Isles British–Irish Council British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly Common Travel Area Geography Island groups Channel Islands Islands of the Clyde Great Britain Hebrides Inner Outer Ireland Isle of Man Northern Isles Orkney Shetland Isles of Scilly Lists of islands of Bailiwick of Guernsey Ireland Bailiwick of Jersey Isle of Man United Kingdom England Scotland Wales History Island groups British Isles Ireland Current states Ireland United Kingdom England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man Former states Irish Free State Kingdom of England Principality of Wales Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of Ireland Kingdom of Scotland Society Modern languages Germanic English Scots Celtic Cornish Scottish Gaelic Irish Manx Welsh Romance Auregnais French Guernésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Other BSL ISL NISL Shelta People British Cornish English English Gypsies Irish Irish Travellers Kale Manx Scottish Ulster-Scots Welsh v t e British people English language Anglosphere Anguillans Ascension Islanders Bermudians British Virgin Islanders Caymanians Chagossians (Îlois) Channel Islanders Cornish English Falkland Islanders Gibraltarians Hong Kongers (British Nationals (Overseas)) Manx Montserratians Northern Irish Orcadians Pitcairn Islanders Saint Helenians Scots Shetlanders Tristan Islanders Turks and Caicos Islanders Welsh British diaspora v t e 1974–1996 ← Ceremonial counties of England → current Bedfordshire Berkshire City of Bristol Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire Cheshire Cornwall Cumbria Derbyshire Devon Dorset Durham East Riding of Yorkshire East Sussex Essex Gloucestershire Greater London Greater Manchester Hampshire Herefordshire Hertfordshire Isle of Wight Kent Lancashire Leicestershire Lincolnshire City of London Merseyside Norfolk Northamptonshire Northumberland North Yorkshire Nottinghamshire Oxfordshire Rutland Shropshire Somerset South Yorkshire Staffordshire Suffolk Surrey Tyne and Wear Warwickshire West Midlands West Sussex West Yorkshire Wiltshire Worcestershire v t e National personifications Argentina Effigies of Argentina Armenia Mother Armenia Brazil Efígie da República Cambodia Preah Thong and Neang Neak Canada Johnny Canuck Czech Republic Švejk Praotec Čech (Forefather Czech) Hloupý Honza Jára Cimrman Jan Žižka Denmark Holger Danske Finland Finnish Maiden France Marianne Georgia Kartlis Deda Germany Deutscher Michel Germania Greece Athena "Greece" of Delacroix Iceland Lady of the Mountain India Bharat Mata Indonesia Ibu Pertiwi Ireland Ériu Hibernia Kathleen Ni Houlihan Israel Srulik Italy Italia Turrita Japan Amaterasu Malaysia Ibu Pertiwi Malta Melita Netherlands Netherlands Maiden New Zealand Zealandia Norway Ola Nordmann Philippines Juan dela Cruz Maria Clara Poland Polonia Portugal Efígie da República Zé Povinho Russia Mother Russia Spain Hispania Singapore Merlion Sweden Mother Svea Switzerland Helvetia Ukraine Cossack Mamay United Kingdom Britannia John Bull Dame Wales United States Brother Jonathan Columbia Lady Liberty Uncle Sam Billy Yank Northern states Johnny Reb Southern states Cities of the United Kingdom England Bath Birmingham Bradford Brighton and Hove Bristol Cambridge Canterbury Carlisle Chelmsford Chester Chichester Coventry Derby Durham Ely Exeter Gloucester Hereford Kingston upon Hull Lancaster Leeds Leicester Lichfield Lincoln Liverpool London Manchester Newcastle upon Tyne Norwich Nottingham Oxford Peterborough Plymouth Portsmouth Preston Ripon St Albans Salford Salisbury Sheffield Southampton Stoke-on-Trent Sunderland Truro Wakefield Wells Westminster Winchester Wolverhampton Worcester York Scotland Aberdeen Dundee Edinburgh Glasgow Inverness Perth Stirling Wales Bangor Cardiff Newport St Asaph St Davids Swansea Northern Ireland Armagh Belfast Derry Lisburn Newry Overseas territories George Town Gibraltar Hamilton Stanley This is a list of the 936 towns in England. Historically, towns were any settlement with a charter, including market towns and ancient boroughs. The process of incorporation was reformed in 1835 and many more places received borough charters, whilst others were lost. All existing boroughs were abolished on 1 April 1974 and borough status was reformed as a civic honour for local government districts. At the same time a limited number of former boroughs and other settlements became successor parishes, with the right to be known as a town and preserve their charter. Boroughs that did not become successor parishes formed unparished areas, but were able to preserve their charters without a corporate body by appointing charter trustees. Since 1 April 1974 any parish council in England has the right to resolve to call itself a town and several communities have taken up this right, including areas that preserved continuity with charter trustees. Chartered towns and town councils This list includes: civil parishes with town councils; unparished areas that had borough charters prior to 1 