How are chemical elements formed?

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A chemical element is a pure chemical substance which has a single type of atom usually known from its atomic number (which is the number of protons in the nucleus).  The elements are divided into metals, non-metal and metalloids (properties of a metal and non-metal). Some of the well-known examples are carbon, oxygen, silicon, aluminum, and iron, copper and gold. The lightest chemical elements, including hydrogen, helium and smaller amounts of lithium, beryllium and Boron, they are thought to be produced by various cosmic process during the Big Bang (this is the theory that about how the earth was formed) and cosmic-ray spallation (Cosmic rays are very high-energy particles, mainly originating outside the Solar System). A chemical element cannot be broken down or changed into another substance using chemical methods. The element is thought to be the basic chemical building of its matter.
 
As you may know an element is a pure substance made of atoms that all of the same type. At present (2014) there are 116 elements known, and only around 90 of these occur naturally. Some elements were formed during the Big Bang which happened about 14 billion year ago, but only the lightest elements were formed. 86 elements in nature are created in nuclear reactions and in huge stellar explosions. Particle accelerator is also used to create elements this is when scientist discovered that if we allow fast neutrons collide into with common isotopes of uranium in a nuclear reactor, also it has also been discovered that if you smash two atoms together it also means new elements can be made. The high abundance of oxygen, silicon, and iron on earth reflects their common production in such stars, while most elements are generally stable. During the process of stellar evolution nuclear fusion reactions take place within a star. It is thought that the early Universe consisted almost entirely of the element hydrogen, with a small amount of helium present.
 
[File:Periodic table (polyatomic).svg] The periodic table is used to arrange these elements; the periodic table is a table that arranges the chemical elements from their atomic number, electron configuration and their chemical properties. The elements are presented in order of increasing atomic number (number protons in the nucleus). The elements are laid out on the grid in 18 columns and 7 rows with a double row of elements below that. The table also shows 4 blocks, the s-blocks to the left, the p block to the right, the d-block in the middle and the f block below that. The rows of the table are called periods and the columns are called groups.
The vertical column in the periodic table are called groups, it is usually used to explain the structure of the atom and it tells you how reactive it is and how may shells it has, elements within the same group have the same electron configuration in their shells. The horizontal rows are the periods there are many trends in the periods as the elements in the same periods shows trend in atomic radius, ionization energy, electron affinity and electronegative, going from left to right of a period the atomic radius would decrease this is because there is a additional proton added and an additional electron which would mean that the electron is pulled in closer to the nucleus, this decrease in atomic radius means that the ionization energy increases from left to right as more energy is then required to remove the electron on the outer shell. Electronegativity increases as ionization energy increases however the most electronegative element is fluorine. A electron configuration is used to give a formula for the element, the electron configuration is the organization of electron orbiting neutral atoms shows a recurring pattern or periodicity on the right is the order in which you decide the electron configuration. The electron occupies a series of electron shell and each shell has sub shells.

The periodic trends are shown on the left these are the general trend on the periodic table and the elements are arranged in a certain way so that all the trends are specially arranged. Most of the elements properties are identified by the electron configuration, as it shows behaviors, atomic radius, ionization energy and many more. The radius of the atom generally decreases along the periods and it increases down each group. The first ionization energy is the energy that is required to remove the first electron form the outer shell from an atom, because the atom gets bigger the last electron gets further away from the nucleus so the force of attraction gets weak and therefore it is easier to remove that electron. Electron negativity is the tendency of an atom to attract electrons, the electronegativity is affected by both of the elements atomic number and distance between the electron and the nucleus
 
