Contents and Abstracts Introduction: Silver Veins, Urban Grids, and Layered Identities chapter abstract The introduction argues that in spite of the importance of Native American emigrants, the mining historiography for Spanish America has concentrated on either the roles and activities of Spaniards or the impact of silver production on global markets. Studies on native peoples and silver mining are few in number, and primarily focused on men, their roles as temporary or coerced workers, and the hardships and exploitative conditions of mine labor. Urban Indians shifts the focus from indigenous peoples as laborers to settlers and municipal residents, stressing in the process the important roles of women and children to mining societies. While previous studies have stressed dramatic cultural transformation and rapid miscegenation among urban native peoples, Urban Indians argues that native peoples exploited the urban milieu to create multiple statuses and identities that allowed them to develop indigenous identities, practices, and associations, even as they embraced Spanish-style civic life. 1A Tale of Two Settlements, 1546-1559 chapter abstract Chapter 1 considers the role of Zacatecas's preconquest indigenous population on the city's early development, the impact of Spanish dependence on foreign Indian population to meet labor needs, and the evolution of Spanish and indigenous settlements from rudimentary mining camps to urban communities in the sixteenth century. It argues that the mines could not have prospered without the large migrant Indian population from central and western Mexico that displaced the local Zacateco population. They provided the necessary labor for the emerging mining economy and its subsidiary activities, and by creating indigenous communities, they brought into being a permanent and long-term labor source. As the indigenous workforce established roots in the town, they began adapting the Spanish urban environment to meet their own settlement needs, exploiting Zacatecas's frontier setting and labor shortages to derive some concessions, such as mobility, wages, freedom from tribute and rotary labor drafts, and semiautonomous neighborhoods. 2Ethnic Cohesion and Community Formation, 1560-1608 chapter abstract This chapter explores the factors and conditions that facilitated ethnic cohesion among the ethnically diverse native population and the development of indigenous civic life from the mid- to late sixteenth century. Indigenous migrants adopted and negotiated colonial spaces and institutions to re-create central Mexican-style indigenous communities and establish a corporate Indian status, allowing them to draw on concessions and protective measures afforded to native peoples under colonial rule. The evolution of a Republic de Indios, barrios of native communities on the outskirts of the city, created spaces where native peoples could practice indigenous and Spanish lifeways. Shared housing and labor arrangements unified the native population through personal and professional ties. The establishment of indigenous confraternities allowed native peoples to develop formal social and political organizations. Even as native peoples began assuming the role of urban vecinos, or municipal residents, they continued to identify with their ancestral heritage. 3The Creation of Indian Towns and Officials, 1609-1650 chapter abstract This chapter examines the creation of formal indigenous towns, municipal councils, and leaders in the seventeenth century. It argues that the impetus for creating Indian towns and municipal councils came from an indigenous population lacking vehicles for redress and governance. It outlines the establishment of four Indian towns, Tlacuitlapan, Tonala Chepinque, San Josef, and El Nino. It charts the evolution of Indian governance from the initial appointment of native alcaldes to the development of full-fledged indigenous municipal councils modeled on Spanis
Dana Velasco Murillo is Associate Professor of History at the University of California, San Diego.