April 1974 (including areas with charter trustees); and towns with ancient/market charters that did not later gain borough charters or town councils. Town Ceremonial county Status Abingdon Oxfordshire town council1 Accrington Lancashire borough (1878–1974) Acle Norfolk market charter Acton Greater London borough (1921–1965) Adlington Lancashire town council1 Alcester Warwickshire town council Aldeburgh Suffolk town council1 Aldershot Hampshire borough (1922–1974) Alford Lincolnshire town council1 Alfreton Derbyshire town council Alnwick Northumberland town council1 Alsager Cheshire town council1 Alston Cumbria market charter Alton Hampshire town council1 Altrincham Greater Manchester borough (1937–1974) Amble Northumberland town council1 Ambleside Cumbria market charter Amersham Buckinghamshire town council Amesbury Wiltshire town council Ampthill Bedfordshire town council1 Andover Hampshire borough (1835–1974) Appleby-in-Westmorland Cumbria town council1 Arlesey Bedfordshire town council Arundel West Sussex town council1 Ashbourne Derbyshire town council1 Ashburton Devon town council1 Ashby-de-la-Zouch Leicestershire town council1 Ashby Woulds Leicestershire town council1 Ashford Kent market charter Ashington Northumberland town council Ashton-under-Lyne Greater Manchester borough (1847–1974) Askern South Yorkshire town council Aspatria Cumbria town council Atherstone Warwickshire town council Attleborough Norfolk town council Axbridge Somerset town council Axminster Devon town council Aylesbury Buckinghamshire town council Aylsham Norfolk town council Bacup Lancashire borough (1883–1974) Bakewell Derbyshire town council1 Banbury Oxfordshire town council Barking Greater London borough (1931–1965) Barnard Castle Durham town council1 Barnes Greater London borough (1932–1965) Barnet Greater London market charter Barnoldswick Lancashire town council Barnsley South Yorkshire borough (1869–1974) Barnstaple Devon town council1 Barrow-in-Furness Cumbria borough (1867–1974) Barton-upon-Humber Lincolnshire town council1 Basingstoke Hampshire borough (1835–1974) Batley West Yorkshire borough (1868–1974) Battle East Sussex town council Bawtry South Yorkshire town council Beaconsfield Buckinghamshire town council1 Beaminster Dorset town council Bebington Merseyside borough (1937–1974) Beccles Suffolk town council1 Beckenham Greater London borough (1935–1965) Bedale North Yorkshire town council Bedford Bedfordshire borough (1835–1974) Bedworth Warwickshire market charter Belper Derbyshire town council1 Bentham North Yorkshire town council Berkeley Gloucestershire town council Berkhamsted Hertfordshire town council1 Berwick-upon-Tweed Northumberland town council Beverley East Riding of Yorkshire town council Bewdley Worcestershire town council1 Bexhill-on-Sea East Sussex charter trustees Bexley Greater London borough (1937–1965) Bicester Oxfordshire town council1 Biddulph Staffordshire town council1 Bideford Devon town council1 Biggleswade Bedfordshire town council1 Billericay Essex town council Billingham Durham town council Bilston West Midlands borough (1938–1967) Bingham Nottinghamshire town council Bingley West Yorkshire market charter Birchwood Cheshire town council Birkenhead Merseyside borough (1877–1974) Bishop Auckland Durham town council Bishop's Castle Shropshire borough (1885–1974) Bishop's Stortford Hertfordshire town council1 Bishop's Waltham Hampshire market charter Blackburn Lancashire borough (1851–1974) Blackpool Lancashire borough (1867–1974) Blackrod Greater Manchester town council1 Blackwater and Hawley Hampshire town council Blandford Forum Dorset town council1 Bletchley and Fenny Stratford Buckinghamshire town council Blyth Northumberland town council Bodmin Cornwall town council1 Bognor Regis West Sussex town council Bollington Cheshire town council1 Bolsover Derbyshire town council1 Bolton Greater Manchester borough (1838–1974) Bootle Merseyside borough (1868–1974) Boroughbridge North Yorkshire town council Boston Lincolnshire town council Bottesford Lincolnshire town council Bourne Lincolnshire town council1 Bournemouth Dorset borough (1890–1974) Bovey Tracey Devon town council Brackley Northamptonshire town council1 Bradford-on-Avon Wiltshire town council1 Brading Isle of Wight town council Bradley Stoke Gloucestershire town council Bradninch Devon town council Braintree Essex market charter Brampton Cumbria town council Brandon Suffolk town council Braunstone Town Leicestershire town council Brentford Greater London market charter Brentwood Essex market charter Bridgnorth Shropshire town council Bridgwater Somerset town council Bridlington East Riding of Yorkshire town council Bridport Dorset town council1 Brierfield Lancashire town council Brierley South Yorkshire town council Brigg Lincolnshire town council1 Brighouse West Yorkshire borough (1893–1974) Brightlingsea Essex town council1 Brixham Devon town council Broadstairs and St Peter's Kent town council1 Bromborough Merseyside market charter Bromley Greater London