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Details about  WW1 German Trench Art Knife & Fork Set Projectile Ring Zeppelin Shrapnel & Coins

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WW1 German Trench Art Knife & Fork Set Projectile Ring Zeppelin Shrapnel & Coins
WW1-German-Trench-Art-Knife-Fork-Set-Projectile-Ring-Zeppelin-Shrapnel-Coins
Item Ended
Item condition:
Used

Good Complete

Ended:
20 Jun, 2014 20:10:18 BST
Price:
£140.00
Postage:
£7.95 Standard Delivery | See details
Item location:
Bedfordshire , United Kingdom

Description

eBay item number:
111360187389
Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing.
Last updated on  11 Jun, 2014 13:40:51 BST  View all revisions
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Item specifics

Condition: Used : Split the cost with friends
An item that has been previously used. See the seller’s listing for full details and description of any imperfections. See all condition definitions- opens in a new window or tab
Seller notes: Good Complete
Service:

Army

Country/ Organization:

Germany

Type:

Field Gear

Conflict:

World War I (1914-1918)

Era:

1914-1945

This is a superb original German work of Trench Art!


A Cased set of a handmade knife and fork. Both superbly crafted from a steel base with aluminium shrapnel from a Zeppelin frame riveted either side of the steel handles. Set flush into the handles themselves are projectile guide ring fragments, and at the end of the handles are Deux Centimes Francias coins dating from between 1860 - 1900. There is a coin missing on one side of the fork, this does not effect the pieces when displayed. An amazing piece of workmanship and completely unique!

They both come set into a handmade case lined with red velvet, which has worn over time. The case has hand punched decoration all over and on the lid is a lovely crafted Iron Cross in the center, surrounded by a wreath with acorns top and bottom, raised initials of J W are either side of the center carving. The case has hand made bronze hinges ad brass catch, all working fine.

Overall the knife is 25cm long with the fork being 22cm. the case measures 27 x 7 x 3.5cm.


A Lovely and Unique WW1 display piece!




PROJECTILE GUIDE RINGS, ALSO KNOWN AS DRIVING BANDS :

The shell inflight stability was insured by its spin movement around its axis (gyroscopic effect). This spin was given to the projectile when fired, by a system of helical grooves machined inside the gun barrel ('rifling'). One or more soft metal or copper guide bands would be circled around the shell's base(and sometimes body) with an external diameter equal to the barrel inner diameter at the bottom of the rifling grooves. When introduced inside the gun's rear chamber, the shell was forced inside the rifled tube section, and the barrels helical grooves pressed indents into the driving bands. When fired forcing the projectile to lock in and follow the spiraling path up through the gun barrel giving it the desired spin when propelled through the air. Examples are shown below, please scroll down further for more pictures of the item on offer. Thank you







