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Santa Wishing Coin
"Merry Christmas and All the Best for 2014"
This is a Christmas Coin wuth an image of Father Christmas and the word "Santa Claus Wishing Coin"
The Reverse has an image of rudolph the red nosed reindeer in a Winter Scene with Santas Sleigh passing a Full Moon
It has the Words "Merry Christmas" and "Rudolph with your nose so bright"
Would make excellent Christmas Gift, Stocking filler or could be placed inside a Christmas Card or Even Used as a Christmas Tree Decoration or for the Christmas Dinner Table
If held tightly in one hand and then you wish really hard your christmas wishes will come true *** (This cannot be guaranteed tho :)
Comes in air-tight acrylic coin holder
The coin is 40mm in diameter, weighs about 1 oz
A Beautiful coin and Magnificent Keepsake Souvenir
Sorry about the poor quality photos. They dont do the coin justice which looks a lot better in real life
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Christmas (Old English: Crīstesmæsse, meaning "Christ's Mass") is an annual commemoration of the birth of Jesus Christ and a widely observed holiday, celebrated generally on December 25 by millions of people around the world. A feast central to the Christian liturgical year, it closes the Advent season and initiates the twelve days of Christmastide, which ends after the twelfth night. Christmas is a civil holiday in many of the world's nations, is celebrated by an increasing number of non-Christians, and is an integral part of the Christmas and holiday season.
While the birth year of Jesus is estimated among modern historians to have been between 7 and 2 BC, the exact month and day of his birth are unknown. His birth is mentioned in two of the four canonical gospels. By the early-to-mid 4th century, the Western Christian Church had placed Christmas on December 25, a date later adopted in the East. The date of Christmas may have initially been chosen to correspond with the day exactly nine months after early Christians believed Jesus to have been conceived, or with one or more ancient polytheistic festivals that occurred near southern solstice (i.e., the Roman winter solstice); a further solar connection has been suggested because of a biblical verse[a] identifying Jesus as the "Sun of righteousness".
The original date of the celebration in Eastern Christianity was January 6, in connection with Epiphany, and that is still the date of the celebration for the Armenian Apostolic Church and in Armenia, where it is a public holiday. As of 2013, there is a difference of 13 days between the modern Gregorian calendar and the older Julian calendar. Those who continue to use the Julian calendar or its equivalents thus celebrate December 25 and January 6, which on the Gregorian calendar translate as January 7 and January 19. For this reason, Ethiopia, Russia, Georgia, Ukraine, Serbia, the Republic of Macedonia, and the Republic of Moldova celebrate Christmas on what in the Gregorian calendar is January 7. Eastern Orthodox Churches in Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Antioch, Alexandria, Albania, Finland, and the Orthodox Church in America celebrate Christmas on December 25 in the revised Julian calendar, corresponding to December 25 also in the Gregorian calendar.
The celebratory customs associated in various countries with Christmas have a mix of pre-Christian, Christian, and secular themes and origins. Popular modern customs of the holiday include gift giving, Christmas music and caroling, an exchange of Christmas cards, church celebrations, a special meal, and the display of various Christmas decorations, including Christmas trees, Christmas lights, nativity scenes, garlands, wreaths, mistletoe, and holly. In addition, several closely related and often interchangeable figures, known as Santa Claus, Father Christmas, Saint Nicholas, and Christkind, are associated with bringing gifts to children during the Christmas season and have their own body of traditions and lore. Because gift-giving and many other aspects of the Christmas festival involve heightened economic activity among both Christians and non-Christians, the holiday has become a significant event and a key sales period for retailers and businesses. The economic impact of Christmas is a factor that has grown steadily over the past few centuries in many regions of the world.
Also called Noel, Nativity, Xmas
Observed by Christians
Type Christian, cultural
Significance Traditional commemoration of the birth of Jesus
Observances Church services, gift giving, family and other social gatherings, symbolic decorating
Date December 25 (in most places) or January 7, or January 6 or 19
Related to Christmastide, Christmas Eve, Advent, Annunciation, Epiphany, Baptism of the Lord, Nativity Fast, Nativity of Christ, Yule
Christmas Eve Boxing Day Sol Invictus Yule
Adoration of the Magi in art Adoration of the shepherds Advent Angel Gabriel Annunciation Annunciation to the shepherds Baptism of the Lord Bethlehem Christingle Christmastide Epiphany Herod the Great Jesus Joseph Mary Massacre of the Innocents Nativity Fast Nativity of Jesus in art in later culture Nativity scene Saint Nicholas Star of Bethlehem Twelfth Night
Badalisc La Befana Belsnickel Christkind Ded Moroz Elves Father Christmas Grýla Joulupukki Jack Frost Knecht Ruprecht Korvatunturi Krampus Mikulás Mrs. Claus North Pole Old Man Winter Olentzero Père Fouettard Père Noël Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer Saint Lucy Saint Nicholas Santa Claus Santa's reindeer Santa's workshop Sinterklaas Vertep Yule Cat Yule Lads Zwarte Piet
Advent calendar Advent candle Advent wreath Boar's Head Feast Carols by Candlelight Cards Crackers Decorations Events and celebrations Flying Santa Hampers Holiday parades Las Posadas Lights Markets Meals and feasts Moravian star NORAD Tracks Santa Nine Lessons and Carols Nutcrackers Ornaments Piñatas Plants Santa Claus parade Seals Secret Santa Stamps Stockings Szaloncukor Tree Twelve Days Wassailing Yule Goat Yule log
Germany Hawaii Hungary Ireland Mexico Philippines Poland Romania Scotland Serbia Ukraine
Albums Carols (list) Hit singles US Hit singles UK Songs
Fiction A Christmas Carol Films It's a Wonderful Life A Christmas Story Onstage Pantomime Television episodes specials Yule Log
Advent Conspiracy Black Friday Bronner's Christmas Wonderland Christmas club Controversy Christmas creep Christmas Day (Trading) Act 2004 Economics El Gordo Holiday season In July In August Puritan New England American Civil War Post-War United States Linked holidays Christmas Mountains NFL games NBA games Nomenclature and language Christmas truce Cyber Monday Running of the Santas SantaCon Super Saturday White Christmas Winter festivals Xmas "Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus"
Food and drink
Dinner Joulupöytä Réveillon Twelve-dish supper Smörgåsbord Wigilia Dessert Cake Candy cane Cookies bûche de Noël Fruit cake Gingerbread Karelian pasty Mince pie Pavlova Pumpkin pie Pudding Turrón Soup Menudo Sauce Cranberry sauce Drink Apple cider Eggnog Mulled wine Ponche crema Dumpling Hallaca Tamale Meat Romeritos Roast goose Christmas ham Turkey Stuffing
Links to related articles
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Winter solstice and midwinter festivals
Goru: Mali (Dogon) Dzon'ku Nu†: West Africa (Papaws)
Inti Raymi°: Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador (Inca†) Jonkonnu°: Caribbean° (African American) Soyal: US (Zuni, Hopi) We Tripantu: Chile (Mapuche)
Amaterasu†: Japan Choimus Deygān, Maidyarem°: (Zoroastrian) Dōngzhì, Tōji: (East Asian) Lohri, Pongal, Makar Sankranti°: India(Hindu) Sanghamitta Day: Sri Lanka (Buddhist) Şeva Zistanê: (Kurdish) Yalda: Iran (Persian)
Beiwe: (Saami) Brumalia†: Ancient Greece Christmas: Roman Empire° (Christian) Dies Natalis Solis Invicti†: Roman Empire Deuorius Riuri†: Gaul Hogmanay°: Scotland Korochun°: (Slavs) Mōdraniht†: Western Germany (Matres and Matrones) Midvinterblót†: Sweden (Norse) Montol Festival, Mummer's Day°: Cornwall (Celts) Saturnalia†: Rome Wren's Day°: Ireland, Isle of Man, Wales (Celts) Yule, Jul°: (Germanic) Ziemassvētki: Baltic (Romuva)
† dagger indicates extinction. ° degree symbol indicates changes in date, name or location. ( ) indicate demographic
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Public holidays in Australia
New Year's Day Australia Day Good Friday Easter Saturday Easter Monday Anzac Day Queen's Birthday Labour Day Christmas Day Boxing Day
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Public holidays in Canada
Nationwide statutory holidays
New Year's Day Good Friday Canada Day Labour Day Christmas Day
Statutory holidays for federal employees
Easter Monday Victoria Day Thanksgiving Remembrance Day Boxing Day
Other common holidays
Family Day/Louis Riel Day/Islander Day Quebec National Holiday Memorial Day (Newfoundland and Labrador) August Civic Holiday
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Public holidays in Hong Kong
New Year's Day Lunar New Year (3 days) Ching Ming Festival Good Friday Holy Saturday Easter Monday Buddha's Birthday Labour Day Tuen Ng Festival Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Establishment Day Mid-Autumn Festival National Day Chung Yeung Festival Christmas Day Boxing Day
Birthday of Her Majesty The Queen Liberation Day Double Ten Day Remembrance Day
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Public holidays in the Republic of Ireland
New Year's Day Saint Patrick's Day Easter Monday May Day June Holiday August Holiday October Holiday Christmas Day St. Stephen's Day
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Mexico Mexican public holidays
Año Nuevo Día de la Constitución Natalicio de Benito Juárez Día del Trabajo Día de Independencia Día de la Revolución Transmisión del Poder Ejecutivo Federal Navidad
Día del Ejército Día de la Bandera Aniversario de la Expropiación petrolera Heroica Defensa de Veracruz Cinco de Mayo Natalicio de Miguel Hidalgo Día de la Marina Grito de Dolores Día de los Niños Héroes Consumación de la Independencia Natalicio de José Ma. Morelos y Pavón Descubrimiento de América
Día de los Santos Reyes Día de San Valentín Día del Niño Día de las Madres Día del Maestro Día del estudiante Día del Padre Día de Todos los Santos Día de los Fieles Difuntos Día de la Virgen de Guadalupe Las Posadas Nochebuena Dia de los Santos Inocentes
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Public holidays in New Zealand
New Year's Day January 2 Waitangi Day Good Friday Easter Sunday Easter Monday Anzac Day Queen's Birthday Labour Day Christmas Day Boxing Day
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Philippines Philippine national holidays
New Year's Day Maundy Thursday Good Friday Araw ng Kagitingan Labor Day Independence Day National Heroes' Day Bonifacio Day Christmas Rizal Day
Special non-working days
Black Saturday Ninoy Aquino Day All Saints' Day and All Souls' Day Christmas Eve Last day of the year
Special holiday (for schools)
EDSA Revolution Anniversary
Italicized: Movable holiday
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Public holidays in South Africa
New Year's Day Human Rights Day Good Friday Family Day Freedom Day Workers' Day Youth Day National Women's Day Heritage Day Day of Reconciliation Christmas Day Day of Goodwill
Flag of South Africa
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Public holidays in the United Kingdom
New Year's Day 2nd January (Scotland only) St Patrick's Day (Northern Ireland only) Good Friday (not Northern Ireland) Easter Monday (not Scotland) Easter Tuesday (Northern Ireland only) May Bank Holiday Spring Bank Holiday (not Scotland) Battle of the Boyne (Orangemen's Day) (Northern Ireland only) Summer Bank Holiday St Andrew's Day (Scotland only, optional) Christmas Day Boxing Day
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Federal holidays in the United States
New Year's Day Martin Luther King, Jr. Day Washington's Birthday Memorial Day Independence Day Labor Day Columbus Day Veterans Day Thanksgiving Day Christmas Day
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Holidays, observances, and celebrations in the United States
New Year's Day (Federal)
Martin Luther King, Jr. Day (Federal) Confederate Heroes Day (TX) Idaho Human Rights Day (ID) Lee–Jackson Day (formerly Lee–Jackson–King Day) (VA) Robert E. Lee Day (FL, GA) Stephen Foster Memorial Day (36) Chinese New Year (Week, also in February)
Valentine's Day (Religious)
Washington's Birthday (Federal, also known as "Presidents' Day") Georgia Day (GA) Lincoln's Birthday (CA, CT, IL, IN, MO, NJ, NY, WV) Mardi Gras (FL, LA, Religious) Primary Election Day (WI) Ronald Reagan Day (CA) Rosa Parks Day (CA, OH) Susan B. Anthony Day (FL, WI, WV) National Freedom Day (36) Ash Wednesday (Religious) Courir de Mardi Gras (Religious) Four Chaplains Day Groundhog Day American Heart Month Black History Month
Easter (Religious, sometimes in April) Saint Patrick's Day
Spring break (Week) Good Friday (CT, NC, PR, Religious, sometimes in April) Holi (Religious) Pi Day Casimir Pulaski Day (IL) Cesar Chavez Day (CA, CO, TX) Evacuation Day (MA) Mardi Gras (FL, LA) Maryland Day (MD) Passover (Religious, sometimes in April) Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole Day (HI) Seward's Day (AK) Texas Independence Day (TX) Town Meeting Day (VT) Ash Wednesday (Religious) Courir de Mardi Gras (Religious) Easter Monday (Religious) Palm Sunday (Religious, Week, sometimes in April) Saint Joseph's Day (Religious) Women's History Month National Poison Prevention Week (Week)
Easter (Religious, sometimes in March) April Fool's Day Arbor Day Confederate Memorial Day (AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC) Emancipation Day (DC) Jefferson's Birthday (AL) Pascua Florida Day (FL) Patriots' Day (MA, ME) San Jacinto Day (TX) Mahavir Jayanti (Religious) Earth Day 420 Day Record Store Day Walpurgis Night Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust (Week) Confederate History Month (Month)
Memorial Day (Federal) Mother's Day (36)
Cinco de Mayo Harvey Milk Day (CA) Truman Day (MO) Malcolm X Day (Berkeley, CA) Law Day (36) Loyalty Day (36) National Day of Prayer (36) National Defense Transportation Day (36) National Maritime Day (36) Peace Officers Memorial Day (36) Military Spouse Day May Day Free Comic Book Day Walpurgis Night Asian Pacific American Heritage Month (Month) Jewish American Heritage Month (Month)
Father's Day (36)
Flag Day (FL, PA) Odunde Festival (Philadelphia, PA) Emancipation Day In Texas / Juneteenth (TX) Helen Keller Day (PA) Jefferson Davis Day (AL, FL) Kamehameha Day (HI) West Virginia Day (WV) National Doughnut Day Honor America Days (Week) Senior Week (Week) Gay and Lesbian Pride Month (Month)
Independence Day (Federal)
Pioneer Day (UT) Parents' Day (36) Ramadan (Religious, Month) Honor America Days (Week) National Korean War Veterans Armistice Day (36)
Bennington Battle Day (VT) Hawaii Admission Day / Statehood Day (HI) Lyndon Baines Johnson Day (TX) Service Reduction Day (MD) Victory over Japan Day (RI) National Aviation Day (36) Women's Equality Day (36)
Labor Day (Federal)
Rosh Hashanah (Religious) Yom Kippur (Religious) Native American Day (CA) Carl Garner Federal Lands Cleanup Day (36) Constitution Day (36) Gold Star Mothers Day (36) National Grandparents Day (36) Patriot Day (36) Constitution Week (Week) National Payroll Week (Week) National Hispanic Heritage Month (Month)
Columbus Day (Federal) Alaska Day (AK) Missouri Day (MO) Native American Day (SD) Nevada Day (NV) Child Health Day (36) Leif Erikson Day (36) White Cane Safety Day (36) Diwali (Religious) Yom Kippur (Religious) General Pulaski Memorial Day Sweetest Day National School Lunch Week (Week) Filipino American History Month (Month) LGBT History Month (Month) National Breast Cancer Awareness Month (Month) National Disability Employment Awareness Month (Month) National Hispanic Heritage Month (Month)
Day after Thanksgiving (DE) Veterans Day (Federal) Election Day (CA, DE, HI, KY, MT, NJ, NY, OH, PR, WV) Family Day (NV) Native American Heritage Day (MD) Obama Day (Perry County, AL) Diwali (Religious) Hanukkah (Religious)
Christmas (Religious, Federal)
Kwanzaa (Religious, Week) Christmas Eve (KY, NC) New Year's Eve Hanukkah (Religious, Week) Alabama Day (AL) Indiana Day (IN) New Year's Eve (KY) Rosa Parks Day (CA, OH) National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day (36) Pan American Aviation Day (36) Wright Brothers Day (36) Festivus
Legend: (Federal) = Federal holidays, (State) = State holidays, (Religious) = Religious holidays, (Week) = Weeklong holidays, (Month) = Monthlong holidays, (36) = Title 36 Observances and Ceremonies
Bolded text indicates major holidays that are commonly celebrated by Americans, which often represents the major celebration of the month.
See also: Lists of holidays, Hallmark holiday, Public holidays in the United States, Public holidays in Puerto Rico, and Public holidays in the United States Virgin Islands
Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Father Christmas, Kris Kringle and simply "Santa", is a figure with legendary, mythical, historical and folkloric origins who, in many western cultures, is said to bring gifts to the homes of the good children on the night before Christmas, December 24. However in some European countries children receive their presents on St. Nicholas' Day, December 6. The modern figure of Santa Claus was derived from the Dutch figure of Sinterklaas, which, in turn, was part of its basis in hagiographical tales concerning the historical figure of Christian bishop and gift giver Saint Nicholas. During the Christianization of Germanic Europe, this figure may have absorbed elements of the god Odin, who was associated with the Germanic pagan midwinter event of Yule and led the Wild Hunt, a ghostly procession through the sky.
Santa Claus is generally depicted as a portly, joyous, white-bearded man—sometimes with spectacles—wearing a red coat with white collar and cuffs, white-cuffed red trousers, and black leather belt and boots and carries a bag full of gifts for children. Images of him rarely have a beard with no moustache. This image became popular in the United States and Canada in the 19th century due to the significant influence of Clement Clarke Moore's 1823 poem "A Visit From St. Nicholas" and of caricaturist and political cartoonist Thomas Nast. This image has been maintained and reinforced through song, radio, television, children's books and films.