borough (1903–1965) Bromsgrove Worcestershire market charter Bromyard and Winslow Herefordshire town council Broseley Shropshire town council Broughton Lincolnshire town council Broughton-in-Furness Cumbria market charter Bruton Somerset town council Buckfastleigh Devon town council1 Buckingham Buckinghamshire town council1 Bude-Stratton Cornwall town council1 Budleigh Salterton Devon town council1 Bulwell Nottinghamshire market charter Bungay Suffolk town council1 Buntingford Hertfordshire town council Burford Oxfordshire town council Burgess Hill West Sussex town council1 Burgh-le-Marsh Lincolnshire town council Burnham-on-Crouch Essex town council1 Burnham-on-Sea and Highbridge Somerset town council1 Burnley Lancashire borough (1861–1974) Burntwood Staffordshire town council Burton Latimer Northamptonshire town council1 Burton upon Trent Staffordshire charter trustees (abolished 2003) Bury Greater Manchester borough (1876–1974) Bury St Edmunds Suffolk town council Bushey Hertfordshire market charter Buxton Derbyshire borough (1917–1974) Caistor Lincolnshire town council Callington Cornwall town council Calne Wiltshire town council1 Camborne Cornwall town council Camelford Cornwall town council Cannock Staffordshire market charter Canvey Island Essex town council Carnforth Lancashire town council1 Carlton Colville Suffolk town council Carterton Oxfordshire town council Castle Cary Somerset town council Castleford West Yorkshire borough (1955–1974) Chagford Devon stannary charter Chapel-en-le-Frith Derbyshire market charter Chard Somerset town council1 Charlbury Oxfordshire town council Chatham Kent borough (1890–1974) Chatteris Cambridgeshire town council1 Cheadle Staffordshire town council Chelmsford Essex charter trustees (abolished 1975) Cheltenham Gloucestershire borough (1876–1974) Chertsey Surrey market charter Chesham Buckinghamshire town council1 Cheshunt Hertfordshire market charter Chesterfield Derbyshire borough (1835–1974) Chester-le-Street Durham market charter Chickerell Dorset town council Chingford Greater London borough (1938–1965) Chippenham Wiltshire town council Chipping Campden Gloucestershire town council Chipping Norton Oxfordshire town council1 Chipping Sodbury Gloucestershire town council Chorley Lancashire borough (1881–1974) Chorleywood Hertfordshire town council1 Christchurch Dorset borough (1886–1974) Chudleigh Devon town council Chulmleigh Devon market charter Church Stretton Shropshire town council Cinderford Gloucestershire town council Cirencester Gloucestershire town council1 Clare Suffolk market charter Clay Cross Derbyshire town council1 Cleator Moor Cumbria town council Cleethorpes Lincolnshire charter trustees Cleobury Mortimer Shropshire market charter Clevedon Somerset town council1 Clitheroe Lancashire town council1 Clun Shropshire market charter Cockermouth Cumbria town council1 Coggeshall Essex market charter Colburn North Yorkshire town council Colchester Essex borough (1835–1974) Coleford Gloucestershire town council Coleshill Warwickshire town council Colne Lancashire town council Colyton Devon market charter Congleton Cheshire town council Conisbrough South Yorkshire market charter Corbridge Northumberland market charter Corby Northamptonshire market charter Corringham Essex market charter Corsham Wiltshire town council Cotgrave Nottinghamshire town council Cowes Isle of Wight town council Cramlington Northumberland town council Cranbrook Kent market charter Craven Arms Shropshire town council Crawley West Sussex market charter Crediton Devon town council1 Crewe Cheshire charter trustees Crewkerne Somerset town council1 Cricklade Wiltshire town council Cromer Norfolk town council1 Crosby Merseyside borough (1937–1974) Crowborough East Sussex town council Croydon Greater London borough (1883–1965) Crowland Lincolnshire market charter Crowle Lincolnshire town council Cullompton Devon town council Dagenham Greater London borough (1938–1965) Dalton Town with Newton Cumbria town council Darley Dale Derbyshire town council Darlington Durham borough (1867–1974) Dartford Kent charter trustees (abolished 1977) Dartmouth Devon town council1 Darwen Lancashire town council Daventry Northamptonshire town council Dawlish Devon town council1 Deal Kent town council Dereham Norfolk town council1 Desborough Northamptonshire town council1 Devizes Wiltshire town council1 Dewsbury West Yorkshire borough (1862–1974) Didcot Oxfordshire town council Dinnington St John's South Yorkshire town council Diss Norfolk town council1 Doncaster South Yorkshire borough (1835–1974) Dorchester Dorset town council1 Dorking Surrey market charter Dover Kent town council Dovercourt Essex market charter Downham Market Norfolk town council1 Driffield East Riding of Yorkshire town council Droitwich Spa Worcestershire town council1 Dronfield Derbyshire town council1 Dudley West Midlands borough (1865–1974) Dukinfield Greater Manchester borough (1899–1974) Dulverton Somerset town council Dunstable Bedfordshire town council Dunwich Suffolk