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  DDR | SOCIALISM | Nostalgia | DDR Guhr communism propaganda political propaganda Moscow GDR USSR political history NVA Nostalgia Zone East Zone East Berlin, East Germany Criminal complaints Stasi Stasi KGB kgb sed people's police stooges SBZ zone of occupation SMI border troops general strike People's Republic of border police and National People's Army Wall Front Berlin - Tunnelling Honecker era demise self-exposure MdI Ministry of the Interior Dresden NVA VPKA consumption Stasi Wandlitz Comrade Department in unofficial member state hostile to IMF Captain Major Colonel exit Dessidentin Dess Ident spy monitoring report conspiratorial FDJ HO FDGB DTSB DSF GST battle groups young pioneer pioneer Centrum department store GENEX FORUM Centrum use military Verlag Fritz Heckert MS LSK LV Ostmark VP German People's Police official use , Police, VP, public policy, Socialism, East Germany, White Mouse, ABV, limit, forensics, criminal investigation department ata immi blue strangler ossi NVA - GST - VP - Volkspolizei DDR FFW Ostalgie KONVOLUT 100 % Original ! 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Ausb. u. Ers. Btl. 17 Stammkp CONFIDENTIALITY OBLIGATION DOCUMENT RECOMMENDATION SERVICE CERTIFICATE FOR THE NSDAP VACATION- BUSINESS TRIP" FORM INTERDEPARTMENTAL PERSONNEL FILE AUTHORIZATION DOCUMENT FROM REICHSFÜHRER-SS HEINRICH HIMMLER MAJOR CATALOGUE SECTION LINKS ADOLF GOERING SUPER ORIGINAL LUFFT COMPASS SCHARFÜHRER’S PHOTOGRAPH MANN'S FRAMED PHOTOGRAPH PROPAGANDA PRESS PHOTOGRAPHS SCHÜTZE AIR FORCE FLIGHT INFANTRY SAILOR MERCHANT STURMBANN "REICHS- PARTEITAG NÜRNBERG 1934" ARTWORK POSTCARD ZUM GEDENKEN DES 9. 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BERLIN BADGE OUTSTANDING ACHIEVEMENT IN Schöner patriotischer Brieföffner mit EK Der Brieföffner wurde aus einem Granatsplitter gefertigt Das EK trägt mittig ein W und im unteren Kreuzarm die Jahreszahl Schönes und sehr seltenes Stück in einem gebrauchten, aber noch sammelwürdigen Erhaltungszustand.THE TECHNICAL BRANCH OF THE AIR-FORCE MEDALLION MERITORIOUS ACHIEVEMENT IN AIR DISTRICT  HERMANN GORING FEMALE AUXILIARIES CIVILIAN PIN COMMEMORATIVE shoulder strap arm band ENGINEER MAJOR'S SHOULDER BOARD SIGNALS LEUTNANT'S Trench Art Artillery Shell Splinter / Shrapnel Shard Iron Cross Letter Opener UNTEROFFIZIER'S CONSTRUCTION EM’S REICHSCHULE FÜR LUFTAUFSICHT FLAK ARTILLERY EM'S SHIRT OFFIZIER'S Third Reich fledgling Luftwaffe Regulations DLV DEUTSCHER LUFTSPORTVERBAND RLB/SHD/LSW REICHLUFTSCHUTZBUND SICHERHEITS-U. HILFDIENST LUFTSCHUTZ WARNDIENST gas gasmask ration mask v1 v2 rocket air combat tank. rocket launcher bazooka knife dagger game boxed Gas Gasmaske Ration Maske v1 v2 Rakete Luft Kampfpanzer. Raketenwerfer Panzerfaust Messer Dolch Spiel diary album collection personal Tagebuch Album Sammlung personenbezogener. air force, army, force, marines, navy, service, servicepeople, soldiery, troop ARP A.R.P. Home Front Fire Patrol Special Air Raid Siren Water Police Pump Driver R.A.M.C. shillings sixpence old vintage scarce rare britich AA legion navy seal paratrooper Home of the 81st TFW EISENHOWER EAGLE, WINSTON CHURCHILL , MATILDA, SHERMAN BREWSTER BUFFALO Brize NortonPhantom Embassy Commander Commando Command Colonel Major SQN N.A.A.F.I. E.N.S.A NAFFI ENSA CEO NCO DEUTSCHE REICHSBAHN ARMY SURPLUS DPM PLCE IRR DOUBLE AMMO POUCH-SAS/PARA webbing set yoke utility A-A. FWN. ForewomanQMAAC A-CLY. TIND. Acting Cooly Tindal IRAQA -FWN. Acting Forewoman QMAAC A-N. SISTER Nursing Sister EA A-P. CPL Acting Provost Corporal RHOD A-SURG Acting Surgeon (3rd Class) IAA-U. ADTR Assistant Under Administrator A.A. ENGR. Acting Artificer Engineer RNA. ADTR. Assistant Administrator A.B. Able Seaman RN A. BMBR. Acting Bombardier A.C.Armourer's Crew RN A.C. CTR. Chief Controller A.C.Q.M. SGT Acting Company Quarter Master Sergeant BA A.C. SGT. Acting Colour Serjeant BA A. COMM. Commissary IA A. CPL. Acting Corporal BA A.D. COMM. Deputy Commissary UG A. FWN. Assistant