The Big Bang theory is a cosmological model for the early development of the universe. According to the theory the Big Bag occurred approximately 13.789 – plus/minus – 0.037 Billion years ago, which is now considered as the age of the universe. The universe was tremendously hot and dense and it began to expand rapidly. After the expansion the universe cooled this which allowed the energy to be converted into the various subatomic particles, these are proton, neutron and electron. The simple atom formed within the first three minutes after the Big Bang. The majority of atoms produced by the Big Bang are hydrogen, helium and a bit of lithium. The core idea of the Big Bang theory is the early expansion and the formation of light elements and the formation of the galaxies.
It is said that the universe began with a bang, and at that time the universe was inside a bubble that was smaller thousands of times smaller than a pinhead, it was known to be hotter and dense then anything you can imagine. This then suddenly exploded, as a result the universe was born, time, space and matter all began with the big bang, In a fraction of a second, the Universe grew from smaller than a single atom to bigger than a galaxy. And it kept on growing at a fantastic rate. It is still expanding today. As the Universe expanded and cooled, energy changed into particles of matter. These two opposite types of particles largely destroyed each other. But some matter survived. More stable particles called protons and neutrons started to form when the Universe was one second old. After 300 000 years, the Universe had cooled to about 3000 degrees. Atomic nuclei could finally capture electrons to form atoms. The Universe filled with clouds of hydrogen and helium gas.
 

 
The cosmic ray spallation is a naturally occurring nuclear fission and nucleosythesis. It mentions the formation of elements from the impact of cosmic rays on an object. Cosmic rays are highly energetic charged particle from outside of earth ranging from protons and alpha particle and nuclei of heavier elements. The result of the collision is the release of large numbers of protons and neutrons from the object it’s been hit from, this process goes on in deep space and the earth’s upper atmosphere and the crustal surface, all due to the impact of the ongoing cosmic rays. Cosmic ray spallation after the big bang is responsible for the abundance in the universe of some light elements such as Lithium, Beryllium and Boron. This process was discovered by accident during the 1970s. New studies showed that this process could generate Lithium, Beryllium and Boron and these isotopes are over-represented in the cosmic ray nuclei.

 
Hydrogen is a chemical element with the chemical symbol H and the atomic number 1 which has an atomic weight of 1.00794 atomic mass units, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table and it is the most abundance chemical. At standard temperature and pressure hydrogen is colorless, odorless and tasteless; it is a diatomic gas which means that it has a molecular formula of H2. Hydrogen is colorless and so it is a gas it has a melting point of 13.99K, -259.16°C. Its boiling point is 20.271 K, -252.879°C.
Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, making up 75% of normal matter by mass and over 90% by number of atoms. Throughout the universe, hydrogen is mostly found in the atomic and plasma states whose properties are quite different from molecular hydrogen. As plasma, hydrogen's electron and proton are not bound together, resulting in very high electrical conductivity and high emissivity (producing the light from the Sun and other stars). The charged particles are highly influenced by magnetic and electric fields. Hydrogen is found in the neutral atomic state in the interstellar medium.
Under ordinary conditions on Earth, elemental hydrogen exists as the diatomic gas, H2. However, hydrogen gas is very rare in the Earth's atmosphere (1 ppm by volume) because of its light weight, which means it can escape from Earth's gravity more easily than heavier gases. However, hydrogen is the third most abundant element on the Earth's surface, mostly in the form of chemical compounds such as hydrocarbons and water. Hydrogen gas is produced by some bacteria and algae and is a natural component of flatus, as is methane, itself a hydrogen source of increasing importance.
Helium is a chemical element which with the chemical symbol He, it has the atomic number 2 and its weight is 4.002602, with a melting point of 0.95K, -272.2°C and the boiling point of 4.22K, -452.07°C. Helium is a non-metal and it is a gas at room temperature. Helium is the second most abundant element in the universe and it was discovered on the sun before it was fond on the earth, helium makes up about 0.0005% of the earth’s atmosphere.
Although it is rare on Earth, Helium is the second most abundant element in the known Universe after hydrogen, constituting 23% of its mass.The vast majority of helium was formed by Big Bang about one to three minutes after the Big Bang. As such, measurements of its abundance contribute to cosmological models. In stars, it is formed by the nuclear fusion of hydrogen in proton-proton chain reactions and the CNO cycle, part of stellar nucleosynthesis, similar to the cosmic ray spallation.
In the Earth's atmosphere, the concentration of helium by volume is only 5.2 parts per million. The concentration is low and fairly constant despite the continuous production of new helium because most helium in the Earth's atmosphere escapes into space by several processes. 
Most helium on Earth is a result of radioactive decay. Helium is found in large amounts in minerals of uranium and thorium, including, pitchblende, carnotite and monazite, because they emit alpha particles (helium nuclei, He2+) to which electrons immediately combine as soon as the particle is stopped by the rock. In this way an estimated 3000 metric tons of helium are generated per year. In the Earth's crust, the concentration of helium is 8 parts per billion. In seawater, the concentration is only 4 parts per trillion.
 