According to a tradition which can be traced to the 1820s, Santa Claus lives at the North Pole, with a large number of magical elves, and nine (originally eight) flying reindeer. Since the 20th century, in an idea popularized by the 1934 song "Santa Claus Is Coming to Town", Santa Claus has been believed to make a list of children throughout the world, categorizing them according to their behavior ("naughty" or "nice") and to deliver presents, including toys, and candy to all of the well-behaved children in the world, and sometimes coal to the naughty children, on the single night of Christmas Eve. He accomplishes this feat with the aid of the elves who make the toys in the workshop and the reindeer who pull his sleigh.
ather Christmas is the name used in many English-speaking countries outside the United States for a figure associated with Christmas. A similar figure with the same name (in other languages) exists in several other countries, including France (Père Noël), Spain (Papá Noel, Padre Noel), Russia (Ded Moroz, Grandfather Frost), almost all Hispanic South America (Papá Noel), Brazil (Papai Noel), Portugal (Pai Natal), Italy (Babbo Natale), Ireland (Daidí na Nollag), Armenia (Dzmer Papik), India (Christmas Father), Andorra (Pare Noel), Romania (Moş Crăciun) and Turkey (Noel Baba).
In the English-speaking world, Father Christmas is associated with the development in the United States of Santa Claus, and most people now consider them to be different names for the same figure.
A wish is a hope or desire for something. Fictionally, wishes can be used as plot devices. In folklore, opportunities for "making a wish" or for wishes to "come true" or "be granted" are themes that are sometimes used.
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer is a fictional male reindeer with a glowing red nose, popularly known as "Santa's 9th Reindeer." When depicted, he is the lead reindeer pulling Santa's sleigh on Christmas Eve. The luminosity of his nose is so great that it illuminates the team's path through inclement winter weather.
Rudolph first appeared in a 1939 booklet written by Robert L. May and published by Montgomery Ward.
The story is owned by The Rudolph Company, L.P. and has been adapted in numerous forms including a popular song, a television special and sequels, and a feature film and sequel. Character Arts, LLC manages the licensing for the Rudolph Company, L.P. In many countries, Rudolph has become a figure of Christmas folklore.
Rudolph, the red-nosed reindeer
had a very shiny nose.
And if you ever saw him,
you would even say it glows.
All of the other reindeer
used to laugh and call him names.
They never let poor Rudolph
join in any reindeer games.
Then one foggy Christmas Eve
Santa came to say:
"Rudolph with your nose so bright,
won't you guide my sleigh tonight?"
Then all the reindeer loved him
as they shouted out with glee,
Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer,
you'll go down in history!
List of Christmas films
See also: List of Christmas television specials
This is a list of made-for-TV and direct-to-video films that are entirely, or in large part, about the Christmas holiday. Films in this list always feature important references to the holiday's symbols, such as family gatherings, trees and decorations, the Christ child, or Santa Claus.
Title Year Description
Annabelle's Wish 1997 A young deaf boy is given a calf who aspires to become one of Santa's flying reindeer.
Arthur Christmas 2011 Santa's clumsy son Arthur goes on a mission to save one child's Christmas.
Arthur's Perfect Christmas 2000 Animated special, based on the popular television and book franchise. Arthur and his friends hope to celebrate a perfect Christmas and other seasonal holidays, but discover that sometimes even if Christmas or their holiday of choice doesn't work out in the perfect manner they had planned, they can still have a wonderful holiday.
Babes in Toyland 1997 An animated adaptation of the Herbert operetta.
Bah, Humduck! A Looney Tunes Christmas 2006 This animated parody of A Christmas Carol casts Daffy Duck in the Scrooge-like role, with all of the other Looney Tunes characters offering support.
Barbie in a Christmas Carol 2008 An adaptation of A Christmas Carol starring Barbie and friends
The Bear Who Slept Through Christmas 1973 The story focuses on Theodore Edward Bear (Ted E. Bear for short) who is curious about Christmas, and who decides to go searching for it while the other bears hibernate for winter..
The Bears Who Saved Christmas 1994 A family gets stranded in a cabin on Christmas Eve, and two teddy bears - Christopher and Holly - venture into the woods to find a Christmas tree and save Christmas.
Beauty and the Beast: The Enchanted Christmas 1997 A holiday-themed sequel to the animated Disney theatrical film.
The Berenstain Bears' Christmas Tree 1979 Papa Bear and the cubs search the woods for the most perfect Christmas tree, but run afoul of the woodland animals who live in the trees they aim to cut down.
Buster & Chauncey's Silent Night 1998 An animated story about the creation of the song "Silent Night".
Bugs Bunny's Christmas Carol 1979 An animated television special featuring the various Looney Tunes characters, with the role of Scrooge going to Yosemite Sam.
Casper's Haunted Christmas 2000 Casper the Friendly Ghost must scare someone before Christmas Day or be banished from the mortal realm.
A Charlie Brown Christmas 1965 A 28-minute animated special in which Charlie Brown searches for the true meaning of Christmas, by directing a Christmas play while shunning the hyper-commercialization of the holiday.
A Chipmunk Christmas 1981 A sick boy makes Alvin realize the true meaning of Christmas.
Christmas Is Here Again 2007 A disabled orphan girl sets out to find Santa's stolen toy sack.
A Cosmic Christmas 1977 Three aliens visit Earth to learn about the true meaning of Christmas.
Father Christmas 1991 The story of what Father Christmas does the 'other' 364 days a year.
The Fat Albert Christmas Special 1977
Frosty the Snowman 1969 Animated special. A Magic hat brings snowman to life.
Frosty Returns 1992 Animated special. A Summer Wheeze aersol spray threatens Frosty.
A Garfield Christmas 1987 Animated special. Garfield, Jon, and Odie go to Jon's grandmother's house for Christmas, where Garfield finds a present for Grandma.
Holly Hobbie and Friends: Christmas Wishes 2006 Animated special. Holly Hobbie and her friends help a widow and her twin boys to celebrate the Christmas holidays.
How the Grinch Stole Christmas! 1966 A mean and stingy green creature wants to ruin Christmas. (Animated; musical)
The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus 2000 A human orphan raised by the Faire Folke becomes the benefactor of all human children.
Mickey's Christmas Carol 1983 Mickey, Minnie, and other well-loved Disney characters cast the classic Charles Dickens Christmas story of redemption.
Mr. Magoo's Christmas Carol 1962 An animated and musical adaptation of Charles Dickens' famous book, A Christmas Carol, with Mr. Magoo as Scrooge.
Niko & The Way to the Stars ("The Flight Before Christmas" in North America) 2008 A young reindeer must overcome his fear of flying.
Niko 2: Little Brother, Big Trouble 2012 The sequel of Niko & The Way to the Stars.
Olive, the Other Reindeer 1999 A dog called Olive wants to be a reindeer at Christmas time.
The Polar Express 2004 On Christmas Eve, a doubting boy boards a magical train that's headed to the North Pole and Santa Claus's home.
Shrek the Halls 2007 Animated special. An ogre prepares to celebrate Christmas with family.
The Snowman 1982 The tale of a boy who builds a snowman one winter's day. One night, at the stroke of twelve, the snowman comes to life and takes him on a magical adventure to the north pole.
Toot and Puddle: I'll Be Home for Christmas 2006 Animated special. Toot and Puddle are two pigs that live together in Pocket Hollow. While Toot travels to Scotland to celebrate his grandmother's centennial birthday, Puddle stays home and gets things ready for Christmas with the help of their young cousin Opal. Toot wants to get home in time for Christmas, but a fierce snowstorm threatens to derail his plans.
Twas the Night Before Christmas 1974 A mouse and a clockmaker try to appease a disgruntled Santa after he has received an insulting letter.
A Very Merry Cricket 1973 We find Harry Cat, Tucker Mouse feeling down about all the commercial selling in the Big City of New York. People have forgotten the meaning of the Holiday, so off they go to Sunnyslope, Connecticut in search of Chester the musical cricket.
Winnie the Pooh and Christmas Too 1991 Winnie the Pooh and Christmas Too is a Christmas television special based on the Disney television series The New Adventures of Winnie the Pooh, originally broadcast on Saturday December 14, 1991, on ABC.
The Wish that Changed Christmas 1998 Based on a 1958 children's book named The Story of Holly and Ivy — A story about an orphan girl named Ivy who gets off a train at the wrong stop and ends up finding a family who adopts her and her Christmas doll, Holly.
Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus 1974 An animated account of young Virginia.
Yes, Virginia 2009 CGI animated version of Yes Virginia, aired on CBS and produced in association with Macy's and Make-A-Wish Foundation
Ziggy's Gift 1982 Ziggy and his faithful dog Fuzz take a job as a street Santa to raise money for the poor.
Title Year Description
The First Christmas: The Story of the First Christmas Snow 1975 Stop Motion special.
The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus 1985 Stop Motion Rankin/Bass Special.
The Great Ak calls a council of the Immortals to ask that Santa Claus be given immortality. And to justify it, he tells the history of Santa Claus.
Jack Frost 1979 Stop Motion special.
The Little Drummer Boy 1968 Stop Motion special. An orphan drummer boy who hates humanity finds his life changed forever when he meets three wise men en route to Bethlehem.
A Miser Brothers' Christmas 2008 Stop Motion sequel to The Year Without a Santa Claus.
Nestor, The Long-Eared Christmas Donkey 1977 Stop Motion special.
Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer 1964 Stop-motion adaptation of the popular song. Rudolph, and Hermey the Misfit Elf, overcome rejection for their differences and help Santa Claus make his Christmas Eve trip.
Rudolph's Shiny New Year 1976
Rudolph and Frosty's Christmas in July 1979
Santa Claus is Comin' to Town 1970 Stop Motion special.
The Year Without a Santa Claus 1974 (Stop Motion) Santa decides to take a holiday one year. So Mrs. Claus corrals Heat Miser and Snow Miser, along with children of the world, to show Santa that people still believe in him.
Will Vinton's A Claymation Christmas Celebration 1987 A stop motion claymation featuring the California Raisins and many Christmas songs.
The Nightmare Before Christmas 1993
Title Year Description
The Christmas Toy 1986 Jim Henson tale of toys who come to life on Christmas Eve.
A Classic Christmas From The Ed Sullivan Show 1993 This VHS compilation includes a Muppet segment with Santa Claus' reindeer from 1968.
Emmet Otter's Jug-Band Christmas 1977 Jim Henson's telling of the true meaning of Christmas based around a struggling mother and son who each sacrifice an item of great importance in order to give the other the perfect gift for Christmas.
Santa Claus is Comin' to Town 1970 The fictional story of how Kris Kringle became Santa Claus
Title Year Description
It's a Very Merry Muppet Christmas Movie 2002 Kermit is shown what life would be like for the rest of the Muppets without him, in this spoof of It's a Wonderful Life.
John Denver and the Muppets: A Christmas Together 1979
A Muppet Christmas: Letters to Santa 2008 After mistakenly intercepting three letters sent by children to Santa Claus, the Muppets must head for the North Pole to get them delivered before Christmas.
A Muppet Family Christmas 1987 Kermit and his friends spend Christmas staging a surprise visit to Fozzie Bear's mother's farm. Muppets from both the Muppet Show and Sesame Street are featured, as are Fraggles. Includes a rare cameo appearance by Jim Henson himself.
The Muppet Christmas Carol 1992 The muppet adaptation of the Dickens' classic stars Gonzo as Charles Dickens (the narrator), Michael Caine as Scrooge and Kermit as Bob Cratchit.
Sesame Street / Elmo's World
Title Year Description
Christmas Eve on Sesame Street 1978
Elmo's Christmas Countdown 2007
Elmo Saves Christmas 1996
Elmo's World: Happy Holidays 2002
A Sesame Street Christmas Carol 2006
A Special Sesame Street Christmas 1978
Title Year Description
The 12 Dogs of Christmas 2005 A girl uses dogs to teach people about the true meaning of Christmas during the Depression.
The 12 Dogs of Christmas 2: Great Puppy Rescue 2012 The dogs of Doverville are in trouble again... but Emma is back to save them after mean-spirited mogul Finneas plots to shut down the local puppy orphanage, unless Emma can come up with the money to save it. With the help of some friends, she races against time to put together a musical holiday event that just might save the day.
An American Christmas Carol 1979 In this adaptation of Dickens' A Christmas Carol, the "Scrooge" figure is a miserly businessman in Depression-era New England.
The Angel of Pennsylvania Avenue 1996 A Family Channel TV production: Three children travel to Washington in the hope of convincing President Hoover to release their wrongly convicted father from jail in time for Christmas.
Black Christmas 1974 Canadian horror film about college students who must face a deranged serial killer lurking in their sorority house one Christmas, based on real life murders in Quebec.
Beethoven's Christmas Adventure 2011 A Christmas elf accidentally takes off in Santa's sleigh, crash lands in a small town, and loses the magic toy bag. Beethoven must rescue the elf, recover the bag from greedy crooks, and return the sleigh to Santa in time to save Christmas.
Benji's Very Own Christmas Story 1978 Popular screen pooch meets Kris Kringle while preparing for a Christmas parade in Switzerland.
The Best Christmas Ever 1990 A Wee Sing production where a family helps an elf by traveling to the North Pole.
The Best Christmas Pageant Ever 1983 A church Christmas pageant touches the hearts of a family of juvenile delinquents.
The Best Christmas Pageant Ever 2010
Borrowed Hearts 1997 A wealthy manufacturer pays an impoverished single mother who works in his factory, and her daughter, to pretend to be his "family" at Christmastime, in order to impress a visiting old-fashioned tycoon interested in buying his company.
A Boyfriend for Christmas 2004 Santa plays matchmaker and sets up a young couple for Christmas.
Call Me Claus 2001 Santa Claus is preparing to retire, and grooms an American businesswoman (Whoopi Goldberg) to be his replacement.
A Carol Christmas 2003 In a modern comic retelling of A Christmas Carol, Carol Cartman says "Bah, humbug" to the clichés of her fellow talk-show host, Dr. Bob, and especially to a live Christmas Eve show her producer has planned.
Carol for Another Christmas 1964 This modernization of A Christmas Carol was produced to promote American support for the United Nations.
A Chance of Snow 1998 A divorced couple get snowed in at Christmastime.
Chasing Christmas 2005 In a world where the holidays are run by the efficient Bureau of Yuletide Affairs, a bitter and burned-out Ghost of Christmas Past decides to go AWOL while on a "mission" and leave his "target" stranded in 1965.
Christmas at Water's Edge 2004 An Angel teams with spoiled college coed to organize Christmas concert at community youth center.
The Christmas Box 1995 Based on the bestselling book of the same name, a couple and their daughter move in with a widow and discover a box containing the answer to the first gift of Christmas.
The Christmas Card 2006 A soldier serving in Afghanistan receives a Christmas card from a Californian woman he has never met.
Christmas Caper 2007 A Grinch-like thief retreats to her hometown for Christmas. Can the spirit of Christmas, combined with a stint babysitting her niece and nephew, rid her of her wicked ways?
The Christmas Cottage 2008 Tells the story of the inspiration behind Thomas Kinkade's painting The Christmas Cottage, and how the artist was motivated to begin his career after discovering his mother was in danger of losing their family home.
Christmas Cupid 2007 Sloan is beautiful, stylish, and on the fast track to success at her public relations firm. After her client Caitlin dies and becomes her own personal ghost of Christmas past, present, and future; she finds out first hand that her unethical ways needs to change and reuniting with a past jilted lover may be the answer.
A Christmas Carol 1984 Starring George C. Scott as Ebenezer Scrooge, an old miser who makes excuses for his uncaring nature learns real compassion when three ghosts visit him on Christmas Eve.
A Christmas Carol 1999 A Hallmark Channel adaptation of the famous story. Starring Patrick Stewart as Ebenezer Scrooge and Richard E. Grant as Bob Cratchit.
A Christmas Carol 2004 Kelsey Grammer is Scrooge in this musical adaptation of the Dickens classic,
Christmas Comes to Willow Creek 1987 Two truck-driving brothers attempt to transport a load of Christmas gifts from California to an economically strapped Alaska town.
Christmas Do-Over 2006 In a remake of the plot from Groundhog Day, a man has to repeat Christmas Day over and over until he realizes how selfish he has become and has to change his ways.
Christmas Every Day 1996 In a juvenile reworking of Groundhog Day a self-centered teenager is forced to relive the same Christmas over and over again after his sister wishes it were Christmas every day.
The Christmas Gift 1986 A widowed architect and his daughter visit a town where everyone believes in Santa Claus.
Christmas in Boston 2005 Two pen pals who have never met, decide to meet up at one of their home towns in Boston during the Christmas holiday. Only one problem though, they have both sent pictures of their better looking friends to each other.
Christmas in Connecticut 1992 Remake of the 1945 theatrical film.
A Christmas Kiss 2011 A romance movie.
Christmas Lilies of the Field 1979 Seasonal sequel to the theatrical film Lilies of the Field (1963) has its African-American protagonist returning to the chapel he had built in the Arizona desert for a group of German nuns.
The Christmas List 1997 A woman makes a list of things she wants for Christmas and learns the lesson, "Be careful what you wish for."
Christmas Mail 2010 A Postal worker falls for a mysterious woman who answers letters to Santa.
A Christmas Memory 1966 Award-winning adaptation of Truman Capote's poignant, nostalgic reminiscence about his childhood best friend — a childlike elderly relative with whom he makes fruitcakes and other gifts, in Depression-era Alabama.
Christmas Miracle in Caufield, U.S.A. 1977 Coal miners are trapped in a mine following an explosion on Christmas Eve, 1951.
The Christmas Miracle of Jonathan Toomey 2007 A bereaved boy and his widowed mother commission a grumpy woodcarver to carve a nativity set and thus form a relationship that enables them all to put their sadness behind them and move on.
Christmas on Division Street 1991 A young boy befriends a homeless man, against the wishes of his mother.
A Christmas Romance 1994 A bank vice president is forced to spend Christmas with a woman whose house he was about to repossess after a blizzard hits.
Christmas Rush 2002 Suspended Chicago cop battles hostage-taking shopping mall thieves on Christmas Eve.
The Christmas Secret
(aka Flight of the Reindeer) 2000 A scientist sets out to prove that reindeer can fly, and along the way discovers the true meaning of faith, family, and Christmas.
The Christmas Shoes 2002 Trio of interlocking stories, adopted from the hit song of the same name.