Forewoman A. INSPR. Inspector EA A.L. CPL. Acting Lance Corporal CAN A.L.D. Acting Lance Dafadar IA A.L/DFD Acting Lance Dafadar IA A.M.1. Air Mechanic 1st Class RAF A.M.1. Air Mechanic 1st Class RNAS A.M. GR.1. Air Mechanic Grade 1 RNAS A. NAICK. Acting Naik HKSRGA A. NAIK Acting Naik IA A.S.M. Station Master IA A.S. SJT Acting Staff Serjeant BA A. SGT. Acting Serjeant BA A. SJT Acting Serjeant BA A. SN. MR. Acting Station Master IA A. SUPDT. Acting Superintendant A. TRSR. Assistant Treasurer SOM A.W.O. CL.2. Acting Warrant BA A/S. Q.M. SJT Acting Squadron Quarter Master Serjeant AUS ABDAR Abdar IA ACCT. & TR. Accountant & Treasurer ACT. A.M.1. Acting Air Mechanic 1st Class RNAS ACT. AR. MT. RN ACT. ARMR. Acting Armourer ACT. C.M.M. Acting Chief Motor Mechanic RNVR ACT. CH. ARM. Acting Chief Armourer RN ACT.E.R.A. Acting Engine Room Artificer  ACT.L.S. Acting Leading Seaman ACT. L. STO. Acting Leading Stoker RN ACT. S.P.O. Stoker Petty AD. SVT. Admirals Servant RN ADJ Adjutant SA Admiral RN AGENT Agent EA AMB. HVLDR. Ambulance Havildar  AMT. Q.M. SJT. Armament Quarter Master Serjeant BA AMT. S. MJR. Armament Serjeant Major BA APPCE. Apprentice MFA AR. CR. Armourers Crew RN AR. MTE. Mate  ARB. Labourer SA ARMR Armourer RNARMR.Armourer SOM ARMR. S. MJR. Armourer Serjeant Major BSAP ART. ENG. Artificer Engineer ART. HVLDR. Artificer Havildar     IA ARTFR. Artificer BA ASST. Assistant RN ASST. BUTCHER Butcher CK Cook. FRN. Assistant Foreman MFA ASST. KEL. Assistant Steward SA ASST. LNDRYMAN Laundryman. PAYR. Paymaster RN ASST. SGN. Assistant Surgeon HK ASST. SGN. Assistant Surgeon HK ASST. STD Steward MFA ASST. TD. Assistant Steward RNASST. STO. Assistant Stoker RN ASST. SURGN.Surgeon EA AUDITOR Auditor EA Origin B'SUN Boatswain B. AMIN.C.Q.M.S. EGY B. ART Boy Artificer B. BUGR. Boy Bugler RMLI CK. Boy Cook RNR B.K.M.S. Battery Quarter Master Serjeant SA B.Q.M. SJT. Battery Quarter Master Serjeant     BA B.S. MATE Blacksmiths Mate RNB.S. MJR. Battery Serjeant Major BA B. SHAWISH Bash Shawish EGY B. SMITH BlacksmithIA B. SVT.Boy Servant RN B. TEL. Boy Telegraphist RN BALTAGI Pioneer EA BANDMASTER Bandmaster BA BAR TDR. Bar Tender MFA BARBER Barber IA BD. CPL Band Corporal RN BDN. Bandsman RN BDR Bombardier SA BDR. Bombardier AUS BDSM Bandsman BA BED. STD. Bedroom Steward MFA BGE. TIND. Barge Tindal BGLR. Bugler BA BHDY. Bhandary BHISTI Bhisti IA BIMBASHI Major EGY BK. S. MJR.Barrack Serjeant Major BA BKR. Baker MFA BLK. Blacksmith RN BLKS. MTE. Blacksmith's Mate BLKSTH. Blacksmith SA BLRMKR. Boilermaker BLYR.     Bricklayer BMBR Bombardier BA BMKR. Boilermaker MFA BNDSMN BA BNDSMN Bandsman RN BOAT HD.Boat Hand BOATSN BOSN.Boatswain BOY. SIG. Boy Signaller BOY. TEL. Boy Telegraphist BOY 1 Boy 1st Class RN BR Bearer IA BRIG. Brigadier BA BRIG. GEN. Brigadier General BA BRUGL Bugler EGY BUG. Bugler EA BUGLR. Bugler BURG Burger SA BURG. WERKER Civilian Worker SA Butcher OF. H. Corporal of Horse BA C. CENSOR Cable Censor EA C. CTR. Chief Controller QMAAC C. DFDR. MJR. Queen Mary's Own Baluchistan Light Infantry IA C. DVR.Crane Driver C.E.A. Chief Electrical Artificer RNC.E.R.A. Chief Engine Room Artificer C. HAVR. Company Havildar IA C. HVLDR Colour Havildar IA C. HVLDR. MJR.Company Havildar Major C.M.M. Chief Motor Mechanic RNVR C.M. STKPR.Chief Medical Storekeeper C. MISTRI     Camp Mistri C.P.O. Chief Petty Officer RN C.P.O. MECH Petty Officer Mechanic RNAS C.P.O. WR. Petty Officer Writer RN C.Q.M. HVLDR. 