market charter Dursley Gloucestershire town council Ealing Greater London borough (1901–1965) Earl Shilton Leicestershire town council Earley Berkshire town council Easingwold North Yorkshire town council East Cowes Isle of Wight town council East Grinstead West Sussex town council1 East Ham Greater London borough (1904–1965) Eastbourne East Sussex borough (1883–1974) Eastleigh Hampshire borough (1936–1974) East Retford Nottinghamshire charter trustees Eastwood Nottinghamshire town council1 Eccles Greater Manchester borough (1892–1974) Eccleshall Staffordshire market charter Edenbridge Kent town council Edgware Greater London market charter Edmonton Greater London borough (1937–1965) Egremont Cumbria town council Elland West Yorkshire market charter Ellesmere Shropshire town council Ellesmere Port Cheshire charter trustees Elstree and Borehamwood Hertfordshire town council Emsworth Hampshire market charter Enfield Greater London borough (1955–1965) Epping Essex town council1 Epworth Lincolnshire town council Erith Greater London borough (1937–1965) Eton Berkshire town council1 Evesham Worcestershire town council1 Exmouth Devon town council Eye Suffolk town council1 Fairford Gloucestershire town council Fakenham Norfolk town council Falmouth Cornwall town council1 Fareham Hampshire market charter Faringdon Oxfordshire town council Farnham Surrey town council Faversham Kent town council1 Fazeley Staffordshire town council Featherstone West Yorkshire town council1 Felixstowe Suffolk town council1 Ferndown Dorset town council Ferryhill Durham town council Filey North Yorkshire town council1 Filton Gloucestershire town council Finchley Greater London borough (1933–1965) Fleet Hampshire town council Fleetwood Lancashire borough (1933–1974) Flitwick Bedfordshire town council Folkestone Kent town council Fordbridge West Midlands town council Fordingbridge Hampshire town council Fordwich Kent town council Fowey Cornwall town council Framlingham Suffolk town council Frinton and Walton Essex town council1 Frodsham Cheshire town council Frome Somerset town council1 Gainsborough Lincolnshire town council Garstang Lancashire town council Gateshead Tyne and Wear borough (1835–1974) Gillingham Dorset town council Gillingham Kent borough (1903–1974) Glastonbury Somerset town council1 Glossop Derbyshire borough (1866–1974) Godalming Surrey town council1 Godmanchester Cambridgeshire town council1 Goole East Riding of Yorkshire town council Gorleston Norfolk market charter Gosport Hampshire borough (1922–1974) Grange-over-Sands Cumbria town council1 Grantham Lincolnshire charter trustees Gravesend Kent borough (1835–1974) Grays Essex market charter Great Dunmow Essex town council Great Torrington Devon town council1 Great Yarmouth Norfolk borough (1835–1974) Greater Willington Durham town council Grimsby Lincolnshire charter trustees Guildford Surrey borough (1835–1974) Guisborough North Yorkshire town council1 Hadleigh Suffolk town council1 Hailsham East Sussex town council Halesowen West Midlands borough (1936–1974) Halesworth Suffolk town council1 Halifax West Yorkshire borough (1848–1974) Halstead Essex town council1 Haltwhistle Northumberland town council Redenhall with Harleston Norfolk town council Harlow Essex market charter Harpenden Hertfordshire town council1 Harrogate North Yorkshire borough (1884–1974) Harrow Greater London borough (1954–1965) Hartland Devon market charter Hartlepool Durham borough (1850–1974) Harwich Essex town council1 Harworth and Bircotes Nottinghamshire town council Haslemere Surrey town council1 Haslingden Lancashire borough (1891–1974) Hastings East Sussex borough (1835–1974) Hatfield Hertfordshire town council Hatherleigh Devon town council Havant Hampshire market charter Haverhill Suffolk town council Haxby North Yorkshire town council Hayle Cornwall town council Haywards Heath West Sussex town council Heanor and Loscoe Derbyshire town council Heathfield East Sussex market charter Hebden Royd West Yorkshire town council1 Hedge End Hampshire town council Hednesford Staffordshire town council Hedon East Riding of Yorkshire town council1 Helmsley North Yorkshire town council Helston Cornwall town council1 Hemel Hempstead Hertfordshire charter trustees (abolished 1984) Hemsworth West Yorkshire town council1 Hendon Greater London borough (1932–1965) Henley-in-Arden Warwickshire market charter Henley-on-Thames Oxfordshire town council1 Hertford Hertfordshire town council1 Hessle East Riding of Yorkshire town council Hetton Tyne and Wear town council1 Hexham Northumberland town council1 Heywood Greater Manchester borough (1881–1974) Higham Ferrers Northamptonshire town council1 Highworth Wiltshire town council High Wycombe Buckinghamshire charter trustees Hinckley Leicestershire market charter Hingham Norfolk town council Hitchin Hertfordshire market charter Hoddesdon Hertfordshire market charter Holbeach Lincolnshire market charter Holsworthy Devon town council Holt Norfolk town council Honiton Devon town council1 Horley