Christmas Snow 1986 A widowed mother struggles to prevent her candy shop from being put out of business by a hard-hearted businessman.
A Christmas Snow 2010 A woman must face the hurts of her past while trapped with two strangers in her house for Christmas.
Christmas Spirit 2011 A mystical Christmas Spirit visits a cynical boy whose mom is about to lose her job. The boy entrusts her to help his family find their holiday spirit and, along the way, learns how to revive the happiness within himself.
The Christmas Star 1986 Two kids befriend an escaped convict who they believe is Santa Claus.
A Christmas Story 2 2012 Now-teenaged Ralphie Parker schemes to acquire a car for Christmas in this sequel to the theatrical classic.
A Christmas Too Many 2007 A Hollywood legend invites her not so normal family home for the holidays.
Christmas Town 2008 A single mom visits her estranged father for Christmas, and is surprised to discover his hometown oddly resembles the North Pole.
A Christmas Visitor 2002 A family decides not to celebrate Christmas for 11 years after their son dies, but when a stranger visits them for Christmas, they realize he is the miracle their family has been waiting for.
A Christmas Wedding 2006 2 people who meet on Christmas Day plan to marry on Christmas Day two years later.
A Christmas Wish 2012 A single mum prays for miracle when she and her children are left penniless and homeless just before Christmas.
The Christmas Wish 1998 A businessman tries to uncover a family secret for his grandmother after he returns to a small town to modernize his family's real-estate company.
Christmas with a Capital C 2010 Small Alaska town erupts into conflict over public Nativity scene.
A Christmas Without Snow 1980 Church choir members try to balance personal issues with practice as the holiday approaches.
Christmas in Wonderland 2009 Two children find a bag full of counterfeit money and Santa too.
Comfort and Joy 2003 Single businesswoman wakes up married and a mother after a car accident.
Crazy for Christmas 2005 A female limousine driver takes an eccentric elderly rich man around town on Christmas Eve, and it turns out he's her long lost biological father, that she didn't know she had.
The Custom Mary 2013 A young Latina in East Los Angeles meets an African-American Lowrider, and struggles to reconcile her faith and blossoming love affair while becoming dangerously involved in a religious attempt to clone Jesus.
A Dad for Christmas 2006 When a young man discovers that his girlfriend intends to give their baby up for adoption, he brings the baby to his grandmother for the holidays.
Deck the Halls 2005 Widowed mother and her young son come to believe their new neighbor may be Santa Claus.
A Dennis the Menace Christmas 2007 Dennis tries to inject his grinchy neighbor Mr. Wilson with the holiday spirit, with the help of an Angel of Christmas Past Present and Future.
A Different Kind of Christmas 1996 After the death of his wife, a father starts to act like Santa Claus and turns his house into a year-round wonderland. Unfortunately his daughter is a big city attorney who has been given the job of making sure her father's illegal all-year Christmas business is shut down.
A Diva's Christmas Carol 2000 A TV movie that premiered on VH1, now on Lifetime, portraying Vanessa Williams in the Scrooge role as "Ebony" Scrooge, one third of a late-'80's pop trio called "Desire" and now an egotistical, arrogant, grouchy solo diva.
A Dog's Christmas Miracle 2011 A mischievous but lovable puppy, named Cinnamon, is determined to break-up her devoted “mummy’s” new relationship.
The Dog Who Saved Christmas 2009
The Dog Who Saved Christmas Vacation 2010
Ebbie 1995 Made by Lifetime Television, this retelling of Dickens' A Christmas Carol features Susan Lucci in the title role of Elizabeth Scrooge, a hard-driven department store owner with no compassion and no time for Christmas joy until she receives a visit from three Christmas spirits. This is Dickens turned on its ear as all the major roles in this classic tale have been converted to female characters.
Ernest Saves Christmas 1988 When Santa Claus decides to retire and pass on his magic, he enlists the aid of a hilarious assortment of characters, including that lovable Ernest P. Worrell.
Eve's Christmas 2004 A wealthy and successful career woman gets a second chance in life when a magical wish transports her back in time eight years to when she walked away from her fiance to lead a business life in New York.
A Fairly Odd Christmas 2012 A Christmas-themed live-action adaptation of Nickelodeon's animated series The Fairly OddParents.
The Family Holiday 2007 A conman must show the executor of his uncle's will that he has changed his lifestyle, in order to receive his uncle's fortune.
The Fourth Wise Man 1985 The story of Artaban, the fourth Magi, who spends his life looking for Jesus his King.
The Gathering 1977 A dying man attempts to reconcile with the family he had abandoned years earlier, by having them come to visit for Christmas.
The Gift of Love 1978 An orphaned heiress in 1900s New York falls in love with a poor but honest immigrant in this moving adaptation of O. Henry's timeless Christmas story, "The Gift of the Magi." Marie Osmond, Timothy Bottoms, David Wayne, June Lockhart star.
The Gift of Love: A Christmas Story 1983 A woman reeling from business and marital failure is visited in a Christmastime dream by her deceased mother, who takes her on a journey back through her childhood.
A Grandpa for Christmas 2007 During the Christmas season, an old-time film-star/singer/hoofer, who is estranged from his daughter and 9-year-old granddaughter, suddenly finds himself bonding with his granddaughter when her mom is hospitalized.
Good Luck Charlie, It's Christmas! 2011 Based on the Disney Channel Original Series Good Luck Charlie, the film follows the Duncan family, who get separated at Palm Springs on their way to visit Grandma and Grandpa Blankenhooper for Christmas.
The Greatest Store in the World 1999 A family lose their home at Christmas and in desperation, stay in a department store over the Christmas period.
His and Her Christmas 2005
A Hobo's Christmas 1987 A hobo decides to return home after being away for 25 years.
Hogfather 2006 It's Hogswatch on the Discworld and the Hogfather has gone missing, requiring Death to take his place while his granddaughter Susan endeavors to find out what has happened.
Holiday in Handcuffs 2007 A struggling artist working as waitress kidnaps one of her customers to bring home and meet her parents at Christmas.
A Holiday to Remember 1995 Carolyn is leaving the big city with her daughter Jordi for her childhood village, deep in the forest.
Home Alone 2
Home Alone 3
Home Alone 4 2002 A made-for-TV sequel to theatrical original
Home Alone 5 2012 Another made-for-TV sequel.
Home & Alone For Christmas (aka 3 Day Test) 2012 The father of a dysfunctional family locks them all in the house over the Christmas holidays.
Home for Christmas 1990 A thief befriends a young boy at Christmas.
Home for the Holidays 1972 Four sisters return home to visit their father for Christmas, only to discover that someone is trying to kill him.
Home for the Holidays 2008
A Home for the Holidays 2005 A woman struggles to adopt her orphaned relatives.
The Homecoming: A Christmas Story 1971 On Christmas Eve in 1933, the Walton family of rural Virginia awaits the return of the father, who had gone to look for work in a distant city. This film served as a pilot for the series The Waltons.
The House Without a Christmas Tree 1972 A widower, still grieving from his wife's death, refuses to allow a Christmas tree in the home, to the dismay of his young daughter.
I'll Be Home for Christmas 1988 A Massachusetts family holds down the WW2 home front during Christmas of 1944.
It Came Upon the Midnight Clear 1984 After suffering a fatal heart attack, a man (Mickey Rooney) is granted a brief return to life so that he can show his California-bred grandson his first white Christmas in New York.
It Happened One Christmas 1977 A young businesswoman, despondent over the circumstances of her life, contemplates suicide, but is shown the value of her life by a guardian angel, in this feminist remake of It's a Wonderful Life starring the then recently liberated Marlo Thomas.
It Nearly Wasn't Christmas 1989 A disillusioned Santa Claus (Charles Durning) quits Christmas. Through the selflessness of a little girl looking to reunite her parents for Christmas (and the help of his bumbling chief elf, Philpot (Bruce Vilanch)), Santa and the child travel across America and Santa discovers that people really do need him and care about other people.
John Grin's Christmas Carol 1986 A miserly African-American businessman is shown the spirit of Christmas by three ghosts in this update of A Christmas Carol.
J.T. 1969 Troubled inner-city youngster adopts a stray cat for Christmas, and must hide it from his financially strapped mother.
Like Father, Like Santa 1998 A ruthless toy tycoon who is also secretly the son of Santa Claus travels to the North Pole to put an end to an attempted coup.
The Man in the Santa Claus Suit 1979 The lives of three different men are transformed by a magical Santa Claus costume rented to them by a mysterious shopkeeper.
The Man Who Saved Christmas 2002 Fact-based drama of toy inventor A.C. Gilbert, a pacifist toymaker who is forced by the U.S. government to turn his factory into a munitions plant during WWI, and is asked to convince consumers to buy bonds instead of toys.
Mandie and the Forgotten Christmas 2011 A girl stumbles upon the mystery of a long forgotten Christmas while visiting her school's forbidden attic.
Mary Christmas 2002 Widower's young daughter asks Santa for a new mother.
Meet the Santas 2005 Sequel to Single Santa Seeks Mrs. Claus.
Miracle on 34th Street 1973 Remake of the classic tale.
A Mom for Christmas 1990 A young girl desires to have a mother in her life gets her wish at the department store.
The Monster's Christmas 1981 A young girl helps the monsters from her storybook defeat an evil witch that has stolen their voices because they sang better at Christmas carols than she did.
Moonlight and Mistletoe 2007 A man runs a year-round Santa Town.
The Most Wonderful Time of the Year 2008 A Retired policeman attempts to kindle romance between his daughter and a visiting chef.
A Mouse, A Mystery and Me 1987 A world-class mystery-writing mouse spends Christmas Eve with his sleuthing partner tracking down a missing Santa.
Mr. Krueger's Christmas 1980 A widowed apartment janitor daydreams to escape his lonely life.
Mr. St. Nick 2002 An aging Santa Claus is ready to retire but first he must convince his son to take over his job.
Mrs. Santa Claus 1996 Santa's wife ends up in New York in the early 1900s near Christmastime.
Mrs. Miracle 2009 A widower gets a babysitter for his twin sons in the form of a woman called Mrs. Miracle, who quickly becomes an irreplaceable nanny, chef, friend... and matchmaker!
Mrs Miracle 2: Miracle in Manhattan 2010 Sequel to Mrs. Miracle.
Ms. Scrooge 1999 A different twist on Charles Dickens classic starring Cicely Tyson.
Must Be Santa 1999 Santa must pass his powers on to his chosen successor, but mistakenly passes them on to an ex con.
National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation 2: Cousin Eddie's Island Adventure 2004 Cousin Eddie and his family get stranded on what they think is a deserted island for Christmas in this sequel to the 1989 theatrical film.
The National Tree 2009 A teenager has his Sitka Spruce tree chosen to be planted outside the White House as the new national Christmas Tree. He and his father end up driving the Tree throughout the country and the tree become a national icon.
The Nativity 1978 Biblical account of the birth of Jesus Christ.
Naughty or Nice 2004 A Chicago sports radio shock jock is changed by a Christmas season encounter with a 15-year-old fan who is dying of cancer who forces him to be nice for a day.
Naughty or Nice 2012 A woman finds herself in the possession of Santa's "Naughty or Nice book" and uses it for her own advantage.
The Night They Saved Christmas 1984 An oil company dynamites in the North Pole in search of an oil field, unaware that they are endangering Santa Claus.
November Christmas 2010 A father tries to provide an early Christmas for his seriously-ill young daughter.
Once Upon A Christmas 2000 Santa's daughter tries to change a family so they are no longer on the Naughty list, or else Santa will cancel Christmas.
One Magic Christmas 1985 An angel must show a mother the true meaning of Christmas.
Picking Up & Dropping Off 2003 A divorced father and a divorced mother start to meet at Denver International Airport when picking up and sending off their children to ex-spouses for holidays.
Recipe for a Perfect Christmas 2005 A struggling chef agrees to date a food critic's mother.
Red Boots for Christmas 2004 A bitter shoemaker gets a visit from an angel shortly before Christmas.
Richie Rich's Christmas Wish 1998 After getting blamed for spoiling Christmas Richie Rich, the richest kid in the world, wishes he'd never been born.
(Rich Little's) Christmas Carol 1978 Comedian Rich Little plays all of the characters, using his unique skills as an impressionist to apparently fill the cast with some of Hollywood's best-known stars.
Road to Christmas 2006 A high powered fashion photographer finds herself stranded in middle America on her way to her wedding in Aspen, Colorado. She gets a lift from a widower and his daughter, setting off a change of events that will change their lives forever.
Roots: The Gift 1988 Kunta Kinte and Fiddler, from Roots, accompany their owner to another plantation at Christmas time and they learn that the son of the owner helps slaves escape.
Samantha: An American Girl Holiday 2004 A wealthy girl visits an orphanage during the holiday season, and tries to house them.
Santa Baby 2006 Mary Class (Jenny McCarthy) is a highly successful business executive - who just happens to be the daughter of Santa Claus. But when her father falls ill, Mary returns to the North Pole and the life she left behind to take over for her dad and implement her innovative ideas for running Christmas.
Santa Baby 2: Christmas Maybe 2009 Santa needs his daughter, Mary Class' help again.
Santa Buddies 2009 Puppy Paws, the only son of Santa Paws, does not want to follow in his father's footsteps. He then hi-tails it to Fernfield, Washington to be a normal puppy, just like Budderball (who is on Santa's naughty list for eating the Thanksgiving Turkey). Meanwhile, the icicle that holds the magic of Christmas is melting away due to children's and puppies' belief in Santa and Santa Paws dying. It is up to Puppy Paws and the Buddies to rediscover their belief in Christmas and save the holiday.
Santa Claus 1985 The first half of this film, set hundreds of years ago, shows how the old man who eventually became Santa Claus was given immortality and chosen to deliver toys to all the children of the world. The second half moves into the modern era, in which Patch, the head elf, strikes out on his own and falls in with an evil toy manufacturer who wants to corner the market and eliminate Santa Claus.
Santa, Jr. 2002 Santa's son, mistaken for the "Christmas Bandit", is held under house arrest two days before Christmas.
The Santa Suit 2010 A greedy toy CEO, who refuses to give his staff Christmas bonuses, is magically transformed to look like Kris Krandall (a department store Santa).
Santa Who? 2000 Santa (Leslie Nielsen) suffers an attack of amnesia shortly before Christmas, after falling out of his sleigh. Only the innocence of a small child can save Christmas for thousands of people around the world.
"The Search for Santa Paws" 2010 Sequel to Santa Buddies in which Santa loses memory in New York and it's up to his new friend Paws to save him.
A Season for Miracles 1999 A homeless woman and her niece and nephew attempt to outrun the authorities during the holiday season.
Silent Night, Deadly Night 3: Better Watch Out! 1989 Horror sequel
Silent Night, Deadly Night 4: Initiation 1990 Horror sequel
Silent Night, Deadly Night 5: The Toy Maker 1991 Horror sequel
Silent Night 2002 Fact-based World War II story set on Christmas Eve, 1944, finds a German mother and her son seeking refuge in a cabin on the war front.
Single Santa Seeks Mrs. Claus 2004 A high-flying career woman and single mother with no time for love or Christmas is unexpectedly wooed by Santa's son and heir, Nick who must find a wife before Christmas because his father wants to retire.
A Smoky Mountain Christmas 1986 A singer retreats to an isolated mountain cabin for a quiet holiday, but finds seven orphaned children there.
Spot's Magical Christmas 2000 Spot the dog's magical Christmas adventure.
Snow 2004 With only three days before Christmas, Nick Snowden, heir to a certain Arctic toy business, must work hard to save Christmas after someone steals Buddy the reindeer and takes him to a California zoo.
Snow 2: Brain Freeze 2008 Sequel to 2004's Snow.
Snowglobe (film) 2007 A young woman discovers a Christmas-themed dream world inside a magical snow globe.
The Sons of Mistletoe 2001 A cold businesswoman threatens to close a boys foster home during the holidays, when she returns to her home town to settle her late father's estate.
Special Delivery 2000 A bumbling courier at a private adoption agency botches the delivery of a baby to its new parents in time for Christmas, when he misplaces their baby en route.
Stealing Christmas 2003 A criminal hides in a small town and takes a job as a Santa.
Stubby Pringle's Christmas 1978 A Hallmark Hall of Fame presentation about a young cowboy (Beau Bridges) who discovers that the joy of Christmas is in the giving, rather than the receiving.
CBC's The True Meaning of Christmas Specials 2002 Hosted by Dave Foley, this parody of Christmas specials and many classic Christmas stories follows David and friends as he seeks to learn the meaning of Christmas Specials, beyond selling knickknacks for $49.99.
Three Days 2001 An angel offers a literary agent, whose wife of ten years died just before Christmas, a chance to relive the last three days of his wife's life.
The Three Kings 1987 3 Mental-hospital patients escape from a Christmas pageant and go search for baby Jesus while in costume as the Magi.
Three Wise Guys 2005 Three Gangsters are hired as hitmen during the Christmas season.
The Twelve Days of Christmas Eve 2004 A dying man has 12 days (12 chances) to achieve the "perfect" Christmas.
Twice Upon a Christmas 2001 Santa's daughter has lost her memory, and her new family is determined to help her get it back.
'Twas the Night 2001 A mischievous 14-year-old boy and his irresponsible uncle almost ruin Christmas when they decide to take Santa's new high-tech sleigh for a joyride.
The Ultimate Christmas Present 2000 A girl steals a weather machine from Santa Claus to make it snow on Christmas Day, but the machine breaks, and causes an out-of-control snowstorm.
Unlikely Angel 1996 A singer must work with St Peter to earn her wings at Christmas by re-uniting a family.
Vendetta: A Christmas Story 1997 1980s cop show spoof has two agents taking on Santa Claus.
Will You Merry Me? 2008 A Lifetime film, in which a newly engaged couple, one Christian and the other Jewish, must survive their families meeting for the first time during Christmas.
Films related to Christmas
This is a list of feature films in which Christmas is more incidental to the plot. The holiday may be part of the story, or figure in one or more scenes, but is not central to the film.
3 Godfathers (1948) — At Christmastime in the Old West, three cowhands find a woman dying in childbirth, and deliver the baby to civilization in a parody of the Biblical story of the Magi.