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The Iron Cross (German: Eisernes Kreuz) was a military decoration of the Kingdom of Prussia, and later of Germany, which was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813 in Breslau. In addition to during the Napoleonic Wars, the Iron Cross was awarded during the Franco-German War, the First World War, and the Second World War. The Iron Cross was normally a military decoration only, though there were instances of it being awarded to civilians for performing military functions. Two examples, the civilian pilot Hanna Reitsch was awarded the Iron Cross First Class for her bravery as a test pilot during the Second World War and Melitta Schenk Gräfin von Stauffenberg (also a German female test pilot) was awarded the Iron Cross Second Class. The Iron Cross was also used as the symbol of the German Army from 1871 to 1915, when it was replaced by a simpler Greek cross. In 1956, the Iron Cross became the symbol of the Bundeswehr, the German armed forces. The traditional design is black and this design is used on armored vehicles and aircraft. A newer design in blue and silver is used as the emblem in other contexts. The Iron Cross is a black four-pointed cross with white trim, with the arms widening towards the ends, similar to a cross pattée. It was designed by the neoclassical architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel and reflects the cross borne by the Teutonic Knights in the 14th century. The ribbon for the 1813, 1870 and 1914 Iron Cross (2nd Class) was black with two thin white bands, the colours of Prussia. The noncombatant version of this award had the same medal, but the black and white colours on the ribbon were reversed. Initially the Iron Cross was worn with the blank side out. This did not change until 1838 when the sprig facing could be presented. Since the Iron Cross was issued over several different periods of German history, it was annotated with the year indicating the era in which it was issued. For example, an Iron Cross from the First World War bears the year "1914", while the same decoration from the Second World War is annotated "1939". The reverse of the 1870, 1914 and 1939 series of Iron Crosses have the year "1813" appearing on the lower arm, symbolizing the year the award was created. The 1813 decoration also has the initials "FW" for King Frederick William III, while the next two have a "W" for the respective kaisers, Wilhelm I and Wilhelm II. The final version shows a swastika. It was also possible for a holder of the 1914 Iron Cross to be awarded a second or higher grade of the 1939 Iron Cross. In such cases, a "1939 Clasp" (Spange) would be worn on the original 1914 Iron Cross. (A similar award was made in 1914 but was quite rare, since there were few in service who held the 1870 Iron Cross.) For the First Class award the Spange appears as an eagle with the date "1939" that was pinned above the Cross. Although two separate awards, in some cases the holders soldered them together. A cross was the symbol of the Teutonic Knights (a heraldic cross pattée), and the cross design (but not the specific decoration) has been the symbol of Germany's armed forces (now the Bundeswehr) since 1871. The Iron Cross was founded on 10 March 1813 in Breslau and awarded to soldiers during the Wars of Liberation against Napoleon. It was first awarded to Karl August Ferdinand von Borcke on 21 April 1813. King Wilhelm I of Prussia authorized further awards on 19 July 1870, during the Franco-German War. Recipients of the 1870 Iron Cross who were still in service in 1895 were authorized to purchase a 25-year clasp consisting of the numerals "25" on three oak leaves. The Iron Cross was reauthorized by Emperor Wilhelm II on 5 August 1914, at the start of the First World War. During these three periods, the Iron Cross was an award of the Kingdom of Prussia, although given Prussia's pre-eminent place in the German Empire formed in 1871, it tended to be treated as a generic German decoration. The 1813, 1870, and 1914 Iron Crosses had three grades: Iron Cross 2nd Class (German: Eisernes Kreuz 2. Klasse), Iron Cross 1st Class (German: Eisernes Kreuz 1. Klasse), Grand Cross of the Iron Cross (German: Großkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes, often simply Großkreuz). Although the medals of each class were identical, the manner in which each was worn differed. Employing a pin or screw posts on the back of the medal, the Iron Cross First Class was worn on the left side of the recipient's uniform. The Grand Cross and the Iron Cross Second