Surrey town council Horncastle Lincolnshire town council1 Hornsea East Riding of Yorkshire town council1 Hornsey Greater London borough (1903–1965) Horsforth West Yorkshire town council Horwich Greater Manchester town council1 Houghton Regis Bedfordshire town council Howden East Riding of Yorkshire town council Huddersfield West Yorkshire borough (1868–1974) Hungerford Berkshire town council Hunstanton Norfolk town council1 Huntingdon Cambridgeshire town council1 Hyde Greater Manchester borough (1881–1974) Hythe Kent town council1 Ilford Greater London borough (1926–1965) Ilfracombe Devon town council1 Ilkeston Derbyshire charter trustees (abolished 1975) Ilkley West Yorkshire town council1 Ilminster Somerset town council1 Immingham Lincolnshire town council Ingleby Barwick North Yorkshire town council Ipswich Suffolk borough (1835–1974) Irthlingborough Northamptonshire town council1 Ivybridge Devon town council Jarrow Tyne and Wear borough (1875–1974) Keighley West Yorkshire town council Kempston Bedfordshire town council1 Kendal Cumbria town council1 Kenilworth Warwickshire town council1 Kesgrave Suffolk town council Keswick Cumbria town council1 Kettering Northamptonshire borough (1938–1974) Keynsham Somerset town council Kidderminster Worcestershire charter trustees Kidsgrove Staffordshire town council1 Kimberley Nottinghamshire town council Kingsbridge Devon town council1 King's Lynn Norfolk borough (1835–1974) Kingston-upon-Thames Greater London borough (1835–1965) Kington Herefordshire town council1 Kirkby-in-Ashfield Nottinghamshire market charter Kirkby Lonsdale Cumbria town council Kirkby Stephen Cumbria town council Kirkbymoorside North Yorkshire town council Kirkham Lancashire town council1 Kirton-in-Lindsey Lincolnshire town council Knaresborough North Yorkshire town council1 Knutsford Cheshire town council1 Langport Somerset town council Launceston Cornwall town council1 Leatherhead Surrey market charter Lechlade Gloucestershire town council Ledbury Herefordshire town council Leek Staffordshire town council1 Leigh Greater Manchester borough (1899–1974) Leighton-Linslade Bedfordshire town council1 Leigh-on-Sea Essex town council Leiston Suffolk town council1 Leominster Herefordshire town council1 Letchworth Hertfordshire town council Lewes East Sussex town council1 Leyburn North Yorkshire town council Leyton Greater London borough (1926–1965) Liskeard Cornwall town council1 Littlehampton West Sussex town council1 Loddon Norfolk market charter Loftus North Yorkshire town council1 Long Sutton Lincolnshire market charter Longridge Lancashire town council1 Longtown Herefordshire market charter Looe Cornwall town council1 Lostwithiel Cornwall town council Loughborough Leicestershire borough (1888–1974) Loughton Essex town council Louth Lincolnshire town council1 Lowestoft Suffolk charter trustees Ludgershall Wiltshire town council Ludlow Shropshire town council Luton Bedfordshire borough (1876–1974) Lutterworth Leicestershire town council Lydd Kent town council1 Lydney Gloucestershire town council Lyme Regis Dorset town council1 Lynton and Lynmouth Devon town council1 Lytham St Annes Lancashire borough (1922–1974) Mablethorpe and Sutton Lincolnshire town council1 Macclesfield Cheshire charter trustees Madeley Shropshire market charter Maghull Merseyside town council Maidenhead Berkshire borough (1835–1974) Maidstone Kent borough (1835–1974) Maldon Essex town council Malmesbury Wiltshire town council1 Maltby South Yorkshire town council Malton North Yorkshire town council1 Malvern Worcestershire town council Manningtree Essex town council Mansfield Nottinghamshire charter trustees Marazion Cornwall town council March Cambridgeshire town council1 Margate Kent charter trustees Market Bosworth Leicestershire market charter Market Deeping Lincolnshire town council Market Drayton Shropshire town council Market Harborough Leicestershire market charter Market Rasen Lincolnshire town council1 Market Weighton East Riding of Yorkshire town council Marlborough Wiltshire town council1 Marlow Buckinghamshire town council1 Maryport Cumbria town council1 Masham North Yorkshire market charter Matlock Derbyshire town council Medlar with Wesham Lancashire town council Melksham Wiltshire town council1 Meltham West Yorkshire town council1 Melton Mowbray Leicestershire town council Mere Wiltshire town council Middleham North Yorkshire town council Middlesbrough North Yorkshire borough (1853–1967) Middleton Greater Manchester borough (1886–1974) Middlewich Cheshire town council1 Midhurst West Sussex town council Midsomer Norton Somerset market charter Mildenhall Suffolk market charter Millom Cumbria town council Minchinhampton Gloucestershire market charter Minehead Somerset town council Minster Kent market charter Mirfield West Yorkshire town council Mitcham Greater London borough (1934–1965) Mitcheldean Gloucestershire market charter Morecambe Lancashire town council Moretonhampstead Devon market charter Moreton-in-Marsh Gloucestershire town council