12 Monkeys (1995) — Man is sent back in time to try and prevent an apocalyptic plague outbreak. Film includes scenes set during the Christmas season.
29th Street (1991) — When a man wins the first New York State Lottery on Christmas Eve, instead of celebrating, he throws a rock through a church window. Based on a true story.
101 Reykjavík (2000) — Thirtysomething slacker living with his mother gets involved with lesbian dance instructor over the holidays.
2046 (2004) — Hong Kong sci-fi writer engages in various sexual encounters through successive Christmas Eves while searching for true love.
About a Boy (2002) — A bachelor enjoys a life of ease thanks to the royalties from a Christmas song his father composed.
The Adventures of Ichabod and Mr. Toad (1949) — In the Wind in the Willows segment, Cyril Proudbottom visits the imprisoned J. Thaddeus Toad on Christmas Eve (disguised as Toad's grandmother) and assists him in escaping.
Alias Boston Blackie (1942) — Detective searches for a killer during the Christmas season.
All Fall Down (1962) — Self-centered, womanizing young drifter returns home to his dysfunctional family. Film includes Christmas scenes.
All Mine to Give (1957) — A Scottish family comes to Wisconsin and do well until tragedy hits as Christmas nears.
All That Heaven Allows (1955) — Lonely widow seeks love with younger gardener in the face of her adult children's disapproval. Includes a memorable Christmas scene.
Alvin and the Chipmunks (2007) — Songwriter Dave Seville takes in three chipmunks, who can sing, during the Christmas season. The film features the classic "Chipmunk Song (Christmas Don't Be Late)".
The American President (1995) — A widowed Chief Executive enters a romantic relationship with a lobbyist. Film includes some Christmas scenes.
American Psycho (2000) — Serial killer Patrick Bateman takes a break from his reign of terror to attend a Christmas party given by his fiancée.
Annie Hall (1977) — Alvy Singer is forced to attend a Christmas party in Hollywood and breaks up with the title character (again) during the holidays.
The Apartment (1960) — A young executive climbs the corporate ladder by loaning out his apartment to bosses for their extramarital trysts. The bulk of the film takes place between Christmas and New Year's Eve.
Arthur (1981) — Drunken millionaire playboy, on the brink of an arranged marriage, risks his inheritance by falling in love with waitress. Film takes place during or just prior to Christmas season in New York.
Arthur 2: On the Rocks (1988) — Having lost his inheritance, the now-married Arthur attempts to find a job and adopt a baby. Film takes place during Christmas season in New York.
The Associate (1996) — A black woman makes it on Wall Street by creating (and then impersonating) a fictional white male partner. Film includes a Christmas scene.
Auntie Mame (1956) — One scene has free-spirited eccentric Mame Dennis attempting to support herself as a Macy's sales clerk during the holidays.
Autumn in New York (2000) — Middle-aged restaurateur falls in love with free-spirited but terminally ill younger woman. Includes a Christmas scene.
Babe (1995) — The segment "Pork is a Nice Sweet Meat" takes place on Christmas Day.
Backfire (1950) — While recovering at a VA hospital, a WW2 veteran learns his friend has disappeared and is accused of murdering a gambler; after his release he attempts to locate the friend and clear his name. Film includes some Christmas scenes.
Bad Teacher (2011) — Has several scenes that take place around Christmas break.
Beat Street (1984) — takes place during the holidays with "Santas' Rap" performed by The Treacherous Three.
Bell, Book and Candle (1958) — Modern-day witch tries to woo unsuspecting publisher. The first part of the film takes place at Christmas.
The Bells of St. Mary's (1945) — An easygoing priest and a no-nonsense nun try to save their run-down school. Scenes include a Christmas pageant.
Ben-Hur (1925) — Jewish prince turned slave seeks revenge against former friend. Film was remade in 1959; both versions depict Christ's Nativity in the prologue.
Better Off Dead (1985) — A teenager has to deal with his girlfriend dumping him among family crises, homicidal paper boys, and a rival skier during the holiday season.
Big Business (1929) — Door-to-door Christmas tree salesman (Laurel and Hardy) get into a mutually-destructive feud with a would-be customer in this short silent comedy.
Black Christmas (1974) — Girls at a sorority house are harassed by obscene phone calls and then murdered by a psychopath during the holiday season. Remade in 2006.
Blast of Silence (1961) — Hitman plans mob murder during Christmas season in New York.
The Boat That Rocked (2009) — Government official tries to shut down pirate radio station in 1960s Britain. Includes a Christmas scene.
Das Boot (1981) — German U-boat makes a perilous mission during World War II. Includes a Christmastime scene aboard a supply ship.
The Bourne Identity (2002) — Late in the film, the protagonist stays overnight at a friend's house which has been decorated for Christmas. It is also snowing throughout most of the film, indicating that time of year.
Boys Town (1938) — Features a Christmas sequence in the middle.
Breakfast with Scot (2007) — Closeted gay ex-hockey player and boyfriend take custody of 11-year-old boy. Film includes some Christmas scenes.
Bridget Jones's Diary (2001) — The title character is introduced to her primary love interest at her parents' Christmas party, among several holiday-themed scenes.
Bright Eyes (1934) — Young girl becomes center of custody battle after being orphaned on Christmas morning.
La Bûche (Season's Beatings) (1999) — Woman reunites with her estranged daughters during Christmas following the death of her second husband.
Cast Away (2000) — A man is stranded on a tropical island for several years. The main character's family Christmas party is interrupted when he is summoned away on business, but his plane crashes.
Catch Me If You Can (2002) — An FBI agent pursues an identity-changing con artist over a period of several years. A number of scenes take place on different Christmases.
The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (2005) — C.S. Lewis tale, in which the return of Christmas to the frozen fantasy world of Narnia is the first sign of its liberation.
Citizen Kane (1941) — An early scene shows the young Charles Foster Kane receiving a sled as a Christmas gift from his guardian, Mr. Thatcher.
The City of Lost Children (La Cité des Enfants Perdus) (1995) — Monstrous scientist kidnaps children to steal their dreams using a machine. Film opens with a Christmas Eve dream sequence.
Come to the Stable (1949) — Two French nuns come to the New England town of Bethlehem to stay with a struggling artist of Christmas scenes for greeting cards. They want to build a children's hospital but soon run afoul of a local gangster, a popular composer and the diocesan bishop.
Cosmopolitan (2003) — An unexpected romance blossoms over the holidays, and undergoes shifts on Christmas and New Years.
Cover Up (1949) — Insurance agent investigates apparent suicide that may be murder. Film takes place at Christmas.
Cronos (1993) — Mexican horror film is set during Christmastime and New Year's Eve.
The Crowd (1928) — Young man and wife face challenges making a living and establishing a family in an impersonal, competitive New York City. Film includes a Christmas Eve scene.
The Daughter of Rosie O'Grady (1950) — Widower struggles to raise three daughters in 1890s New York City. Musical film ends at Christmas.
Deadly Little Christmas (2009) — A mental patient's escape at Christmas coincides with a string of brutal murders.
Dead End (2003) — Family takes a fatal shortcut en route to Christmas dinner at grandmother's house.
Dead of Night (1945) — One of the segments in this British horror anthology involves a young girl befriending a frightened little boy she encounters while playing hide-and-seek at a Christmas party, only to discover that he might be the ghost of a murder victim.
Decalogue III (1988) — Woman tricks a former lover, now married, into spending Christmas Eve with her.
Desk Set (1957) — TV network researcher and computer expert clash, then find romance. Film includes a Christmas party scene.
The Devil Makes Three (1952) — U.S. pilot uncovers Nazi revival movement in post-WW2 Munich. Film includes Christmas scenes.
Die Hard (1988) — John McClane, officer of the NYPD, tries to save wife Holly Gennaro and several others, taken hostage by German terrorist Hans Gruber during a Christmas party at the Nakatomi Plaza in Los Angeles.
Die Hard 2 (1990) — John McClane, officer of the NYPD and hero of the Nakatomi Hostage Crisis, attempts to avert disaster as rogue military officials seize control of Dulles International Airport in Washington, D.C.
Diner (1982) — Old childhood friends, now grown, get together during the holidays in 1959 Baltimore.
Doctor Zhivago (1965) — Includes scene of Lara shooting Komarovsky in the arm at a Christmas party after he rapes her.
Donnie Brasco (1997) — FBI agent infiltrates '70s crime family. A scene has characters celebrating Christmas by exchanging cards stuffed with hundred-dollar bills.
Donovan's Reef (1963) — Comedy about three war veterans' life on a French Polynesian island, the plot takes place in the month of December and includes an amusing Christmas pageant at the local Catholic church, with a unique set of three kings.
Eastern Promises (2007) — Midwife searches for family of newborn baby whose teenaged mother died in childbirth, uncovers dark secrets in Russian gang. Thriller takes place during Christmas season.
Edward Scissorhands (1990) — A man with scissors for hands adjusts to life in suburbia after the death of his creator, and later he sees the Christmas holiday season.
Eight Crazy Nights (2002) — Davey Stone, with the help of Whitey Duvall, remembers the joys of the holiday season in the eight days leading up to Hanukkah and Christmas.
Enemy of the State (1998) — A man is pursued by rogue agents, after he unknowingly obtains incriminating evidence on them, while shopping for Christmas gifts for his family.
The English Patient (1996) — After being badly burned in a plane crash during World War II, a Hungarian cartographer relates his past to a nurse via flashbacks. Includes a Christmas party scene.
Everybody's Fine (2009) — A widower travels around the country to visit each of his alienated grown children. Film ends at Christmas.
Everyone Says I Love You (1996) — Characters attend a Paris Christmas party where everyone is dressed like Groucho Marx.
Expendables 2 (2012) — The heroes' aircraft has Santa painted on the front. During first water scene Stallone's character asks to "wake up Santa".
Eyes Wide Shut (1999) — Around Christmas, a man goes on a sexual odyssey that leads to a mysterious orgy and possibly murder.
The Fabulous Baker Boys (1989) — Lounge pianist brothers find their act, and relationship, transformed by new female singer. Film includes some Christmas scenes.
The Facts of Life (1960) — Two people, each married to someone else, enter into an affair. Film includes a Christmas scene.
Falling In Love (1984) — Married strangers meet while Christmas shopping and begin a friendship that gradually blossoms into love.
Fanny and Alexander (1982) — Swedish children try to deal with cruel stepfather. Opening scenes take place at Christmas.
The FBI Story (1959) — An FBI agent recounts his career with the Bureau through the decades. Film includes a Christmas scene.
Female Trouble (1974) — Dark comedy chronicles young woman's journey from juvenile delinquency to mass murder. Film begins at Christmas 1960.
First Blood (1982) — There are Christmas decorations hung up in the town that John Rambo visits, thus implying that the film takes place during the holiday season.
Fools Rush In (1997) — Unexpected romance develops after a one-night stand leads to pregnancy. Film begins at Christmas time.
For Love of the Game (1999) — An aging pitcher recalls his past while throwing a perfect game. Includes a flashback scene where he celebrates Christmas with his girlfriend and her teenaged daughter.
The French Connection (1971) — NYC police detective Popeye Doyle attempts to intercept massive heroin shipment from France. We first see Doyle dressed as a sidewalk Santa Claus during a stakeout.
Full Metal Jacket (1987) — One scene has a drill instructor leading his Marine boot camp recruits in a chorus of "Happy Birthday" to Jesus on Christmas Day.
Funny Farm (1988) — A couple buys their dream farmhouse in the country, but a series of disasters lead them to plan a divorce. They attempt to sell their farmhouse by bribing the local townspeople to create the perfect fantasy Christmas to impress prospective buyers.
Futurama: Bender's Big Score (2007) — Nudist aliens take over the world, and the Planet Express crew are made homeless at Christmas. Also, Santa Claus helps in the final battle.
Ghostbusters II (1989) — The film is set in December during Christmas and New Years season in New York City, and a Christmas tree is visible during at least one scene.
The Ghost and the Darkness (1996) — Railroad workers are stalked by two lions in 1898 Kenya. At one point one character says to another, "Oh, and Merry Christmas, I forgot this is the month."
Girl in Gold Boots (1968) — Crime drama of go-go dancing and drug dealing includes a scene where characters drive around Los Angeles at Christmastime while the song "Cowboy Santa" plays on the soundtrack.
The Glenn Miller Story (1954) — Portrait of the bandleader's life and career ends with a Christmas Eve scene shortly after his death in a December 1944 plane crash.
Go (1999) — Three intertwining plots that happen to involve one drug deal on Christmas Eve in Los Angeles.
The Godfather (1972) — Christmastime in 1945 forms the backdrop for several murders and two attempts on Don Corleone's life.
Going My Way (1944) — Young priest is mentored by his aging predecessor in urban parish. Film concludes with a Christmas Eve scene.
Good Sam (1948) — Compulsive do-gooder nearly drives his family to bankruptcy while helping others. Film climaxes at Christmas time.
Goodbye, Mr. Chips (1939) — Retired English schoolteacher and headmaster recalls his career. Film includes a Christmas scene.
Goodfellas (1990) — A scene has the mobster protagonists celebrating Christmas after pulling off the Lufthansa heist in December 1978.
The Gospel According to St. Matthew (1964) — Account of Christ's life and ministry includes a depiction of the Nativity.
The Great Ziegfeld (1936) — A scene has the Broadway impresario lavishing his family with Christmas presents.
The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965) — Account of Christ's life and ministry includes a depiction of the Nativity.
Gremlins (1984) - Father buys his son a Mogwai creature named Gizmo for Christmas.
Grumpy Old Men (1993) — Elderly bachelors vie for the affections of a widow. Film has some Christmas Eve scenes.
Harry Potter series (2001–2011) — Several of the films have scenes that take during Christmastime with the characters exchanging gifts.
Heatwave (1982) — Conflict over a planned housing development comes to a boil during a brutally hot Christmas season in Sydney, Australia.
Holiday (1938) — Man engaged to wealthy girl finds himself attracted to her free-spirited sister. Film begins on Christmas Day.
Home Before Dark (1958) — A recovering mental patient is released from an institution and struggles to readjust to life with her husband and stepsister. Film includes a Christmas Eve scene.
Hot Rods to Hell (1967) — Man recovering from Christmas Eve car accident finds himself and family harassed by teenage punks en route to new job as motel owner.
The Hudsucker Proxy (1994) — Naive mail clerk is installed as president of a New York manufacturing company and invents the hula hoop. The film is set in December 1958.
I Am Legend (2007) — A viral outbreak occurs on Christmas Eve 2009, and quickly spreads across the entire planet.
I, the Jury (1953) — Hard-boiled PI Mike Hammer investigates the murder of a war buddy during Christmas season.
Imitation of Life (1959) — White actress and black housekeeper share a household and struggle to raise their respective daughters. Film includes a Christmas scene.
In Bruges (2008) — Two Irish hit-men hide out in Belgium during the holiday season.
In the Good Old Summertime (1949) — A musical remake of The Shop Around the Corner, set in turn-of-the-century Chicago. Despite its title, the film includes several Christmas scenes and introduces the song "Merry Christmas".
Inside (À l'intérieur) (2007) — On Christmas Eve, a widowed expectant mother is stalked by a murderous woman who wants her unborn child.
Iron Man 3 (2013) — The film takes place in December at Christmastime as Tony Stark deals with the threat of The Mandarin.
Jaws: The Revenge (1987) — Killer shark follows dead policeman's family to the Bahamas. Film begins at Christmas time.
Just Friends (2005) — A once-overweight young man returns to his hometown for Christmas looking better than ever and tries to win the heart of the female friend he had a crush on in high school.
King of Kings (1961) — Account of Christ's life and ministry includes a depiction of the Nativity.
Kiss Kiss Bang Bang (2005) — A crook poses as an actor and gets tangled up in a crime during a Christmas setting.
Kotch (1971) — An elderly man befriends, and takes in, a pregnant teenage runaway. Film includes a Christmas Eve scene.
Kramer vs. Kramer (1979) — Trying to secure a new job in order to obtain legal custody of his son, Ted Kramer interviews for one (and gets it) during an office Christmas party.
L.A. Confidential (1997) — The opening of the film takes place around Christmas and fictionalizes the real-life Bloody Christmas incident, which took place in 1951.
Lady and the Tramp (1955) — The film opens and closes around Christmas.
Lady for a Day (1933) — Broadway panhandler Apple Annie needs a Christmas miracle when her convent-bred daughter returns from Spain with the son of a count as her fiance. Remade in 1961 as Pocketful of Miracles.
Lady in the Lake (1947) — Detective Philip Marlowe finds murder while searching for the wife of a publishing executive. Noir mystery spans Christmas Eve and Christmas Day.
Larceny, Inc. (1942) — Crooks buy a luggage shop in order to tunnel to (and rob) the bank next door, then decide to "go straight" when the store is unexpectedly successful. Film climaxes on Christmas Eve.
Lassie (2005) — Collie dog embarks on long journey home after being sold by her destitute family. Remake of Lassie Come Home climaxes on Christmas Eve.
The Last Picture Show (1971) — Small-town teenagers come of age in 1951 Texas. Film includes a Christmas scene.
Legion (2010) — God loses faith in humankind and sends his angels to slaughter them all on Christmas Eve. On Christmas Day, Charlie's baby is born, and is deemed the new savior of mankind.
The Lemon Drop Kid (1951) — A small time con artist has until Christmas to raise money he owes to a gangster. The song "Silver Bells" made its debut in this film.
Lethal Weapon (1987) — A young suicidal cop is partnered with a veteran officer to solve a murder during the holidays.
The Lion in Winter (1968) — Christmas 1183 is the setting for palace intrigues with King Henry II and family. Remade for television in 2003.
Little Fockers (2010) — Comic complications and misunderstandings abound in this sequel to Meet the Parents (2000) and Meet the Fockers (2004). Part of the film takes place at Christmas.
Little Women (1933) — Includes scenes of the March family at Christmastime. Remade in 1949, 1978, and 1994.
The Long Kiss Goodnight (1996) — An amnesia victim accidentally re-discovers her previous persona during pre-Christmas holiday events and preparations.