Class were suspended from different ribbons. The Grand Cross was intended for senior generals of the German Army. An even higher decoration, the Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross, was awarded only twice, to Field Marshal Gebhard von Blücher in 1813 and to Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg in 1918. A third award was planned for the most successful German general during the Second World War, but was not made after the defeat of Germany in 1945. The Iron Cross 1st Class and the Iron Cross 2nd Class were awarded without regard to rank. One had to already possess the 2nd Class in order to receive the 1st Class (though in some cases both could be awarded simultaneously). The egalitarian nature of this award contrasted with those of most other German states (and indeed many other European monarchies), where military decorations were awarded based on the rank of the recipient. For example, Bavarian officers received various grades of that Kingdom's Military Merit Order (Militär-Verdienstorden), while enlisted men received various grades of the Military Merit Cross (Militär-Verdienstkreuz). Prussia did have other orders and medals which were awarded on the basis of rank, and even though the Iron Cross was intended to be awarded without regard to rank, officers and NCOs were more likely to receive it than junior enlisted soldiers. In the First World War, approximately four million Iron Crosses of the lower grade (2nd Class) were issued, as well as around 145,000 of the higher grade (1st Class). Exact numbers of awards are not known, since the Prussian archives were destroyed during the Second World War. The multitude of awards reduced the status and reputation of the decoration. Among the holders of the 1914 Iron Cross 2nd Class and 1st Class was Adolf Hitler, who held the rank of Gefreiter. Hitler can be seen wearing the award on his left breast, as was standard, in many photographs. The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, the emblem of the Wehrmacht, first used in a narrower form on Luftstreitkräfte aircraft in mid-April 1918, and as shown here, a DAVID KIRCH AUCTION FROM THE ONLY ONE ON s it appeared on German planes, tanks, and other vehicles during the Second World War. Adolf Hitler restored the Iron Cross in 1939 as a German decoration (rather than Prussian as in earlier versions), continuing the tradition of issuing it in various grades. Legally it is based on the enactment (Reichsgesetzblatt I S. 1573) of 1 September 1939 Verordnung über die Erneuerung des Eisernen Kreuzes (Regulation for the Re-introduction of the Iron Cross). The Iron Cross of the Second World War was divided into three main series of decorations with an intermediate category, the Knight's Cross, instituted between the lowest, the Iron Cross, and the highest, the Grand Cross. The Knight's Cross replaced the Prussian Pour le Mérite or "Blue Max". Hitler did not care for the Pour le Mérite, as it was a Prussian order that could be awarded only to officers. The ribbon of the medal (2nd class and Knight's Cross) was different from the earlier Iron Crosses in that the color red was used in addition to the traditional black and white (black and white were the colours of Prussia, while black, white, and red were the colors of Germany). Hitler also created the War Merit Cross as a replacement for the non-combatant version of the Iron Cross. It also appeared on certain Nazi flags in the upper left corner. The edges were curved, like most original iron crosses. The standard 1939 Iron Cross was issued in the following two grades: Iron Cross 2nd Class (Eisernes Kreuz 2. Klasse), Iron Cross 1st Class (Eisernes Kreuz 1. Klasse) (abbreviated as EKI or E.K.I.). The Iron Cross was awarded for bravery in battle as well as other military contributions in a battlefield environment. The Iron Cross 2nd Class came with a ribbon and was worn in one of two different methods: when in formal dress, the entire cross was worn mounted alone or as part of a medal