After Munich, the British Government expressed readiness to defend what remained of Czechoslovakia. Six months later, Hitler ignored the warning and initiated its conquest and partition; he faced only verbal condemnation. Yet, a fortnight later, Chamberlain's Cabinet tried and failed to protect Poland by a similar 'guarantee'.
DAVID GILLARD taught in the University of Glasgow from 1955 until his retirement in 1990. He has written substantially on Nineteenth and Twentieth Century International History, including Struggle for Asia, 1828-1914: A Study in British and Russian Imperialism (1977).