Look Who's Talking Now (1993) — The Ubriacco family struggles to be together for Christmas.
Love Affair (1939) — Lovers are parted after a planned liaison is thwarted by a car accident. Film climaxes at Christmas. Remade in 1957 (as An Affair to Remember) and 1994.
Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938) — Teenager tries to find romance as Christmas approaches.
Love Story (1970) — Romance blossoms between wealthy law student and doomed schoolteacher. A scene has the young man raising money by selling Christmas trees.
Make Way for Tomorrow (1937) — Having lost their home to foreclosure, an elderly married couple are forced to separate and live with different children. Film includes a Christmas scene.
Mame (1974) — Musical version of Auntie Mame. Includes the song "We Need a Little Christmas".
The Manchurian Candidate (1962) — Political scion is turned assassin by Communist brainwashing. Film includes a Christmas scene.
The Man from Majorca (1984) — Stockholm police uncover political corruption while investigating a bank robbery. Film takes place during Christmas season.
The Matador (2005) — Businessman and hit man strike up an odd friendship. The second half of the film takes place during the Christmas season.
Mean Girls (2004) — Teenage outsider infiltrates school clique. Includes a scene where schoolgirls sing and dance to "Jingle Bell Rock".
Meet John Doe (1941) — A newspaper reporter turns a bum into a national hero, but the man threatens to commit suicide by leaping from the town hall after he's exposed as a fraud. The climax takes place on Christmas Eve.
Meet Me in St. Louis (1944) — A Missouri family prepares for the 1904 World's Fair. Film includes Christmas scenes, and introduces the song "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas".
Melvin and Howard (1980) — A down-on-his-luck working man lends assistance to a stranger who claims to be Howard Hughes. Film includes a Christmas scene.
Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence (1983) — Relationships among men in a Japanese POW camp during World War II. A key scene takes place on Christmas Eve.
Metropolitan (1990) — Young upper-class collegians attend holiday balls and bond during Christmas break in Manhattan.
A Midnight Clear (1992) — American and German soldiers spend an uneasy Christmas together in WW2 France.
A Midwinter's Tale (1995) — Acting troupe attempts to save a church by mounting a Christmastime production of Hamlet.
Millions (2004) — Two young British brothers, one very religious, clash over how to spend a chance acquisition of £229,520 (later revealed as stolen) before the fictional conversion to the Euro takes place on or near Christmas Day.
The Minus Man (1999) — Serial-killer thriller takes place during the Christmas season.
The Miracle of Morgan's Creek (1944) — Small-town girl finds herself pregnant after marrying a departing soldier while intoxicated. Film climaxes on Christmas Eve.
Mon oncle Antoine (1971) — Boy comes of age in Quebec mining town in late 1940s. Much of the film takes place on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day.
Money Train (1995) — Takes place during the Christmas season and New Year's Eve.
Monty Python's Life of Brian (1979) — Comedic account of ancient Israelite whose life parallels Christ's. Opening scene takes place during (and parodies) the Nativity.
Monty Python's the Meaning of Life (1983) — A collection of comedic vignettes illustrating the various stages of man's life. One scene depicts Heaven as a place where it is Christmas every day.
Moonstruck (1987) — Romantic comedy-drama takes place during, or just prior to, the holiday season.
Mr. and Mrs. Smith (1941) — Man and woman discover their marriage was not legal. Film takes place in or around the holiday season.
Mr. Soft Touch (1949) — Returning WW2 hero robs mobsters who've taken over his nightclub, then hides out in a settlement house under an assumed name. Film takes place just before Christmas.
Mrs. Parkington (1944) — On Christmas Eve, a woman reminisces about her climb from hotel maid to wealthy society matron.
Mutiny on the Bounty (1935) — British seamen rebel against their tyrannical captain during 1789 expedition to Tahiti. Includes a Christmas scene.
My Night at Maud's (1969) — Catholic engineer engages in philosophical conversation with atheist professor friend and seductive divorcee during Christmas season.
The Mystery of Edwin Drood (1935) — Mystery surrounds a young man's disappearance during a Christmas Eve storm. Remade in 1993.
Never Say Goodbye (1946) — Artist attempts to win back his ex-wife as Christmas approaches.
The Night of the Hunter (1955) — The final scenes of the film have the children enjoying Christmas since the capture of their pursuer.
Nobody's Fool (1994) — Aging construction worker fights his employer and reconnects with his estranged family. Film takes place between Thanksgiving and Christmas.
Noise (2007) — Australian police constable suffers from tinnitus while investigating a brutal mass murder on a suburban commuter train. Film ends on Christmas Eve.
The Odessa File (1974) — Political thriller is set around Christmas, and has "Christmas Dream" as its theme song.
One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961) - The last scene takes place around Christmas where the Dalmatians arrive back home.
One Nite In Mongkok (2004) - Hong Kong crime drama that takes place on Christmas Eve, includes a prologue on 23 December.
On Her Majesty's Secret Service (1969) — James Bond works to thwart biological-warfare threat. Part of the film takes place in Switzerland during the Christmas season.
On Moonlight Bay (1951) — Tomboy falls for boy next door in 1910s Indiana town. Musical film includes Christmas scenes and song "Christmas Story".
On the Avenue (1937) — Features the Christmas scenes and has a famous Christmas song.
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975) — Includes a scene where McMurphy throws an illicit Christmas party for the mental ward.
Ordinary People (1980) — Affluent suburban family struggles with the aftermath of one son's death and the other's attempted suicide. Includes some Christmas scenes.
Our Vines Have Tender Grapes (1945) — Norwegian immigrant farm family in rural Wisconsin. Film includes Christmas scenes.
P2 (2007) — A businesswoman is pursued by a psychopath after being locked in a parking garage on Christmas Eve.
Pandora's Box (1929) — Seductive young woman brings ruin to herself and those who love her, culminating in her death at the hands of Jack the Ripper on Christmas Eve.
Penny Serenade (1941) — Tearjerker includes a child's Christmas pageant scene.
Period of Adjustment (1962) — Two couples hash out their marital difficulties on Christmas Eve.
Pocketful of Miracles (1961) — Frank Capra remake of his own Lady for a Day (q.v.).
Precious (2009) — Inner-city teen mother struggles to overcome poverty and parental abuse. Film includes a Christmas scene.
Pride of the Marines (1945) — U.S. Marine undergoes rehabilitation after being blinded in an enemy attack during WW2. Film includes a Christmas scene.
Prometheus (2012) — Spaceship crew seeks humanity's origins and discovers a grave threat on a distant planet. A scene takes place on Christmas Day in 2093.
The Proposition (2005) — In 1880s Australia, a captured outlaw is given until Christmas Day to find and kill his murderous older brother.
Psycho (1960) — Bank secretary Marion Crane goes on the lam with embezzled money and has a fatal encounter with disturbed motel manager Norman Bates. Christmas decorations are visible in downtown Phoenix in an early scene.
Rabbit Test (1978) — A man gets pregnant and spoofs the Nativity.
The Railway Children (1970) — After their father is suddenly taken away, three children and their mother build a new life in Edwardian Yorkshire. Film begins at Christmas.
The Reckless Moment (1949) — A middle-class housewife is targeted by blackmailers after the death of her daughter's sleazy boyfriend. Noir film takes place just prior to Christmas.
The Ref (1994) — A cat burglar is forced to take a bickering, dysfunctional family hostage on Christmas Eve.
Reindeer Games (2000) — A newly paroled convict is coerced into helping a gang of thieves rob a Native-American casino on Christmas Eve.
Rent (2005) — The first half of the film takes place on Christmas Eve and the days leading up to the new year. The second half of the film shows the events of the next year, with the film ending on Christmas Eve.
Rick (2003) — Adaptation of Verdi's opera Rigoletto, set in the Manhattan corporate world during the Christmas season.
Rocky (1976) — Small-time boxer is given a shot at the heavyweight championship in a New Year's bout. Film includes a couple of Christmas scenes.
Rocky IV (1985) — An epic boxing match between the USSR's Captain Ivan Drago and the USA's Rocky Balboa on Christmas Day.
Roger & Me (1989) — Documentary about General Motors plant closures in Flint, Michigan climaxes with filmmaker Michael Moore confronting GM chairman Roger Smith at a company Christmas Eve party.
Ronin (1998) — Espionage thriller features an outdoor Joyeaux Noel celebration scene in the south of France.
Roughly Speaking (1945) — Woman endures various hardships while raising a family over the first half of the 20th century. One scene takes place at Christmas of 1928.
Running Scared (1986) — Lethal Weapon-style cop/buddy comedy takes place largely around Christmas.
Sakura Wars: The Movie (2001 - Japan, 2003 - USA) - The film is set in during Christmas and New Years season in Japan as the Imperial Troupe Flower Division must deal with the arrival of a new member, Ratchet Altair, and the threat of the Douglas-Stewart corporation, who plan to make the Kobus that the Flower Division use obsolete.
Santa Claws (1996) — Horror-film actress is stalked by a fan while shooting a Christmas-themed film.
Serendipity (2001) — Opening scene set to Cool Yule at Bloomingdale's during the Christmas rush. John and Sara meet when they both reach for the same pair of gloves, which they are buying to be Christmas presents.
The Seven Little Foys (1955) — Biographical account of vaudeville entertainer Eddie Foy and family. Film includes some Christmas scenes.
Shadowlands (1993) — Writers C.S. Lewis and Joy Gresham meet and enter a relationship in 1950s England. Semi-biographical film includes Christmas scene.
The Silent Partner (1978) — Bank teller plays cat-and-mouse with mall Santa-turned-holdup man over money from robbery.
Since You Went Away (1944) — WW2 homefront drama climaxes on Christmas Eve.
The Sisters (1938) — Three sisters endure unhappy marriages shortly after the turn of the century. Film includes a Christmas scene.
Sister Mary Explains It All (2001) — A tyrannical nun learns of the trouble she has caused through her strict and bigoted teachings, when former students confront her at a lecture on Christmas Eve.
Six Weeks (1982) — Wealthy cosmetics tycoon and her dying daughter strike up a friendship with a politician and visit New York City for the holiday season.
Sleepless in Seattle (1993) — Woman responds to plea from lonely widower on Christmas Eve radio program.
Soldier (1998) — Includes a Christmas party among the settlers before Todd's exile.
Some Girls (1988) — College student gets more than he bargained for when he visits his girlfriend's family in Quebec for Christmas.
Splendor in the Grass (1961) — Young love, repression, and mental collapse in late-1920s Kansas. Film includes a Christmas scene.
Stalag 17 (1953) — American POWs fight among themselves a few days before Christmas.
Star Trek Generations (1994) — When Jean-Luc Picard is in The Nexus, he has a family and it is Christmas.
Steel Magnolias (1989) — Exploring the intersecting lives of several women in small-town Louisiana. One scene takes place at Christmas.
Stella Dallas (1937) — Working-class woman struggles to better herself and her daughter. Remade in 1990 as Stella; both versions include a Christmas scene.
Step Brothers (2008) — Immature, combative 40-somethings become stepbrothers and attempt to go into business together. Film includes a Christmas Eve scene.
Stowaway (1936) — Chinese orphan (Shirley Temple) stows away on a ship and is cared for by an American couple. Temple sings "That's What I Want for Christmas" in the final scene.
A Summer Place (1959) — Adultery, divorce, and teen romance between two families who meet at a Maine island resort. Film includes a Christmas scene.
Sun Valley Serenade (1941) — Musician falls in love with Norwegian refugee during holiday gig at Idaho ski resort.
The Sure Thing (1985) — Hostility turns to romance as college students travel cross-country during Christmas break.
Tales from the Crypt (1972) — The first segment in this horror anthology is about a woman who kills her husband in their house on Christmas Eve, and is thus unable to call the police when a madman in a Santa costume is outside of the house.
The Thin Man (1934) — Comic murder mystery includes several Christmas scenes.
This Sporting Life (1963) — Rugby player looks back while recovering from getting his teeth knocked out in a Christmas Eve match.
Three Days of the Condor (1975) — Espionage thriller takes place during the holiday season.
To All a Good Night (1980) — Killer Santa stalks sorority girls.
Tokyo Godfathers (2003) — A homeless trio (an alcoholic ex-athlete, a teenaged runaway, and an aging drag queen) are redeemed when they discover an abandoned infant at Christmas.
Tom & Thomas (The Christmas Twins) (2002) — Long-separated identical twins reunite, fight child-trafficking ring. Film takes place during Christmas season.
Torch Song Trilogy (1988) — A gay female impersonator struggles to find love and acceptance in 1970s New York. Part of the film takes place at Christmastime in 1973.
Toy Story (1995) — The final scene takes place on Christmas Day.
Toys (1992) — Man battles his war-loving brother for control of their dead father's toy factory. Film begins at Christmas.
A Tree Grows in Brooklyn (1945) — Memoir of a girl's coming of age in turn-of-the-century Brooklyn includes some Christmas Eve scenes.
The Trouble with Angels (1966) — Teenage girls get into mischief at a Catholic boarding school. Film includes a Christmas scene.
Two Family House (2000) — Blue-collar worker dreams of singing career and serves as landlord to a young Irish mother in 1950s Staten Island. Film ends on Christmas Eve.
L'ultimo treno della notte (1975) — Young women are terrorized by criminal thugs on Christmastime train ride from Germany to Italy
The Umbrellas of Cherbourg (1964) — Young romance is thwarted by war and arranged marriage in this musical film. Final scene takes place on Christmas Eve.
The Unholy Three (1925) — Circus sideshow performers enter a criminal alliance that leads to murder. Silent film remade as a sound film in 1930; both versions have Christmas Eve/Christmas scenes.
The Victors (1963) — World War II drama includes a scene in which Pvt. Eddie Slovik is executed for desertion on Christmas Eve 1945.
The War of the Roses (1989) — Includes several Christmas scenes.
The Way of All Flesh (1927) — Bank clerk and family man is driven to destitution and "death" after being robbed while delivering money to another city. Silent film, now lost, remade as a sound film in 1940; both versions end with a Christmas scene.
The Wiggles Movie (1997) - The Wiggles mention this holiday when they tell Dorothy the Dinosaur what special day it is.
Welcome to L.A. (1976) — Depicts relationships, sexual and otherwise, among a group of alienated young Los Angelinos. Film includes some Christmas scenes.
We're Not Married! (1952) — Several different couples are wed on Christmas Eve by a justice of the peace, but later discover that the marriages aren't legally valid.
When Harry Met Sally (1989) — Includes several Christmas– and New Year's-related scenes.
The World of Henry Orient (1964) — Two prep-school girls follow philandering concert pianist around Manhattan. Film includes several Christmas scenes.
Yours, Mine and Ours (1968) — Follows the lives of two families joined into one, all 22 of them. Includes a scene on Christmas morning with the ensuing confusion of 19 children opening presents.
You've Got Mail (1998) — Internet-era update of The Shop Around the Corner includes Christmas– and Thanksgiving-related scenes.
The Pact (2012) - As a woman struggles to come to grips with her past in the wake of her mother's death, an unsettling presence emerges in her childhood home. The home is decorated with Christmas items.