bar, for everyday wear, only the ribbon was worn from the second hole in the tunic button. The Iron Cross First Class was a pin-on medal with no ribbon and was worn centered on a uniform breast pocket, either on dress uniforms or everyday outfit. It was a progressive award, with the second class having to be earned before the first class and so on for the higher degrees. It is estimated that some four and a half million Second Class Iron Crosses were awarded in the Second World War, and 300,000 of the First Class#. Two Iron Cross First Class recipients were women, one of whom was test pilot Hanna Reitsch. One of the Muslim SS members to receive the award was SS Obersturmführer Imam Halim Malkoć, and was granted the Iron Cross (Second Class) in October 1943 for his role in suppressing the Villefranche-de-Rouergue mutiny. He and several other Bosnian Muslims were decorated with the EK. II personally by Himmler in the days after the mutiny. Interestingly, he would only wear the ribbon, and not the cross itself because of his faith. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes, often simply Ritterkreuz) recognized extreme battlefield bravery or successful leadership. The Knight's Cross was divided into five degrees: Knight's Cross (Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes), Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves (mit Eichenlaub), Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords (mit Eichenlaub und Schwertern), Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds (mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten), Knight's Cross with Golden Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds (mit Goldenem Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten). In total, 7,313 awards of the Knight's Cross were made. Only 883 received the Oak Leaves; 160 both the Oak Leaves and Swords (including Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto (posthumously); 27 with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds; and one with the Golden Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds (Oberst Hans-Ulrich Rudel). Recipients of the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds: (pilots) Colonel (Oberst) Werner Mölders (15 July 1941),                 Lieutenant General (Generalleutnant) Adolf Galland (28 February 1942), Colonel (Oberst) Gordon M. Gollob (3 August 1942), Captain (Hauptmann) Hans-Joachim Marseille (3 September 1942), Colonel (Oberst) Helmut Lent (7 July 1944), Major Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer (14 October 1944), Major Walter Nowotny (19 October 1943), Colonel (Oberst) Hans-Ulrich Rudel (Diamonds: 29 March 1944, Golden Oak Leaves: 1 January 1945), Major Erich Hartmann (8 August 1944), Colonel (Oberst) Hermann Graf (16 September 1942). Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring never held the Diamonds. He, being one of the first soldiers presented with the Knight's Cross in 1939, was presented with the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross in 1940. Submarine captains of the German Navy (Kriegsmarine): Captain (Kapitän zur See) Wolfgang Lüth (11 August 1943), Commander (Fregattenkapitän) Albrecht Brandi (21 November 1944). General Field Marshals (Generalfeldmarschälle): Erwin Rommel (11 March 1943), Albert Kesselring (19 July 1944), Walter Model (17 August 1944), Ferdinand Schörner (1 January 1945). Generals and state officials: Brig. General (Generalmajor) Adelbert Schulz (9 January 1944), Waffen-SS Lt. General (SS-Obergruppenführer) Herbert Otto Gille (19 September 1944), Waffen-SS Brig. General (SS-Brigadeführer) Sylvester Stadler (6 May 1945), Lt. General (General der Fallschirmtruppe) Hermann-Bernhard Ramcke (19 September 1944),            Maj. General (Generalleutnant) Theodor Tolsdorff (18 March 1945), Maj. General (Generalleutnant) Dr. Karl Mauss, DDS (15 April 1945), Lt. General (General der Panzertruppe) Dietrich von Saucken (8 May 1945), Lt. General (General der Panzertruppe) Hermann Balck (31 August 