 
Carbon is a chemical element which is the sixth most abundant on the planet, it has an atomic number of 6 with the atomic weight of 12.0107 atomic mass and it is a solid at room temperature and it is a non-metal. Carbon is known to exist as Amorphous, Graphite and diamond. Amorphous carbon is formed when a material containing carbon is burned without enough oxygen for it to burn completely, which creates black soot this is used as inks, paints and rubber product.
Carbon is the fourth most abundant chemical element in the universe by mass after hydrogen, helium, and oxygen. Carbon is abundant in the Sun, stars, comets, and in the atmospheres of most planets. In combination with oxygen in carbon dioxide, carbon is found in the Earth's atmosphere approximately 810 gigatonnes of carbon and dissolved in all water bodies approximately 36,000 gigatonnes of carbon. Around 1,900 gigatonnes of carbon are present in the biosphere. in the period from 1751 to 2008 about 347 gigatonnes of carbon were released as carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from burning of fossil fuels. However, another source puts the amount added to the atmosphere for the period since 1750 at 879 Gt, and the total going to the atmosphere, sea, and land at almost 2000 gigatonnes.Carbon is a major component in very large masses of carbonate rock (limestone, dolomite,marble etc). Coal is the largest commercial source of mineral carbon, accounting for 4,000 gigatonnes or 80% of fossil carbon fuel. It is also rich in carbon – for example,anthracite contains 92–98%. Thermal neutrons are produced that collide with the nuclei of nitrogen-14, forming carbon-14 and a proton.
Graphite is one of the softest material known it is a form of a carbon primarily used as a lubricant. The black lead in pencil is graphite which means that the layers of graphite slide over each other allowing it to be released and be stuck on to paper. Graphite has a layered, planar structure. In each layer, the carbon atoms are arranged in a honeycomb lattice with separation of 0.142 nm, and the distance between planes is 0.335 nm.
Diamond is the third naturally occurring forms of carbon and it the one of the hardest substance known. Diamonds are not very reactive. Under room temperature diamonds do not react with any chemical reagents including strong acids and bases.Other specialized applications also exist or are being developed, including use as semiconductors: some blue diamonds are natural semiconductors, in contrast to most diamonds, which are excellent electrical insulators.The conductivity and blue color originate from boron impurity. Boron substitutes for carbon atoms in the diamond lattice, donating a hole into the valence band.Substantial conductivity is commonly observed in nominally undoped diamond grown by chemical vapor deposition. This conductivity is associated with hydrogen-related species adsorbed at the surface, and it can be removed by annealing or other surface treatments.
A large molecule consisting only of carbon is called Buckminsterfullerene, it contains 60 carbon atoms and it is linked together to form a shape of a football. Carbon nanotubes are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.
Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1; these are valuable for nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other things in material science and technology.
 
 
 

 
An atom is a basic unit of matter that has a dense central nucleus which is surrounded by a cloud negative charged electron. The atomic nucleus contains a mix of positively charged protons and electrically charges neutrons. The electrons of an atom are stuck to the nucleus by the electromagnetic force of attraction. An atom contains the equal number of protons and electron so it’s electrically neutral; otherwise it would be positive or negatively charged making it into an ion.
 