Largest urban areas of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom Mid-2010 Urban Area Estimates
Rank Urban area Pop. Principal settlement Rank Urban area Pop. Principal settlement
Greater London Urban Area
Greater Manchester Urban Area
1 Greater London Urban Area 8,979,158 London 11 Belfast Metropolitan Urban Area 579,236 Belfast
West Midlands Urban Area
West Yorkshire Urban Area
2 Greater Manchester Urban Area 2,362,849 Manchester 12 Edinburgh 491,360 Edinburgh
3 West Midlands Urban Area 2,362,065 Birmingham 13 Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton 484,235 Brighton
4 West Yorkshire Urban Area 1,616,608 Leeds 14 Leicester Urban Area 467,516 Leicester
5 Greater Glasgow 1,195,200 Glasgow 15 Portsmouth Urban Area 463,911 Portsmouth
6 Tyneside 908,446 Newcastle 16 South East Dorset conurbation 395,020 Bournemouth
7 Liverpool Urban Area 805,578 Liverpool 17 Reading/Wokingham Urban Area 390,214 Reading
8 Nottingham Urban Area 714,353 Nottingham 18 Teesside 373,260 Middlesbrough
9 Sheffield Urban Area 678,577 Sheffield 19 The Potteries Urban Area 358,498 Stoke-on-Trent
10 Bristol Urban Area 626,086 Bristol 20 Cardiff Urban Area 355,585 Cardiff
Alfred the Great, Julie Andrews, King Arthur, David Attenborough, Jane Austen
Charles Babbage, Lord Baden Powell, Douglas Bader, David Beckham, Alexander Graham Bell, Tony Benn, Tim Berners Lee, Aneurin Bevan, Tony Blair, William Blake, William Booth, Boudicca, David Bowie, Richard Branson, Robert the Bruce, Isambard Kingdom Brunel, Richard Burton
Donald Campbell, William Caxton, Charlie Chaplin, Geoffrey Chaucer, Leonard Cheshire, Winston Churchill, James Connolly, Captain James Cook, Michael Crawford, Oliver Cromwell, Aleister Crowley
Charles Darwin, Diana, Princess of Wales, Charles Dickens, Francis Drake
King Edward I, Edward Elgar, Queen Elizabeth I, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother
Michael Faraday, Guy Fawkes, Alexander Fleming
Bob Geldof, Owain Glyndwr
George Harrison, John Harrison, Stephen Hawking, King Henry II, King Henry V, King Henry VIII, Paul Hewson (Bono)
T E Lawrence, John Lennon, David Livingstone, David Lloyd George, John Logie Baird, John Lydon (Johnny Rotten)
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Admiral Horatio Nelson, Isaac Newton, Florence Nightingale
George O'Dowd (Boy George)
Thomas Paine, Emmeline Pankhurst, John Peel, Enoch Powell
Walter Raleigh, Steve Redgrave, King Richard III, Cliff Richard, J K Rowling
Robert Falcon Scott, Ernest Shackleton, William Shakespeare, George Stephenson, Marie Stopes
Margaret Thatcher, William Tindale, J R R Tolkien, Alan Turing
William Wallace, Barnes Wallis, James Watt, Duke of Wellington, John Wesley, Frank Whittle, William Wilberforce, Robbie Williams
. England (i/ˈɪŋɡlənd/) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, while the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separate it from continental Europe. Most of England comprises the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic. The country also includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but it takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in AD 927, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law—the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District, Pennines, and Yorkshire Dales) and in the south west (for example, Dartmoor and the Cotswolds). The former capital of England was Winchester until replaced by London in 1066. Today London is the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures.[nb 3] England's population is about 53 million, around 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, and is largely concentrated in London, the South East and conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East and Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century. Meadowlands and pastures are found beyond the major cities. The Kingdom of England—which after 1284 included Wales—was a sovereign state until 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, the Irish Free State was established as a separate dominion, but the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927 reincorporated into the kingdom six Irish counties to officially create the current United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Motto: "Dieu et mon droit" (French) "God and my right"  Anthem: None (de jure) God Save the Queen (de facto) Location of England (dark green) – in European continent (light green & dark grey) – in United Kingdom (light green) Capital and largest city London 51°30′N 0°7′W Official languages English (de facto)[nb 1] Recognised regional languages Cornish Ethnic groups (2011) 85.5% White 7.7% Asian 3.4% Black 2.2% Mixed race 1.0% other Demonym English Government Non-devolved constituent country within a constitutional monarchy - Monarch Elizabeth II - Prime Minister of the United Kingdom David Cameron MP Legislature Parliament of the United Kingdom Area - Total 130,395 km2 50,346 sq mi Population - 2011 census 53,013,000 - Density 407/km2 1,054.1/sq mi GDP (nominal) 2009 estimate - Total $2.68 trillion - Per capita $50,566 Currency Pound sterling (GBP) Time zone GMT (UTC0) - Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1) Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD) Drives on the left Calling code +44 Patron saint Saint George Internet TLD .uk[nb 2] The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles". The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first known use of "England" to refer to the southern part of the island of Great Britain occurs in 897, and its modern spelling was first used in 1538.[dead link] The earliest attested mention of the name occurs in the 1st century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used. The etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars; it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape.[dead link] How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe that was less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England (Sasunn), and the Welsh use "Saesneg" - a form derived from "Saxon" - to describe the English language. An alternative name for England is Albion. The name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth. In it are two very large islands called Britannia; these are Albion and Ierne". The word Albion (Ἀλβίων) or insula Albionum has two possible origins. It either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover, the only part of Britain visible from the European Continent, or from the phrase in Massaliote Periplus, the "island of the Albiones". Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend. Major conurbations See also: List of places in England The Greater London Urban Area is by far the largest urban area in England and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself. Other urban areas of considerable size and influence tend to be in northern England or the English Midlands. There are fifty settlements which have been designated city status in England, while the wider United Kingdom has sixty-six. While many cities in England are quite large in size, such as Birmingham, Sheffield, Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Newcastle, Bradford, Nottingham and others, a large population is not necessarily a prerequisite for a settlement to be afforded city status. Traditionally the status was afforded to towns with diocesan cathedrals and so there are smaller cities like Wells, Ely, Ripon, Truro and Chichester. According to the Office for National Statistics the ten largest, continuous built-up urban areas are: Rank Urban area Population Localities Major localities 1 Greater London Urban Area 8,278,251 67 Greater London, divided into the City of London and 32 London boroughs including Croydon, Barnet, Ealing, Bromley 2 West Midlands Urban Area 2,284,093 22 Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Dudley, Walsall, Aldridge 3 Greater Manchester Urban Area 2,240,230 57 Manchester, Salford, Bolton, Stockport, Oldham 4 West Yorkshire Urban Area 1,499,465 26 Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield, Wakefield 5 Tyneside 879,996 25 Newcastle, North Shields, South Shields, Gateshead, Jarrow 6 Liverpool Urban Area 816,216 8 Liverpool, St Helens, Bootle, Huyton-with-Roby 7 Nottingham Urban Area 666,358 15 Nottingham, Beeston and Stapleford, Carlton, Long Eaton 8 Sheffield Urban Area 640,720 7 Sheffield, Rotherham, Chapeltown, Mosborough 9 Bristol Urban Area 551,066 7 Bristol, Kingswood, Mangotsfield, Stoke Gifford 10 Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton 461,181 10 Brighton, Worthing, Hove, Littlehampton, Shoreham, Lancing Demography Population Main articles: Demography of England, English people, and English diaspora The metropolitan, non-metropolitan counties and unitary authorities of England, colour-coded to show population. Population by administrative areas. Their size is approximately in proportion to their population. The darker colour the bigger is the real area. With over 53 million inhabitants, England is by far the most populous country of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84% of the combined total. England taken as a unit and measured against international states has the fourth largest population in the European Union and would be the 25th largest country by population in the world. With a density of 407 people per square kilometre, it would be the second most densely populated country in the European Union after Malta. The English people are a British people. Some genetic evidence suggests that 75–95% descend in the paternal line from prehistoric settlers who originally came from the Iberian Peninsula, as well as a 5% contribution from Angles and Saxons, and a significant Norse element. However, other geneticists place the Norse-Germanic estimate up to half. Over time, various cultures have been influential: Prehistoric, Brythonic, Roman, Anglo-Saxon, Norse Viking, Gaelic cultures, as well as a large influence from Normans. There is an English diaspora in former parts of the British Empire; especially the United States, Canada, Australia, Chile, South Africa and New Zealand.[nb 6] Since the late 1990s, many English people have migrated to Spain. 2009 estimates of ethnic groups in England and Wales. At the time of the Domesday Book, compiled in 1086, more than 90% of the English population of about two million lived in the countryside. By 1801 the population had grown to 8.3 million, and by 1901 had grown to 30.5 million. Due in particular to the economic prosperity of South East England, it has received many economic migrants from the other parts of the United Kingdom. There has been significant Irish migration. The proportion of ethnically European residents totals at 87.50%, including Germans and Poles. Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the 1950s: in particular, 6% of people living in England have family origins in the Indian subcontinent, mostly India and Pakistan. 2.90% of the population are black, from both the Caribbean and countries in Africa itself, especially former British colonies. There is a significant number of Chinese and British Chinese. As of 2007, 22% of primary school children in England were from ethnic minority families. About half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001 was due to immigration. Debate over immigration is politically prominent; according to a Home Office poll, 80% of people want to cap it. The ONS has projected that the population will grow by six million between 2004 and 2029. Language Main articles: English language, English language in England, and History of the English language The English-speaking world. Countries in dark blue have a majority of native speakers. Countries in light blue have English as an official language, de jure or de facto. English is also one of the official languages of the European Union. As its name suggests, the English language, today spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the world, originated as the language of England, where it remains the principal tongue today. It is an Indo-European language in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family. After the Norman conquest, the Old English language was displaced and confined to the lower social classes as Norman French and Latin were used by the aristocracy. By the 15th century, English came back into fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling. During the English Renaissance, many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. Modern English has extended this custom of flexibility, when it comes to incorporating words from different languages. Thanks in large part to the British Empire, the English language is the world's unofficial lingua franca. English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity, and includes language schooling, tourism spending, and publishing. There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, but English is the only language used for official business. Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents, and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country. Cornish, which died out as a community language in the 18th century, is being revived, and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. It is spoken by 0.1% of people in Cornwall, and is taught to some degree in several primary and secondary schools. State schools teach students a second language, usually French, German or Spanish. Due to immigration, it was reported in 2007 that around 800,000 school students spoke a foreign language at home, the most common being Punjabi and Urdu. Religion Main article: Religion in England Canterbury Cathedral, seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury Christianity is the most widely practised religion in England, as it has been since the Early Middle Ages, although it was first introduced much earlier, in Gaelic and Roman times. It continued through Early Insular Christianity, and today about 59% of English people identify as Christians. The largest form practised in the present day is Anglicanism, dating from the 16th century Reformation period, with the 1536 split from Rome over Henry VIII wanting to divorce Catherine of Aragon, and the need for the Bible in the English tongue. The religion regards itself as both Catholic and Reformed. There are High Church and Low Church traditions, and some Anglicans regard themselves as Anglo-Catholics, after the Tractarian movement. The monarch of the United Kingdom is a titular leader of the Church, acting as its Supreme Governor. It has the status of established church in England. There are around 26 million adherents to the Church of England and they form part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as the symbolic worldwide head. Many cathedrals and parish churches are historic buildings of significant architectural importance, such as Westminster Abbey, York Minster, Durham Cathedral and Salisbury Cathedral. Saint George, the patron saint of England The second largest Christian practice is the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, which traces its formal, corporate history in England to the 6th century with Augustine's mission and was the main religion on the entire island for around a thousand years. Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation, the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.5 million members (most of whom are English). There has been one Pope from England to date, Adrian IV; while saints Bede and Anselm are regarded as Doctors of the Church. A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley. It gained popularity in the mill towns of Lancashire and Yorkshire, and amongst tin miners in Cornwall. There are other non-conformist minorities, such as Baptists, Quakers, Congregationalists, Unitarians and The Salvation Army. The patron saint of England is Saint George; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination. There are many other English and associated saints; some of the best known include: Cuthbert, Edmund, Alban, Wilfrid, Aidan, Edward the Confessor, John Fisher, Thomas More, Petroc, Piran, Margaret Clitherow and Thomas Becket. There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since 1070. They were expelled from England in 1290 following the Edict of Expulsion, only to be allowed back in 1656. Especially since the 1950s, Eastern religions from the former British colonies have begun to appear, due to foreign immigration; Islam is the most common of these, accounting for around 5% of the population in England. Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism are next in number, adding up to 2.8% combined, introduced from India and South East Asia. Around 25% have no religion. Education Main articles: Education in England and List of universities in England Senate House, the administrative centre of the University of London The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education. State-run and -funded schools are attended by approximately 93% of English schoolchildren. Of these, a minority are faith schools, primarily Church of England or Catholic. Between three and four is nursery school, 4 and 11 is primary school, and 11 to 16 is secondary school. After finishing compulsory education, pupils take a GCSE examination, following which they may decide to continue in further education for two years. Further education colleges, such as sixth form colleges are either separate or attached to the secondary school institution and prepare students to sit A-Level examinations, for higher education at universities. Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive, in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools, to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven plus exam. Around 7.2% of English schoolchildren attend private schools, which are funded by private sources. Standards in state schools are monitored by the Office for Standards in Education, and in private schools by the Independent Schools Inspectorate. King's College, University of Cambridge Students normally enter universities in the United Kingdom from 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. There are over 90 universities England, all but one of which are public. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England. Students are generally entitled to student loans for maintenance.[nb 7] The first degree offered to undergraduates is the Bachelor's degree, which usually takes three years to complete. Students are then eligible for a postgraduate degree, a Master's degree, taking one year, or a Doctorate degree, which takes three. England's universities include some of the highest-ranked universities in the world; the University of Cambridge, Imperial College London, the University of Oxford and University College London are all ranked in the global top 10 in the 2010 QS World University Rankings. The London School of Economics has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research. The London Business School is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2010 its MBA programme was ranked best in the world by the Financial Times. Academic degrees in England are usually split into classes: first class (I), upper second class (II:1), lower second class (II:2) and third (III), and unclassified (below third class). The King's School, Canterbury and King's School, Rochester are the oldest schools in the English-speaking world. Many of England's better-known schools, such as Winchester College, Eton College, St Paul's School, Rugby School, and Harrow School are fee-paying institutions. Culture Main articles: Culture of England and English Renaissance Architecture St Paul's Cathedral, English Baroque, and a red telephone box Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period, amongst the best known are Stonehenge, Devil's Arrows, Rudston Monolith and Castlerigg. With the introduction of Ancient Roman architecture there was a development of basilicas, baths, amphitheaters, triumphal arches, villas, Roman temples, Roman roads, Roman forts, stockades and aqueducts. It was the Romans who founded the first cities and towns such as London, Bath, York, Chester and St Albans. Perhaps the best known example is Hadrian's Wall stretching right across northern England. Another well preserved example is the Roman Baths at Bath, Somerset. Early Medieval architecture's secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing. Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno—Saxon monasticism, to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings. After the Norman conquest in 1066 various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion. Some of the best known medieval castles include the Tower of London, Warwick Castle, Durham Castle and Windsor Castle amongst others. The Broadway Tower is a folly, or mock tower, in Worcestershire. Throughout the Plantagenet era an English Gothic architecture flourished—the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral, Westminster Abbey and York Minster are prime examples. Expanding on the Norman base there was also castles, palaces, great houses, universities and parish churches. Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th century Tudor style; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch, was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically. In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity, synthesised with Christianity appeared—the English Baroque style, architect Christopher Wren was particularly championed. Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this. With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched—in addition to this around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace. Since the 1930s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.[nb 8] Folklore Main article: English folklore Robin Hood illustrated in 1912 wearing Lincoln green English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies, giants, elves, bogeymen, trolls, goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith, others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known. During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore—the Arthurian myth. These were derived from Anglo-Norman, French and Welsh sources, featuring King Arthur, Camelot, Excalibur, Merlin and the Knights of the Round Table such as Lancelot. These stories are most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae.[nb 9] Another early figure from British tradition, King Cole, may have been based on a real figure from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain, a collection of shared British folklore. Morris dance, an English folk dance Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry, Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch. On 5 November people make bonfires, set off fireworks and eat toffee apples in commemoration of the foiling of the Gunpowder Plot centred around Guy Fawkes. The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin, is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate. There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing, Maypole dancing, Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays, bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper's Hill. There is no official national costume, but a few are well established such as the Pearly Kings and Queens associated with cockneys, the Royal Guard, the Morris costume and Beefeaters. Cuisine Main article: English cuisine Fish and chips is a widely consumed part of English cuisine. Since the Early Modern Period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce. During the Middle Ages and through the Renaissance period, English cuisine enjoyed an excellent reputation, though a decline began during the Industrial Revolution with the move away from the land and increasing urbanisation of the populace. The cuisine of England has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by the food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant's best restaurant in the world charts. An early book of English recipes is the Forme of Cury from the royal court of Richard II. Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages. Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast, featuring a roasted joint (usually beef, lamb, chicken or pork) served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding, stuffing and gravy. Other prominent meals include fish and chips and the full English breakfast (generally consisting of bacon, sausages, grilled tomatoes, fried bread, black pudding, baked beans, mushrooms, and eggs). Various meat pies are consumed such as steak and kidney pie, steak and ale pie, cottage pie, pork pie (usually eaten cold) and the Cornish Pasty. Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well known stew. Some of the most popular cheeses are Cheddar and Wensleydale. Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries, have been created such as chicken tikka masala and balti. Sweet English dishes include apple pie, mince pies, spotted dick, scones, Eccles cakes, custard and sticky toffee pudding. Common drinks include tea, whose popularity was increased by Catherine of Braganza, whilst frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wines, ciders and English beers, such as bitter, mild, stout, and brown ale. Visual arts Main articles: English art and Arts Council England The Lady of Shalott by John William Waterhouse in the Pre-Raphaelite style. The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire, Northumberland and Cumbria, but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags. With the arrival of Roman culture in the 1st century, various forms of art utilising statues, busts, glasswork and mosaics were the norm. There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. During the Early Middle Ages the style was sculpted crosses and ivories, manuscript painting, gold and enamel jewellery, demonstrating a love of intricate, interwoven designs such as in the Staffordshire Hoard discovered in 2009. Some of these blended Gaelic and Anglian styles, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and Vespasian Psalter. Later Gothic art was popular at Winchester and Canterbury, examples survive such as Benedictional of St. Æthelwold and Luttrell Psalter. The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein, natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this. Under the Stuarts, Continental artists were influential especially the Flemish, examples from the period include—Anthony van Dyck, Peter Lely, Godfrey Kneller and William Dobson. The 18th century was a time of significance with the founding of the Royal Academy, a classicism based on the High Renaissance prevailed—Thomas Gainsborough and Joshua Reynolds became two of England's most treasured artists. The Norwich School continued the landscape tradition, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood with their vivid and detailed style revived the Early Renaissance style—Holman Hunt, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and John Everett Millais were leaders. Prominent amongst 20th-century artists was Henry Moore, regarded as the voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism in general. Contemporary painters include Lucian Freud, whose work Benefits Supervisor Sleeping in 2008 set a world record for sale value of a painting by a living artist. Literature, poetry and philosophy Main article: English literature Geoffrey Chaucer was an English author, poet and philosopher, best remembered for his unfinished frame narrative The Canterbury Tales. Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. The period of Old English literature provided the epic poem Beowulf and the secular prose of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, along with Christian writings such as Judith, Cædmon's Hymn and hagiographies. Following the Norman conquest Latin continued amongst the educated classes, as well as an Anglo-Norman literature. Middle English literature emerged with Geoffrey Chaucer, author of The Canterbury Tales, along with Gower, the Pearl Poet and Langland. William of Ockham and Roger Bacon, who were Franciscans, were major philosophers of the Middle Ages. Julian of Norwich, who wrote Revelations of Divine Love, was a prominent Christian mystic. With the English Renaissance literature in the Early Modern English style appeared. William Shakespeare, whose works include Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, and A Midsummer Night's Dream, remains one of the most championed authors in English literature. Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, Philip Sydney, Thomas Kyd, John Donne, and Ben Jonson are other established authors of the Elizabethan age. Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes wrote on empiricism and materialism, including scientific method and social contract. Filmer wrote on the Divine Right of Kings. Marvell was the best known poet of the Commonwealth, while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration. This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself. This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. William Shakespeare. Some of the most prominent philosophers of the Enlightenment were John Locke, Thomas Paine, Samuel Johnson and Jeremy Bentham. More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. The poet Alexander Pope with his satirical verse became well regarded. The English played a significant role in romanticism: Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Lord Byron, John Keats, Mary Shelley, Percy Bysshe Shelley, William Blake and William Wordsworth were major figures. In response to the Industrial Revolution, agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett, G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism, Arthur Penty, and cooperative movement advocate G. D. H. Cole are somewhat related. Empiricism continued through John Stuart Mill and Bertrand Russell, while Bernard Williams was involved in analytics. Authors from around the Victorian era include Charles Dickens, the Brontë sisters, Jane Austen, George Eliot, Rudyard Kipling, Thomas Hardy, H. G. Wells, Lewis Carroll and Evelyn Underhill. Since then England has continued to produce novelists such as C. S. Lewis, George Orwell, D. H. Lawrence, Virginia Woolf, Enid Blyton, Aldous Huxley, Agatha Christie, Terry Pratchett, J. R. R. Tolkien, and J. K. Rowling. Performing arts Main articles: Folk music of England and Music of the United Kingdom Traditional "Greensleeves" MENU0:00 Elgar's "Pomp & Circumstance March No. 1" MENU0:00 The Rolling Stones' "Paint It, Black" MENU0:00 The Beatles' "Get Back" MENU0:00 Problems listening to these files? See media help. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties, jigs, hornpipes and dance music. It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. Wynkyn de Worde printed ballads of Robin Hood from the 16th century are an important artefact, as are John Playford's The Dancing Master and Robert Harley's Roxburghe Ballads collections. Some of the best known songs are The Good Old Way, Pastime with Good Company, Maggie May and Spanish Ladies amongst others. Many nursery rhymes are of English origin such as Twinkle Twinkle Little Star, Roses are red, Jack and Jill, Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush and Humpty Dumpty. Early English composers in classical music include Renaissance artists Thomas Tallis and William Byrd, followed up by Henry Purcell from the Baroque period. German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah, Water Music, and Music for the Royal Fireworks. There was a revival in the profile of composers from England in the 20th century led by Benjamin Britten, Frederick Delius, Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, Ralph Vaughan Williams and others. Present-day composers from England include Michael Nyman, best known for The Piano. In the field of popular music many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time. Acts such as The Beatles, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Elton John, Queen, Rod Stewart and The Rolling Stones are among the highest selling recording artists in the world. Many musical genres have origins or strong associations with England, such as British invasion, hard rock, glam rock, heavy metal, mod, britpop, drum and bass, progressive rock, punk rock, indie rock, gothic rock, shoegazing, acid house, UK garage, trip hop and dubstep. Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury, V Festival, Reading and Leeds Festivals. The most prominent opera house in England is the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. The Proms, a season of orchestral classical music concerts held at the Royal Albert Hall, is a major cultural event held annually. The Royal Ballet is one of the world's foremost classical ballet companies, its reputation built on two prominent figures of 20th century dance, prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn and choreographer Frederick Ashton. Museums, libraries, and galleries Further information: Museums in England The Natural History Museum in London English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty holds a contrasting role. 17 of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO World Heritage Sites fall within England. Some of the best known of these include; Hadrian's Wall, Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites, Tower of London, Jurassic Coast, Saltaire, Ironbridge Gorge, Studley Royal Park and various others. There are many museums in England, but the most notable is London's British Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present. The British Library in London is the national library and is one of the world's largest research libraries, holding over 150 million items in all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books. The most senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. The Tate galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art; they also host the famously controversial Turner Prize. Sports Main article: Sport in England Inside Wembley Stadium, one of the most expensive stadiums ever built England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world. Sports originating in England include association football, cricket, rugby union, rugby league, tennis, badminton, squash, rounders, hockey, boxing, snooker, billiards, darts, table tennis, bowls, netball, thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting. It has helped the development of sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team, whose home venue is Wembley Stadium, won the 1966 FIFA World Cup against the West Germany national football team where they won 4–2, with Geoff Hurst scoring a hatrick. That was the year the country hosted the competition. At club level England is recognised by FIFA as the birthplace of club football, due to Sheffield FC founded in 1857 being the oldest club. The Football Association is the oldest of its kind, FA Cup and The Football League were the first cup and league competitions respectively. In the modern day the Premier League is the world's most lucrative football league and amongst the elite. The European Cup (now the UEFA Champions League) has been won by Liverpool, Manchester United, Nottingham Forest, Aston Villa and Chelsea, while Arsenal, and Leeds United have reached the final. England on the way to victory against Australia in the 2009 Ashes series at Lord's Cricket Ground Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald. The England cricket team is a composite England and Wales team. One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia, contested since 1882. The finale of the 2009 Ashes was watched by nearly 2 million people, although the climax of the 2005 Ashes was viewed by 7.4 million as it was available on terrestrial television. England are the current holders of the trophy and are ranked 1st in Test and 4th in One Day International cricket. England has hosted four Cricket World Cups (1975, 1979, 1983, 1999) and the ICC World Twenty20 in 2009. There are several domestic level competitions, including the County Championship in which Yorkshire are by far the most successful club having won the competition 31 times. Lord's Cricket Ground situated in London is sometimes referred to as the "Mecca of Cricket". William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. London has hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times, in 1908, 1948, and 2012. England competes in the Commonwealth Games, held every four years. Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England. A Grand Prix is held at Silverstone. The England rugby union team during their victory parade after winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup The England rugby union team won the 2003 Rugby World Cup, the country was one of the host nations of the competition in the 1991 Rugby World Cup and is set to host the 2015 Rugby World Cup. The top level of club participation is the English Premiership. Leicester Tigers, London Wasps, Bath Rugby and Northampton Saints have had success in the Europe-wide Heineken Cup. Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in 1895. The England national rugby league team are ranked third in the world and first in Europe. Since 2008 England has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team, which won three World Cups but is now retired. Club sides play in Super League, the present-day embodiment of the Rugby Football League Championship. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors, St Helens, Leeds Rhinos and Huddersfield Giants; the former three have all won the World Club Challenge previously. The United Kingdom is to host the 2013 Rugby League World Cup. In tennis, the Wimbledon Championships are the oldest tennis tournament in the world and is widely considered the most prestigious. National symbols Main article: National symbols of England The Royal Arms of England The St George's Cross has been the national flag of England since the 13th century. Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa. The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from 1190 onwards, so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean. A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George, along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner. Since 1606 the St George's Cross has formed part of the design of the Union Flag, a Pan-British flag designed by King James I. The Tudor rose, England's national floral emblem There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose, the nation's floral emblem, and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England. The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace. It is a syncretic symbol in that it merged the white rose of the Yorkists and the red rose of the Lancastrians—cadet branches of the Plantagenets who went to war over control of the nation. It is also known as the Rose of England. The oak tree is a symbol of England, representing strength and endurance. The Royal Oak symbol and Oak Apple Day commemorate the escape of King Charles II from the grasp of the parliamentarians after his father's execution: he hid in an oak tree to avoid detection before safely reaching exile. The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in 1198. It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy. England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen. However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: Jerusalem, Land of Hope and Glory (used for England during the 2002 Commonwealth Games), and I Vow to Thee, My Country. 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See templates for discussion to help reach a consensus.› v t e Constituent countries and affiliations of the United Kingdom Countries of the United Kingdom England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland Overseas territories Akrotiri and Dhekelia† Anguilla Bermuda British Antarctic Territory‡ British Indian Ocean Territory British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Falkland Islands Gibraltar Montserrat Pitcairn Islands Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Turks and Caicos Islands Crown dependencies Guernsey* Isle of Man Jersey* Former colonies List of countries that gained independence from the United Kingdom †Sovereign Base Areas ‡Partial suspension of sovereignty due to the Antarctic Treaty *Including adjacent smaller islands and rocks v t e British Isles Terminology Britain Éire Naming dispute Politics Sovereign states Ireland United Kingdom (England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales) Crown dependencies Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man Political cooperation Politics in the British Isles British–Irish Council British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly Common Travel Area Geography Island groups Channel Islands Islands of the Clyde Great Britain Hebrides Inner Outer Ireland Isle of Man Northern Isles Orkney Shetland Isles of Scilly Lists of islands of Bailiwick of Guernsey Ireland Bailiwick of Jersey Isle of Man United Kingdom England Scotland Wales History Island groups British Isles Ireland Current states Ireland United Kingdom England Northern Ireland Scotland Wales Guernsey Jersey Isle of Man Former states Irish Free State Kingdom of England Principality of Wales Kingdom of Great Britain Kingdom of Ireland Kingdom of Scotland Society Modern languages Germanic English Scots Celtic Cornish Scottish Gaelic Irish Manx Welsh Romance Auregnais French Guernésiais Jèrriais Sercquiais Other BSL ISL NISL Shelta People British Cornish English English Gypsies Irish Irish Travellers Kale Manx Scottish Ulster-Scots Welsh v t e British people English language Anglosphere Anguillans Ascension Islanders Bermudians British Virgin Islanders Caymanians Chagossians (Îlois) Channel Islanders Cornish English Falkland Islanders Gibraltarians Hong Kongers (British Nationals (Overseas)) Manx Montserratians Northern Irish Orcadians Pitcairn Islanders Saint Helenians Scots Shetlanders Tristan Islanders Turks and Caicos Islanders Welsh British diaspora v t e 1974–1996 ← Ceremonial counties of England → current Bedfordshire Berkshire City of Bristol Buckinghamshire Cambridgeshire Cheshire Cornwall Cumbria Derbyshire Devon Dorset Durham East Riding of Yorkshire East Sussex Essex Gloucestershire Greater London Greater Manchester Hampshire Herefordshire Hertfordshire Isle of Wight Kent Lancashire Leicestershire Lincolnshire City of London Merseyside Norfolk Northamptonshire Northumberland North Yorkshire Nottinghamshire Oxfordshire Rutland Shropshire Somerset South Yorkshire Staffordshire Suffolk Surrey Tyne and Wear Warwickshire West Midlands West Sussex West Yorkshire Wiltshire Worcestershire v t e National personifications Argentina Effigies of Argentina Armenia Mother Armenia Brazil Efígie da República Cambodia Preah Thong and Neang Neak Canada Johnny Canuck Czech Republic Švejk Praotec Čech (Forefather Czech) Hloupý Honza Jára Cimrman Jan Žižka Denmark Holger Danske Finland Finnish Maiden France Marianne Georgia Kartlis Deda Germany Deutscher Michel Germania Greece Athena "Greece" of Delacroix Iceland Lady of the Mountain India Bharat Mata Indonesia Ibu Pertiwi Ireland Ériu Hibernia Kathleen Ni Houlihan Israel Srulik Italy Italia Turrita Japan Amaterasu Malaysia Ibu Pertiwi Malta Melita Netherlands Netherlands Maiden New Zealand Zealandia Norway Ola Nordmann Philippines Juan dela Cruz Maria Clara Poland Polonia Portugal Efígie da República Zé Povinho Russia Mother Russia Spain Hispania Singapore Merlion Sweden Mother Svea Switzerland Helvetia Ukraine Cossack Mamay United Kingdom Britannia John Bull Dame Wales United States Brother Jonathan Columbia Lady Liberty Uncle Sam Billy Yank Northern states Johnny Reb Southern states Cities of the United Kingdom England Bath Birmingham Bradford Brighton and Hove Bristol Cambridge Canterbury Carlisle Chelmsford Chester Chichester Coventry Derby Durham Ely Exeter Gloucester Hereford Kingston upon Hull Lancaster Leeds Leicester Lichfield Lincoln Liverpool London Manchester Newcastle upon Tyne Norwich Nottingham Oxford Peterborough Plymouth Portsmouth Preston Ripon St Albans Salford Salisbury Sheffield Southampton Stoke-on-Trent Sunderland Truro Wakefield Wells Westminster Winchester Wolverhampton Worcester York Scotland Aberdeen Dundee Edinburgh Glasgow Inverness Perth Stirling Wales Bangor Cardiff Newport St Asaph St Davids Swansea Northern Ireland Armagh Belfast Derry Lisburn Newry Overseas territories George Town Gibraltar Hamilton Stanley This is a list of the 936 towns in England. Historically, towns were any settlement with a charter, including market towns and ancient boroughs. The process of incorporation was reformed in 1835 and many more places received borough charters, whilst others were lost. All existing boroughs were abolished on 1 April 1974 and borough status was reformed as a civic honour for local government districts. At the same time a limited number of former boroughs and other settlements became successor parishes, with the right to be known as a town and preserve their charter. Boroughs that did not become successor parishes formed unparished areas, but were able to preserve their charters without a corporate body by appointing charter trustees. Since 1 April 1974 any parish council in England has the right to resolve to call itself a town and several communities have taken up this right, including areas that preserved continuity with charter trustees. Chartered towns and town councils This list includes: civil parishes with town councils; unparished areas that had borough charters prior to 1 April 1974 (including areas with charter trustees); and towns with ancient/market charters that did not later gain borough charters or town councils. Town Ceremonial county Status Abingdon Oxfordshire town council1 Accrington Lancashire borough (1878–1974) Acle Norfolk market charter Acton Greater London borough (1921–1965) Adlington Lancashire town council1 Alcester Warwickshire town council Aldeburgh Suffolk town council1 Aldershot Hampshire borough (1922–1974) Alford Lincolnshire town council1 Alfreton Derbyshire town council Alnwick Northumberland town council1 Alsager Cheshire town council1 Alston Cumbria market charter Alton Hampshire town council1 Altrincham Greater Manchester borough (1937–1974) Amble Northumberland town council1 Ambleside Cumbria market charter Amersham Buckinghamshire town council Amesbury Wiltshire town council Ampthill Bedfordshire town council1 Andover Hampshire borough (1835–1974) Appleby-in-Westmorland Cumbria town council1 Arlesey Bedfordshire town council Arundel West Sussex town council1 Ashbourne Derbyshire town council1 Ashburton Devon town council1 