Euro Banknotes: an extensive collectors guide

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Euro banknotes have appeared in circulation in the 2002. They exists in 7 different denominations, ranging from €5 to €500. Unlike Euro coins, Euro banknotes do not have a national side indicating which country have issued them, but is it possible to obtain this information by looking to the first character of the serial number:

D - Estonia
E - Slovakia
F - Malta
G - Cyprus
H - Slovenia
L - Finland
M - Portugal
N - Austria
P - Netherlands
S - Italy
T - Ireland
U - France
V - Spain
X - Germany
Y - Greece
Z - Belgium

Anyway, the issuing country is not necessary the same country in which the note have been printed: there is a small six-character printing code which uniquely identifies the printing information of each banknote. The first digit of this code indicates the printing facility:

D - Setec Oy, Finland
E - F. C. Oberthur, France
F - Österreichische Banknoten und Sicherheitsdruck, Austria
G - Koninklijke Joh. Enschedé, Netherlands
H - De La Rue, United Kingdom
J - Bank of Italy, Italy
K - Banc Ceannais na hÉireann - Central Bank of Ireland, Ireland
L - Banque de France, France
M - Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre, Spain
N - Bank of Greece, Greece
P - Giesecke & Devrient, Germany
R - Bundesdruckerei, Germany
T - National Bank of Belgium, Belgium
U - Banco de Portugal, Portugal
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