Electrons are the subatomic particles that orbit the nucleus of an atom, they are negatively charged, and they are much smaller than the nucleus of the atom. Electrons are known to have orbits or energy levels. If we tried to view electrons they cannot be seen as they are moving too fast for the human eye, so scientist cannot calculate the exact position of the electrons, they can only estimate their positions. The reason why things would conduct electricity is because there is a sea of electron this means that the electron around the atom are able to move around which would carry the electricity from one place to another. Also atoms can share, receive and emit electron to create a bond and to become more stable.
 
An atomic nucleus is a dense area which consists of neutrons and protons at the center of the atom. Almost all of the mass of an atom is located in the nucleus. Neutrons have no charge and protons have a positive charge and as the nucleus is made up of neutrons and protons it is positively charged. As there are opposite charges they both repel each other so there has to be a force that can hold everything together and that force is called the strong nuclear force.
[The dramatic explosion of the Hindenburg in 1937 occurred when hydrogen was ignited.] There are some interesting facts about chemical elements and here are some of them, hydrogen is highly flammable which is why they don’t use it in balloon, the first hot air balloon was fueled by hydrogen and it went up in flames (image on the right).
Oxygen makes up of 1% of the suns mass. Salt is made from the elements sodium and chloride (NaCl) and water is made from hydrogen and oxygen (H2O). The element Fluorine is highly reactive, Silver is a good conductor of electricity. Magnesium that has been caught on fire would need sand to extinguish it. If you ever wanted to smell the element of Arsenic (As) you can find the smell around your house as it smells of garlic. Metals usually have the colour grey and silver however there are two metals that don’t follow that rule those metals are Gold(au) and Copper(Cu). There is a metal that exist as a liquid at room temperature this metal is Mercury, this was once used in thermometers now they don’t as it is very harmful if it gets in contact with the human body. When you freeze water it will expand about 9% in additional volume. There is also a element named after Albert Einstein which is a metal called Einsteinium, there are many elements which are named after famous scientist, if you happen to discover a element you can name it and put it into the periodic table. As you may know Oxygen is a colorless gas but if you have it as a liquid or a solid it is a blue colour, the heaviest noble gas (does not react) is Radon and it literally sinks to the ground, and it is often found in accents basement as it is said that it cannot climb up stairs.
 
So how chemical elements are exactly formed, first of all an element is a pure substance made of atoms that are all the same type. At present, 116 elements are known, and only about 90 of these occur naturally. It is said that elements were formed during the big bang theory, during the formation of the universe around 14 billion years ago only the lightest elements were formed which are hydrogen and helium along with that there was a trace of lithium and beryllium. The clouds of cosmic dust and gases from the big bang cooled and stars were then formed these are then grouped together to form galaxies. 86 elements found in nature were created in nuclear reactions in these stars and in huge stellar explosions known as supernovas. The star fuses elements such as hydrogen into helium in their core. When a star runs out of helium the star would die which would expand to a red giant this would mean that the manufacturing of carbon begins by fusing helium atoms. Some elements are made in the stars these are the elements and there equation in the making of it, they get reacted with helium:
3 helium atoms fusing to give a carbon atom: 4He → 12C
Carbon atom + helium atom fusing to give an oxygen atom: 12C + 4He → 16O
Oxygen atom + helium atom fusing to give a neon atom: 16O + 4He → 20Ne
Neon atom + helium atom fusing to give a magnesium atom: 20Ne + 4He → 24Mg
Some of the elements can be formed by humans they are developed in nuclear plants and machine known as particle accelerators, scientist discovered that when fast moving electrons collide with common isotopes in a nuclear reactor they create new elements.
That is all you need to know about chemical elements and this essays answer answers the question of how chemical elements are formed.
 
 

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