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Integrating theory, research, and applications, this book examines the defense mechanisms and their role in both normal development and psychopathology. It describes how children and adults mobilize specific kinds of defenses to maintain their psychological equilibrium and preserve self-esteem, particularly in situations of trauma or stress.
Phebe Cramer, PhD, is a clinical psychologist and Professor of Psychology at Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts. She is also on the editorial boards of the Journal of Research in Personality, the Journal of Personality Assessment, and the European Journal of Personality. Dr. Cramer is the author of a number of research articles and books, including Storytelling, Narrative, and the Thematic Apperception Test. Her research takes a developmental approach to the study of defense mechanisms and personal identity.