1944), Lt. General (General der Panzertruppe) Hasso von Manteuffel (18 February 1945), Maj. General (Generalleutnant) Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz (15 April 1944), Waffen-SS General (SS-Oberstgruppenführer) Sepp Dietrich (6 August 1944), General (Generaloberst) Hans-Valentin Hube (20 April 1944). Like the Knight's Cross, the Grand Cross (Großkreuz) was also worn suspended from the collar. The only recipient of the Grand Cross during the Second World War was Reichsmarschall, or "Reich Marshal of the Greater German Reich," Hermann Göring, who was awarded the decoration on 19 July 1940. The medal is in effect an oversized Knight's Cross. It had the same overall characteristics as the Knights Cross but was much larger, measuring 63 mm (2.5 in) wide as opposed to about 44 mm (1.7 in) for the Iron Cross and 48.5 mm (1.9 in) for the Knight's Cross. It was originally intended to have outer edges lined in gold, but this was changed to silver before the award was presented. The Grand Cross was worn with a 57 mm (2.2 in)-wide ribbon bearing the same colours as the Knights Cross and 2nd Class ribbons. The award case was in red leather with the eagle and the swastika outlined in gold. The Grand Cross was not a bravery award. It was reserved solely for General Staff officers for "the most outstanding strategic decisions affecting the course of the war". Göring received the Grand Cross for his command of the Luftwaffe during the successful 1940 campaigns against France, Belgium, and the Netherlands (at the same time as he was promoted to Reichsmarschall of the Greater German Reich). The original Grand Cross that was presented to Göring (personally by Hitler) was destroyed during an air raid on his Berlin home. Göring had extra copies made, one of them with a platinum frame that he was wearing at the time of his surrender to the allies in 1945. Several times in official photographs, Göring can be seen wearing his Pour le Mérite, Knights Cross, and Grand Cross around his neck at the same time. The Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross (also called Iron Cross with Golden Rays) was meant to be worn like the Iron Cross First class (pinned to the breast). Like the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross, this award was not intended to be bestowed for bravery. Rather, it was bestowed upon the most successful General officer at the conclusion of a war. The first Star of the Grand Cross was presented to Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher for defeating Napoleon in the Battle of Waterloo, 1815. That medal is called the Blücherstern (Blücher's Star). The second version of the Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was presented to Paul von Hindenburg for the German victories over the British in the German offensives in March and April 1918. (See Spring Offensive.) A Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross was manufactured for the Second World War, but it was never awarded. The only known example was found by Allied occupation forces at the end of the war, and was eventually added to the West Point military collection. It is generally believed that Reichsmarschall Göring was the intended eventual recipient. The design was based on the 1914 version of the Star of the Grand Cross, but with the 1939 Iron Cross as the centerpiece. German law prohibits the wearing of a swastika, so in 1957 the West German government authorised replacement Iron Crosses with an Oak Leaf Cluster in place of the swastika, similar to the Iron Crosses of 1813, 1870, and 1914, which could be worn by World War II Iron Cross recipients. The 1957 law also authorised de-Nazified versions of most other World War II–era decorations (except those specifically associated with Nazi Party organizations, such as SS Long Service medals, or with the expansion of the German Reich, such as the medals for the annexation of Austria, the Sudetenland, and the Memel region).

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