Morley West Yorkshire town council Morpeth Northumberland borough (1835–1974) Mossley Greater Manchester town council Much Wenlock Shropshire town council Nailsea Somerset town council Nailsworth Gloucestershire town council1 Nantwich Cheshire town council1 Needham Market Suffolk town council Nelson Lancashire town council Neston Cheshire town council New Alresford Hampshire town council New Mills Derbyshire town council1 New Milton Hampshire town council New Romney Kent town council1 Newark-on-Trent Nottinghamshire town council Newbiggin-by-the-Sea Northumberland town council Newbury Berkshire town council Newcastle-under-Lyme Staffordshire borough (1835–1974) Newent Gloucestershire town council Newhaven East Sussex town council1 Newlyn Cornwall market charter Newmarket Suffolk town council Newport Isle of Wight borough (1835–1974) Newport Shropshire town council1 Newport Pagnell Buckinghamshire town council Newquay Cornwall town council Newton Abbot Devon town council1 Newton-le-Willows Merseyside market charter Normanton West Yorkshire town council1 North Hykeham Lincolnshire town council North Petherton Somerset town council North Tawton Devon town council North Walsham Norfolk town council1 Northallerton North Yorkshire town council1 Northam Devon town council1 Northampton Northamptonshire borough (1835–1974) Northfleet Kent market charter Northleach with Eastington Gloucestershire town council Northwich Cheshire town council1 Norton-on-Derwent North Yorkshire town council1 Nuneaton Warwickshire borough (1907–1974) Oakengates Shropshire town council Oakham Rutland town council1 Okehampton Devon town council1 Oldbury West Midlands borough (1935–1966) Oldham Greater Manchester borough (1849–1974) Ollerton and Boughton Nottinghamshire town council Olney Buckinghamshire town council Ongar Essex town council Orford Suffolk market charter Ormskirk Lancashire market charter Ossett West Yorkshire borough (1890–1974) Oswestry Shropshire town council Otley West Yorkshire town council1 Ottery St Mary Devon town council1 Oundle Northamptonshire town council1 Paddock Wood Kent town council Padiham Lancashire town council Padstow Cornwall town council Paignton Devon market charter Painswick Gloucestershire market charter Partington Greater Manchester town council Patchway Gloucestershire town council Pateley Bridge North Yorkshire town council Peacehaven East Sussex town council Penistone South Yorkshire town council1 Penkridge Staffordshire market charter Penrith Cumbria market charter Penryn Cornwall town council1 Penwortham Lancashire town council Penzance Cornwall town council Pershore Worcestershire town council Peterlee Durham town council Petersfield Hampshire town council1 Petworth West Sussex town council Pickering North Yorkshire town council1 Pocklington East Riding of Yorkshire town council Polegate East Sussex town council Pontefract West Yorkshire borough (1835–1974) Ponteland Northumberland town council Poole Dorset borough (1835–1974) Porthleven Cornwall town council Portishead and North Weston Somerset town council1 Portland Dorset town council1 Potton Bedfordshire town council Poynton-with-Worth Cheshire town council Preesall Lancashire town council1 Prescot Merseyside town council Princes Risborough Buckinghamshire town council Prudhoe Northumberland town council1 Pudsey West Yorkshire borough (1900–1974) Queenborough-in-Sheppey Kent charter trustees (abolished 1977) Radstock Somerset town council1 Ramsey Cambridgeshire town council1 Ramsgate Kent town council Raunds Northamptonshire town council1 Rawtenstall Lancashire borough (1891–1974) Rayleigh Essex town council Reading Berkshire borough (1935–1974) Redcar North Yorkshire borough (1921–1967) Redruth Cornwall town council Reepham Norfolk town council Reigate Surrey borough (1863–1974) Richmond Greater London borough (1890–1965) Richmond North Yorkshire town council1 Ringwood Hampshire town council Ripley Derbyshire town council1 Ripon North Yorkshire town council1 Rochdale Greater Manchester borough (1856–1974) Rochester Kent borough (1835–1974)2 Rochford Essex market charter Romford Greater London borough (1937–1965) Romsey Hampshire town council1 Ross-on-Wye Herefordshire town council1 Rothbury Northumberland market charter Rotherham South Yorkshire borough (1871–1974) Rothwell Northamptonshire town council1 Rothwell West Yorkshire market charter Rowley Regis West Midlands borough (1933–1966) Royal Leamington Spa Warwickshire town council Royal Tunbridge Wells Kent borough (1888–1974) Royal Wootton Bassett Wiltshire town council Royston Hertfordshire town council1 Rugby Warwickshire borough (1932–1974) Rugeley Staffordshire town council Rushden Northamptonshire town council Ryde Isle of Wight town council Rye East Sussex town council1 Saffron Walden Essex town council1 St Austell Cornwall town council St Blaise Cornwall town council St Columb Major Cornwall town council St Helens Merseyside borough (1868–1974) St Ives Cambridgeshire town council1 St Ives Cornwall town