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Introduction xi Using Excel for Statistical Analysis xi About You and About Excel xii Clearing Up the Terms xii Making Things Easier xiii The Wrong Box? xiv Wagging the Dog xvi What's in This Book xvi 1 About Variables and Values 1 Variables and Values 1 Recording Data in Lists 2 Scales of Measurement 4 Category Scales 5 Numeric Scales 7 Telling an Interval Value from a Text Value 8 Charting Numeric Variables in Excel 10 Charting Two Variables 10 Understanding Frequency Distributions 12 Using Frequency Distributions 15 Building a Frequency Distribution from a Sample 18 Building Simulated Frequency Distributions 26 2 How Values Cluster Together 29 Calculating the Mean 30 Understanding Functions, Arguments, and Results 31 Understanding Formulas, Results, and Formats 34 Minimizing the Spread 36 Calculating the Median 41 Choosing to Use the Median 41 Calculating the Mode 42 Getting the Mode of Categories with a Formula 47 From Central Tendency to Variability 54 3 Variability: How Values Disperse 55 Measuring Variability with the Range 56 The Concept of a Standard Deviation 58 Arranging for a Standard 59 Thinking in Terms of Standard Deviations 60 Calculating the Standard Deviation and Variance 62 Squaring the Deviations 65 Population Parameters and Sample Statistics 66 Dividing by N - 1 66 Bias in the Estimate 68 Degrees of Freedom 69 Excel's Variability Functions 70 Standard Deviation Functions 70 Variance Functions 71 4 How Variables Move Jointly: Correlation 73 Understanding Correlation 73 The Correlation, Calculated 75 Using the CORREL() Function 81 Using the Analysis Tools 84 Using the Correlation Tool 86 Correlation Isn't Causation 88 Using Correlation 90 Removing the Effects of the Scale 91 Using the Excel Function 93 Getting the Predicted Values 95 Getting the Regression Formula 96 Using TREND() for Multiple Regression 99 Combining the Predictors 99 Understanding Best Combination 100 Understanding Shared Variance 104 A Technical Note: Matrix Algebra and Multiple Regression in Excel 106 Moving on to Statistical Inference 107 5 How Variables Classify Jointly: Contingency Tables 109 Understanding One-Way Pivot Tables 109 Running the Statistical Test 112 Making Assumptions 117 Random Selection 118 Independent Selections 119 The Binomial Distribution Formula 120 Using the BINOM INV() Function 121 Understanding Two-Way Pivot Tables 127 Probabilities and Independent Events 130 Testing the Independence of Classifications 131 The Yule Simpson effect 137 Summarizing the Chi-Square Functions 140 Using CHISQ DIST() 140 Using CHISQ DIST RT() and CHIDIST() 141 Using CHISQ INV() 143 Using CHISQ INV RT() and CHIINV() 143 Using CHISQ TEST() and CHITEST() 144 Using Mixed and Absolute References to Calculate Expected Frequencies 145 Using the Pivot Table's Index Display 146 6 Telling the Truth with Statistics 149 A Context for Inferential Statistics 150 Establishing Internal Validity 151 Threats to Internal Validity 152 Problems with Excel's Documentation 156 The F-Test Two-Sample for Variances 157 Why Run the Test? 158 A Final Point 169 7 Using Excel with the Normal Distribution 171 About the Normal Distribution 171 Characteristics of the Normal Distribution 171 The Unit Normal Distribution 176 Excel Functions for the Normal Distribution 177 The NORM DIST() Function 177 The NORM INV() Function 180 Confidence Intervals and the Normal Distribution 182 The Meaning of a Confidence Interval 183 Constructing a Confidence Interval 184 Excel Worksheet Functions That Calculate Confidence Intervals 187 Using CONFIDENCE NORM() and CONFIDENCE() 188 Using CONFIDENCE T() 191 Using the Data Ana
Conrad Carlberg started writing about Excel, and its use in quantitative analysis, before workbooks had worksheets. As a graduate student, he had the great good fortune to learn something about statistics from the wonderfully gifted Gene Glass. He remembers much of that and has learned more since. This is a book he has wanted to write for years, and he is grateful for the opportunity.