List of Figures and Tables. Preface. Foreword to First Edition; Harvey Leibenstein. Foreword to Second Edition; Mark Perlman. 1. Introduction. 2. Production, Cost, and Welfare: A Review. 3. X-Efficiency: The Intellectual Setting and an Introduction to the Theory. 4. X-Efficiency Theory: 1. 5. X-Efficiency Theory: 2. 6. Empirical Evidence: Regulated Industries. 7. Empirical Evidence: Market Structure and Firm Organization. 8. Empirical Studies: Input Ratios and International Trade. 9. X-Efficiency, Its Critics, and a Reply. 10. Implications and Conclusions. References. Index.