council1 St Just-in-Penwith Cornwall town council1 St Mawes Cornwall market charter St Neots Cambridgeshire town council1 Salcombe Devon town council1 Sale Greater Manchester borough (1935–1974) Saltash Cornwall town council1 Sandbach Cheshire town council1 Sandhurst Berkshire town council Sandiacre Derbyshire market charter Sandown Isle of Wight town council Sandwich Kent town council1 Sandy Bedfordshire town council1 Sawbridgeworth Hertfordshire town council1 Saxmundham Suffolk town council1 Scarborough North Yorkshire borough (1835–1974) Scunthorpe Lincolnshire charter trustees Seaford East Sussex town council Seaham Durham town council Seaton Devon town council1 Sedbergh Cumbria market charter Selby North Yorkshire town council1 Selsey West Sussex town council Settle North Yorkshire town council Sevenoaks Kent town council1 Shaftesbury Dorset town council1 Shanklin Isle of Wight town council Shefford Bedfordshire town council Shepshed Leicestershire town council Shepton Mallet Somerset town council1 Sherborne Dorset town council1 Sheringham Norfolk town council1 Shifnal Shropshire town council Shildon Durham town council1 Shipston-on-Stour Warwickshire town council Shirebrook Derbyshire town council Shoreham-by-Sea West Sussex market charter Shrewsbury Shropshire borough (1935–1974) Sidmouth Devon town council1 Silloth Cumbria town council Silsden West Yorkshire town council1 Skegness Lincolnshire town council1 Skelmersdale Lancashire town council Skelton-in-Cleveland North Yorkshire market charter Skipton North Yorkshire town council1 Sleaford Lincolnshire town council1 Slough Berkshire borough (1838–1974) Smethwick West Midlands borough (1899–1966) Snaith and Cowick East Riding of Yorkshire town council Snodland Kent town council Soham Cambridgeshire town council Solihull West Midlands borough (1954–1974) Somerton Somerset town council South Cave East Riding of Yorkshire market charter South Elmsall West Yorkshire town council South Kirkby and Moorthorpe West Yorkshire town council South Molton Devon town council South Petherton Somerset market charter South Shields Tyne and Wear borough (1850–1974) South Woodham Ferrers Essex town council Southam Warwickshire town council Southall Greater London borough (1936–1965) Southborough Kent town council1 Southend-on-Sea Essex borough (1892–1974) Southgate Greater London borough (1933–1965) Southminster Essex market charter Southport Merseyside borough (1866–1974) Southsea Hampshire town council Southwell Nottinghamshire town council Southwick Hampshire market charter Southwold Suffolk town council1 Spalding Lincolnshire town council Spennymoor Durham town council1 Spilsby Lincolnshire town council Stafford Staffordshire borough (1835–1974) Staines-upon-Thames Surrey market charter Stainforth South Yorkshire town council Stalbridge Dorset town council Stalham Norfolk market charter Stalybridge Greater Manchester borough (1857–1974) Stamford Lincolnshire town council1 Stanley Durham town council Stanhope Durham market charter Stapleford Nottinghamshire town council Staveley Derbyshire town council1 Stevenage Hertfordshire market charter Steyning West Sussex market charter St Mary Cray Greater London market charter Stockport Greater Manchester borough (1835–1974) Stocksbridge South Yorkshire town council1 Stockton-on-Tees Durham/North Yorkshire borough (1835–1967) Stone Staffordshire town council1 Stonehouse Gloucestershire town council Stony Stratford Buckinghamshire town council Stotfold Bedfordshire town council Stourbridge West Midlands borough (1914–1974) Stourport-on-Severn Worcestershire town council1 Stowmarket Suffolk town council1 Stow-on-the-Wold Gloucestershire town council Stratford-upon-Avon Warwickshire town council1 Stretford Greater Manchester borough (1933–1974) Strood Kent market charter Stroud Gloucestershire town council Sturminster Newton Dorset town council Sudbury Suffolk town council1 Surbiton Greater London borough (1936–1965) Sutton Coldfield West Midlands market charter Swaffham Norfolk town council1 Swanage Dorset town council1 Swanley Kent town council Swanscombe and Greenhithe Kent town council1 Swindon Wiltshire borough (1900–1974) Syston Leicestershire town council Tadcaster North Yorkshire town council Tadley Hampshire town council Tamworth Staffordshire borough (1835–1974) Taunton Somerset borough (1885–1974) Tavistock Devon town council Teignmouth Devon town council1 Telscombe East Sussex town council Tenbury Wells Worcestershire town council Tenterden Kent town council1 Tetbury Gloucestershire town council Tewkesbury Gloucestershire town council1 Thame Oxfordshire town council1 Thatcham Berkshire town council Thaxted Essex market charter Thetford Norfolk town council1 Thirsk North Yorkshire town council Thornaby-on-Tees North Yorkshire town council Thornbury Gloucestershire town council Thorne South Yorkshire town council Thorpe St Andrew Norfolk town council Thrapston Northamptonshire town council Tickhill South Yorkshire town council1 Tidworth Wiltshire town council Tipton West Midlands borough (1938–1966) Tisbury Wiltshire town council Tiverton Devon town council1 Todmorden West Yorkshire town council1 Tonbridge Kent market charter Topsham Devon market charter Torpoint Devon town council1 Torquay Devon borough (1892–1974) Totnes Devon town council1 Tottenham Greater London borough (1934–1965) Totton and Eling Hampshire town council Tow Law Durham town council1 Towcester Northamptonshire town council Tring Hertfordshire town council1 Trowbridge Wiltshire town council1 Twickenham Greater London borough (1926–1965) Tynemouth Tyne and Wear borough (1849–1974) Uckfield East Sussex town council Ulverston Cumbria town council1 Uppingham Rutland town council Upton-upon-Severn Worcestershire town council Uttoxeter Staffordshire town council1 Uxbridge Greater London borough (1955–1965) Ventnor Isle of Wight town council1 Verwood Dorset town council Wadebridge Cornwall town council Wadhurst East Sussex market charter Wainfleet All Saints Lincolnshire town council Wallasey Merseyside borough (1910–1974) Wallsend Tyne and Wear borough (1901–1974) Wallingford Oxfordshire town council1 Walsall West Midlands borough (1835–1974) Waltham Abbey Essex town council1 Waltham Cross Hertfordshire market charter Walthamstow Greater London borough (1926–1965) Walton-on-Thames Surrey market charter Wantage Oxfordshire town council1 Ware Hertfordshire town council1 Wareham Dorset town council1 Warminster Wiltshire town council1 Warrington Cheshire borough (1847–1974) Warwick Warwickshire town council1 Watchet Somerset town council1 Watford Hertfordshire borough (1922–1974) Wath-upon-Dearne South Yorkshire market charter Watlington Oxfordshire market charter Watton Norfolk town council Wellingborough Northamptonshire market charter Wellington Shropshire town council Wellington Somerset town council1 Wells-next-the-Sea Norfolk town council1 Wem Shropshire town council Wembley Greater London borough (1937–1965) Wendover Buckinghamshire market charter West Bedlington Northumberland town council West Bromwich West Midlands borough (1882–1974) West Ham Greater London borough (1886–1965) West Malling Kent market charter West Mersea Essex town council1 West Tilbury Essex market charter Westbury Wiltshire town council1 Westerham Kent market charter Westhoughton Greater Manchester town council Weston-super-Mare Somerset town council Wetherby West Yorkshire town council Weybridge Surrey market charter Weymouth Dorset town council Whaley Bridge Derbyshire town council1 Whitby North Yorkshire town council1 Whitchurch Hampshire town council Whitchurch Shropshire town council Whitehaven Cumbria borough (1894–1974) Whitehill Hampshire town council Whitnash Warwickshire town council Whittlesey Cambridgeshire town council Whitworth Lancashire town council1 Wickham Hampshire market charter Wickwar Gloucestershire market charter Widnes Cheshire borough (1892–1974) Wigan Greater Manchester borough (1835–1974) Wigton Cumbria town council Willenhall West Midlands market charter Willesden Greater London borough (1933–1965) Wilton Wiltshire town council1 Wimbledon Greater London borough (1905–1965) Wimborne Minster Dorset town council1 Wincanton Somerset town council Winchcombe Gloucestershire town council Winchelsea East Sussex market charter Windermere Cumbria town council1 Windsor Berkshire borough (1835–1974) Winsford Cheshire town council1 Winslow Buckinghamshire town council Winterton Lincolnshire town council Wirksworth Derbyshire town council1 Wisbech Cambridgeshire town council1 Witham Essex town council Withernsea East Riding of Yorkshire town council Witney Oxfordshire town council1 Wiveliscombe Somerset town council Wivenhoe Essex town council1 Woburn Bedfordshire market charter Woburn Sands Buckinghamshire town council Woking Surrey market charter Wokingham Berkshire town council1 Wolsingham Durham market charter Wolverton and Greenleys Buckinghamshire town council Wood Green Greater London borough (1933–1965) Woodbridge Suffolk town council1 Woodley Berkshire town council Woodstock Oxfordshire town council1 Wooler Northumberland market charter Workington Cumbria town council Worksop Nottinghamshire charter trustees Worthing West Sussex borough (1890–1974) Wotton-under-Edge Gloucestershire town council Wragby Lincolnshire town council Wymondham Norfolk town council1 Yarm North Yorkshire town council Yarmouth Isle of Wight town council Yate Gloucestershire town council Yateley Hampshire town council Yeovil Somerset town council Designated new towns Main article: New towns in the United Kingdom Town Ceremonial county Status Basildon Essex new town (designated 1949) Bracknell Berkshire new town (designated 1949) Milton Keynes Buckinghamshire new town (designated 1967) Redditch Worcestershire new town (designated 1964) Telford Shropshire new town (designated 1968) Washington Tyne and Wear new town (designated 1964) Welwyn Garden City Hertfordshire new town (designated 1948)


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