Ashby-de-la-Zouch Leicestershire town council1 Ashby Woulds Leicestershire town council1 Ashford Kent market charter Ashington Northumberland town council Ashton-under-Lyne Greater Manchester borough (1847–1974) Askern South Yorkshire town council Aspatria Cumbria town council Atherstone Warwickshire town council Attleborough Norfolk town council Axbridge Somerset town council Axminster Devon town council Aylesbury Buckinghamshire town council Aylsham Norfolk town council Bacup Lancashire borough (1883–1974) Bakewell Derbyshire town council1 Banbury Oxfordshire town council Barking Greater London borough (1931–1965) Barnard Castle Durham town council1 Barnes Greater London borough (1932–1965) Barnet Greater London market charter Barnoldswick Lancashire town council Barnsley South Yorkshire borough (1869–1974) Barnstaple Devon town council1 Barrow-in-Furness Cumbria borough (1867–1974) Barton-upon-Humber Lincolnshire town council1 Basingstoke Hampshire borough (1835–1974) Batley West Yorkshire borough (1868–1974) Battle East Sussex town council Bawtry South Yorkshire town council Beaconsfield Buckinghamshire town council1 Beaminster Dorset town council Bebington Merseyside borough (1937–1974) Beccles Suffolk town council1 Beckenham Greater London borough (1935–1965) Bedale North Yorkshire town council Bedford Bedfordshire borough (1835–1974) Bedworth Warwickshire market charter Belper Derbyshire town council1 Bentham North Yorkshire town council Berkeley Gloucestershire town council Berkhamsted Hertfordshire town council1 Berwick-upon-Tweed Northumberland town council Beverley East Riding of Yorkshire town council Bewdley Worcestershire town council1 Bexhill-on-Sea East Sussex charter trustees Bexley Greater London borough (1937–1965) Bicester Oxfordshire town council1 Biddulph Staffordshire town council1 Bideford Devon town council1 Biggleswade Bedfordshire town council1 Billericay Essex town council Billingham Durham town council Bilston West Midlands borough (1938–1967) Bingham Nottinghamshire town council Bingley West Yorkshire market charter Birchwood Cheshire town council Birkenhead Merseyside borough (1877–1974) Bishop Auckland Durham town council Bishop's Castle Shropshire borough (1885–1974) Bishop's Stortford Hertfordshire town council1 Bishop's Waltham Hampshire market charter Blackburn Lancashire borough (1851–1974) Blackpool Lancashire borough (1867–1974) Blackrod Greater Manchester town council1 Blackwater and Hawley Hampshire town council Blandford Forum Dorset town council1 Bletchley and Fenny Stratford Buckinghamshire town council Blyth Northumberland town council Bodmin Cornwall town council1 Bognor Regis West Sussex town council Bollington Cheshire town council1 Bolsover Derbyshire town council1 Bolton Greater Manchester borough (1838–1974) Bootle Merseyside borough (1868–1974) Boroughbridge North Yorkshire town council Boston Lincolnshire town council Bottesford Lincolnshire town council Bourne Lincolnshire town council1 Bournemouth Dorset borough (1890–1974) Bovey Tracey Devon town council Brackley Northamptonshire town council1 Bradford-on-Avon Wiltshire town council1 Brading Isle of Wight town council Bradley Stoke Gloucestershire town council Bradninch Devon town council Braintree Essex market charter Brampton Cumbria town council Brandon Suffolk town council Braunstone Town Leicestershire town council Brentford Greater London market charter Brentwood Essex market charter Bridgnorth Shropshire town council Bridgwater Somerset town council Bridlington East Riding of Yorkshire town council Bridport Dorset town council1 Brierfield Lancashire town council Brierley South Yorkshire town council Brigg Lincolnshire town council1 Brighouse West Yorkshire borough (1893–1974) Brightlingsea Essex town council1 Brixham Devon town council Broadstairs and St Peter's Kent town council1 Bromborough Merseyside market charter Bromley Greater London borough (1903–1965) Bromsgrove Worcestershire market charter Bromyard and Winslow Herefordshire town council Broseley Shropshire town council Broughton Lincolnshire town council Broughton-in-Furness Cumbria market charter Bruton Somerset town council Buckfastleigh Devon town council1 Buckingham Buckinghamshire town council1 Bude-Stratton Cornwall town council1 Budleigh Salterton Devon town council1 Bulwell Nottinghamshire market charter Bungay Suffolk town council1 Buntingford Hertfordshire town council Burford Oxfordshire town council Burgess Hill West Sussex town council1 Burgh-le-Marsh Lincolnshire town council Burnham-on-Crouch Essex town council1 Burnham-on-Sea and Highbridge Somerset town council1 Burnley Lancashire borough (1861–1974) Burntwood Staffordshire town council Burton Latimer Northamptonshire town council1 Burton upon Trent Staffordshire charter trustees (abolished 2003) Bury Greater Manchester borough (1876–1974) Bury St Edmunds Suffolk town council Bushey Hertfordshire market charter Buxton Derbyshire borough (1917–1974) Caistor Lincolnshire town council Callington Cornwall town council Calne Wiltshire town council1 Camborne Cornwall town council Camelford Cornwall town council Cannock Staffordshire market charter Canvey Island Essex town council Carnforth Lancashire town council1 Carlton Colville Suffolk town council Carterton Oxfordshire town council Castle Cary Somerset town council Castleford West Yorkshire borough (1955–1974) Chagford Devon stannary charter Chapel-en-le-Frith Derbyshire market charter Chard Somerset town council1 Charlbury Oxfordshire town council Chatham Kent borough (1890–1974) Chatteris Cambridgeshire town council1 Cheadle Staffordshire town council Chelmsford Essex charter trustees (abolished 1975) Cheltenham Gloucestershire borough (1876–1974) Chertsey Surrey market charter Chesham Buckinghamshire town council1 Cheshunt Hertfordshire market charter Chesterfield Derbyshire borough (1835–1974) Chester-le-Street Durham market charter Chickerell Dorset town council Chingford Greater London borough (1938–1965) Chippenham Wiltshire town council Chipping Campden Gloucestershire town council Chipping Norton Oxfordshire town council1 Chipping Sodbury Gloucestershire town council Chorley Lancashire borough (1881–1974) Chorleywood Hertfordshire town council1 Christchurch Dorset borough (1886–1974) Chudleigh Devon town council Chulmleigh Devon market charter Church Stretton Shropshire town council Cinderford Gloucestershire town council Cirencester Gloucestershire town council1 Clare Suffolk market charter Clay Cross Derbyshire town council1 Cleator Moor Cumbria town council Cleethorpes Lincolnshire charter trustees Cleobury Mortimer Shropshire market charter Clevedon Somerset town council1 Clitheroe Lancashire town council1 Clun Shropshire market charter Cockermouth Cumbria town council1 Coggeshall Essex market charter Colburn North Yorkshire town council Colchester Essex borough (1835–1974) Coleford Gloucestershire town council Coleshill Warwickshire town council Colne Lancashire town council Colyton Devon market charter Congleton Cheshire town council Conisbrough South Yorkshire market charter Corbridge Northumberland market charter Corby Northamptonshire market charter Corringham Essex market charter Corsham Wiltshire town council Cotgrave Nottinghamshire town council Cowes Isle of Wight town council Cramlington Northumberland town council Cranbrook Kent market charter Craven Arms Shropshire town council Crawley West Sussex market charter Crediton Devon town council1 Crewe Cheshire charter trustees Crewkerne Somerset town council1 Cricklade Wiltshire town council Cromer Norfolk town council1 Crosby Merseyside borough (1937–1974) Crowborough East Sussex town council Croydon Greater London borough (1883–1965) Crowland Lincolnshire market charter Crowle Lincolnshire town council Cullompton Devon town council Dagenham Greater London borough (1938–1965) Dalton Town with Newton Cumbria town council Darley Dale Derbyshire town council Darlington Durham borough (1867–1974) Dartford Kent charter trustees (abolished 1977) Dartmouth Devon town council1 Darwen Lancashire town council Daventry Northamptonshire town council Dawlish Devon town council1 Deal Kent town council Dereham Norfolk town council1 Desborough Northamptonshire town council1 Devizes Wiltshire town council1 Dewsbury West Yorkshire borough (1862–1974) Didcot Oxfordshire town council Dinnington St John's South Yorkshire town council Diss Norfolk town council1 Doncaster South Yorkshire borough (1835–1974) Dorchester Dorset town council1 Dorking Surrey market charter Dover Kent town council Dovercourt Essex market charter Downham Market Norfolk town council1 Driffield East Riding of Yorkshire town council Droitwich Spa Worcestershire town council1 Dronfield Derbyshire town council1 Dudley West Midlands borough (1865–1974) Dukinfield Greater Manchester borough (1899–1974) Dulverton Somerset town council Dunstable Bedfordshire town council Dunwich Suffolk market charter Dursley Gloucestershire town council Ealing Greater London borough (1901–1965) Earl Shilton Leicestershire town council Earley Berkshire town council Easingwold North Yorkshire town council East Cowes Isle of Wight town council East Grinstead West Sussex town council1 East Ham Greater London borough (1904–1965) Eastbourne East Sussex borough (1883–1974) Eastleigh Hampshire borough (1936–1974) East Retford Nottinghamshire charter trustees Eastwood Nottinghamshire town council1 Eccles Greater Manchester borough (1892–1974) Eccleshall Staffordshire market charter Edenbridge Kent town council Edgware Greater London market charter Edmonton Greater London borough (1937–1965) Egremont Cumbria town council Elland West Yorkshire market charter Ellesmere Shropshire town council Ellesmere Port Cheshire charter trustees Elstree and Borehamwood Hertfordshire town council Emsworth Hampshire market charter Enfield Greater London borough (1955–1965) Epping Essex town council1 Epworth Lincolnshire town council Erith Greater London borough (1937–1965) Eton Berkshire town council1 Evesham Worcestershire town council1 Exmouth Devon town council Eye Suffolk town council1 Fairford Gloucestershire town council Fakenham Norfolk town council Falmouth Cornwall town council1 Fareham Hampshire market charter Faringdon Oxfordshire town council Farnham Surrey town council Faversham Kent town council1 Fazeley Staffordshire town council Featherstone West Yorkshire town council1 Felixstowe Suffolk town council1 Ferndown Dorset town council Ferryhill Durham town council Filey North Yorkshire town council1 Filton Gloucestershire town council Finchley Greater London borough (1933–1965) Fleet Hampshire town council Fleetwood Lancashire borough (1933–1974) Flitwick Bedfordshire town council Folkestone Kent town council Fordbridge West Midlands town council Fordingbridge Hampshire town council Fordwich Kent town council Fowey Cornwall town council Framlingham Suffolk town council Frinton and Walton Essex town council1 Frodsham Cheshire town council Frome Somerset town council1 Gainsborough Lincolnshire town council Garstang Lancashire town council Gateshead Tyne and Wear borough (1835–1974) Gillingham Dorset town council Gillingham Kent borough (1903–1974) Glastonbury Somerset town council1 Glossop Derbyshire borough (1866–1974) Godalming Surrey town council1 Godmanchester Cambridgeshire town council1 Goole East Riding of Yorkshire town council Gorleston Norfolk market charter Gosport Hampshire borough (1922–1974) Grange-over-Sands Cumbria town council1 Grantham Lincolnshire charter trustees Gravesend Kent borough (1835–1974) Grays Essex market charter Great Dunmow Essex town council Great Torrington Devon town council1 Great Yarmouth Norfolk borough (1835–1974) Greater Willington Durham town council Grimsby Lincolnshire charter trustees Guildford Surrey borough (1835–1974) Guisborough North Yorkshire town council1 Hadleigh Suffolk town council1 Hailsham East Sussex town council Halesowen West Midlands borough (1936–1974) Halesworth Suffolk town council1 Halifax West Yorkshire borough (1848–1974) Halstead Essex town council1 Haltwhistle Northumberland town council Redenhall with Harleston Norfolk town council Harlow Essex market charter Harpenden Hertfordshire town council1 Harrogate North Yorkshire borough (1884–1974) Harrow Greater London borough (1954–1965) Hartland Devon market charter Hartlepool Durham borough (1850–1974) Harwich Essex town council1 Harworth and Bircotes Nottinghamshire town council Haslemere Surrey town council1 Haslingden Lancashire borough (1891–1974) Hastings East Sussex borough (1835–1974) Hatfield Hertfordshire town council Hatherleigh Devon town council Havant Hampshire market charter Haverhill Suffolk town council Haxby North Yorkshire town council Hayle Cornwall town council Haywards Heath West Sussex town council Heanor and Loscoe Derbyshire town council Heathfield East Sussex market charter Hebden Royd West Yorkshire town council1 Hedge End Hampshire town council Hednesford Staffordshire town council Hedon East Riding of Yorkshire town council1 Helmsley North Yorkshire town council Helston Cornwall town council1 Hemel Hempstead Hertfordshire charter trustees (abolished 1984) Hemsworth West Yorkshire town council1 Hendon Greater London borough (1932–1965) Henley-in-Arden Warwickshire market charter Henley-on-Thames Oxfordshire town council1 Hertford Hertfordshire town council1 Hessle East Riding of Yorkshire town council Hetton Tyne and Wear town council1 Hexham Northumberland town council1 Heywood Greater Manchester borough (1881–1974) Higham Ferrers Northamptonshire town council1 Highworth Wiltshire town council High Wycombe Buckinghamshire charter trustees Hinckley Leicestershire market charter Hingham Norfolk town council Hitchin Hertfordshire market charter Hoddesdon Hertfordshire market charter Holbeach Lincolnshire market charter Holsworthy Devon town council Holt Norfolk town council Honiton Devon town council1 Horley Surrey town council Horncastle Lincolnshire town council1 Hornsea East Riding of Yorkshire town council1 Hornsey Greater London borough (1903–1965) Horsforth West Yorkshire town council Horwich Greater Manchester town council1 Houghton Regis Bedfordshire town council Howden East Riding of Yorkshire town council Huddersfield West Yorkshire borough (1868–1974) Hungerford Berkshire town council Hunstanton Norfolk town council1 Huntingdon Cambridgeshire town council1 Hyde Greater Manchester borough (1881–1974) Hythe Kent town council1 Ilford Greater London borough (1926–1965) Ilfracombe Devon town council1 Ilkeston Derbyshire charter trustees (abolished 1975) Ilkley West Yorkshire town council1 Ilminster Somerset town council1 Immingham Lincolnshire town council Ingleby Barwick North Yorkshire town council Ipswich Suffolk borough (1835–1974) Irthlingborough Northamptonshire town council1 Ivybridge Devon town council Jarrow Tyne and Wear borough (1875–1974) Keighley West Yorkshire town council Kempston Bedfordshire town council1 Kendal Cumbria town council1 Kenilworth Warwickshire town council1 Kesgrave Suffolk town council Keswick Cumbria town council1 Kettering Northamptonshire borough (1938–1974) Keynsham Somerset town council Kidderminster Worcestershire charter trustees Kidsgrove Staffordshire town council1 Kimberley Nottinghamshire town council Kingsbridge Devon town council1 King's Lynn Norfolk borough (1835–1974) Kingston-upon-Thames Greater London borough (1835–1965) Kington Herefordshire town council1 Kirkby-in-Ashfield Nottinghamshire market charter Kirkby Lonsdale Cumbria town council Kirkby Stephen Cumbria town council Kirkbymoorside North Yorkshire town council Kirkham Lancashire town council1 Kirton-in-Lindsey Lincolnshire town council Knaresborough North Yorkshire town council1 Knutsford Cheshire town council1 Langport Somerset town council Launceston Cornwall town council1 Leatherhead Surrey market charter Lechlade Gloucestershire town council Ledbury Herefordshire town council Leek Staffordshire town council1 Leigh Greater Manchester borough (1899–1974) Leighton-Linslade Bedfordshire town council1 Leigh-on-Sea Essex town council Leiston Suffolk town council1 Leominster Herefordshire town council1 Letchworth Hertfordshire town council Lewes East Sussex town council1 Leyburn North Yorkshire town council Leyton Greater London borough (1926–1965) Liskeard Cornwall town council1 Littlehampton West Sussex town council1 Loddon Norfolk market charter Loftus North Yorkshire town council1 Long Sutton Lincolnshire market charter Longridge Lancashire town council1 Longtown Herefordshire market charter Looe Cornwall town council1 Lostwithiel Cornwall town council Loughborough Leicestershire borough (1888–1974) Loughton Essex town council Louth Lincolnshire town council1 Lowestoft Suffolk charter trustees Ludgershall Wiltshire town council Ludlow Shropshire town council Luton Bedfordshire borough (1876–1974) Lutterworth Leicestershire town council Lydd Kent town council1 Lydney Gloucestershire town council Lyme Regis Dorset town council1 Lynton and Lynmouth Devon town council1 Lytham St Annes Lancashire borough (1922–1974) Mablethorpe and Sutton Lincolnshire town council1 Macclesfield Cheshire charter trustees Madeley Shropshire market charter Maghull Merseyside town council Maidenhead Berkshire borough (1835–1974) Maidstone Kent borough (1835–1974) Maldon Essex town council Malmesbury Wiltshire town council1 Maltby South Yorkshire town council Malton North Yorkshire town council1 Malvern Worcestershire town council Manningtree Essex town council Mansfield Nottinghamshire charter trustees Marazion Cornwall town council March Cambridgeshire town council1 Margate Kent charter trustees Market Bosworth Leicestershire market charter Market Deeping Lincolnshire town council Market Drayton Shropshire town council Market Harborough Leicestershire market charter Market Rasen Lincolnshire town council1 Market Weighton East Riding of Yorkshire town council Marlborough Wiltshire town council1 Marlow Buckinghamshire town council1 Maryport Cumbria town council1 Masham North Yorkshire market charter Matlock Derbyshire town council Medlar with Wesham Lancashire town council Melksham Wiltshire town council1 Meltham West Yorkshire town council1 Melton Mowbray Leicestershire town council Mere Wiltshire town council Middleham North Yorkshire town council Middlesbrough North Yorkshire borough (1853–1967) Middleton Greater Manchester borough (1886–1974) Middlewich Cheshire town council1 Midhurst West Sussex town council Midsomer Norton Somerset market charter Mildenhall Suffolk market charter Millom Cumbria town council Minchinhampton Gloucestershire market charter Minehead Somerset town council Minster Kent market charter Mirfield West Yorkshire town council Mitcham Greater London borough (1934–1965) Mitcheldean Gloucestershire market charter Morecambe Lancashire town council Moretonhampstead Devon market charter Moreton-in-Marsh Gloucestershire town council Morley West Yorkshire town council Morpeth Northumberland borough (1835–1974) Mossley Greater Manchester town council Much Wenlock Shropshire town council Nailsea Somerset town council Nailsworth Gloucestershire town council1 Nantwich Cheshire town council1 Needham Market Suffolk town council Nelson Lancashire town council Neston Cheshire town council New Alresford Hampshire town council New Mills Derbyshire town council1 New Milton Hampshire town council New Romney Kent town council1 Newark-on-Trent Nottinghamshire town council Newbiggin-by-the-Sea Northumberland town council Newbury Berkshire town council Newcastle-under-Lyme Staffordshire borough (1835–1974) Newent Gloucestershire town council Newhaven East Sussex town council1 Newlyn Cornwall market charter Newmarket Suffolk town council Newport Isle of Wight borough (1835–1974) Newport Shropshire town council1 Newport Pagnell Buckinghamshire town council Newquay Cornwall town council Newton Abbot Devon town council1 Newton-le-Willows Merseyside market charter Normanton West Yorkshire town council1 North Hykeham Lincolnshire town council North Petherton Somerset town council North Tawton Devon town council North Walsham Norfolk town council1 Northallerton North Yorkshire town council1 Northam Devon town council1 Northampton Northamptonshire borough (1835–1974) Northfleet Kent market charter Northleach with Eastington Gloucestershire town council Northwich Cheshire town council1 Norton-on-Derwent North Yorkshire town council1 Nuneaton Warwickshire borough (1907–1974) Oakengates Shropshire town council Oakham Rutland town council1 Okehampton Devon town council1 Oldbury West Midlands borough (1935–1966) Oldham Greater Manchester borough (1849–1974) Ollerton and Boughton Nottinghamshire town council Olney Buckinghamshire town council Ongar Essex town council Orford Suffolk market charter Ormskirk Lancashire market charter Ossett West Yorkshire borough (1890–1974) Oswestry Shropshire town council Otley West Yorkshire town council1 Ottery St Mary Devon town council1 Oundle Northamptonshire town council1 Paddock Wood Kent town council Padiham Lancashire town council Padstow Cornwall town council Paignton Devon market charter Painswick Gloucestershire market charter Partington Greater Manchester town council Patchway Gloucestershire town council Pateley Bridge North Yorkshire town council Peacehaven East Sussex town council Penistone South Yorkshire town council1 Penkridge Staffordshire market charter Penrith Cumbria market charter Penryn Cornwall town council1 Penwortham Lancashire town council Penzance Cornwall town council Pershore Worcestershire town council Peterlee Durham town council Petersfield Hampshire town council1 Petworth West Sussex town council Pickering North Yorkshire town council1 Pocklington East Riding of Yorkshire town council Polegate East Sussex town council Pontefract West Yorkshire borough (1835–1974) Ponteland Northumberland town council Poole Dorset borough (1835–1974) Porthleven Cornwall town council Portishead and North Weston Somerset town council1 Portland Dorset town council1 Potton Bedfordshire town council Poynton-with-Worth Cheshire town council Preesall Lancashire town council1 Prescot Merseyside town council Princes Risborough Buckinghamshire town council Prudhoe Northumberland town council1 Pudsey West Yorkshire borough (1900–1974) Queenborough-in-Sheppey Kent charter trustees (abolished 1977) Radstock Somerset town council1 Ramsey Cambridgeshire town council1 Ramsgate Kent town council Raunds Northamptonshire town council1 Rawtenstall Lancashire borough (1891–1974) Rayleigh Essex town council Reading Berkshire borough (1935–1974) Redcar North Yorkshire borough (1921–1967) Redruth Cornwall town council Reepham Norfolk town council Reigate Surrey borough (1863–1974) Richmond Greater London borough (1890–1965) Richmond North Yorkshire town council1 Ringwood Hampshire town council Ripley Derbyshire town council1 Ripon North Yorkshire town council1 Rochdale Greater Manchester borough (1856–1974) Rochester Kent borough (1835–1974)2 Rochford Essex market charter Romford Greater London borough (1937–1965) Romsey Hampshire town council1 Ross-on-Wye Herefordshire town council1 Rothbury Northumberland market charter Rotherham South Yorkshire borough (1871–1974) Rothwell Northamptonshire town council1 Rothwell West Yorkshire market charter Rowley Regis West Midlands borough (1933–1966) Royal Leamington Spa Warwickshire town council Royal Tunbridge Wells Kent borough (1888–1974) Royal Wootton Bassett Wiltshire town council Royston Hertfordshire town council1 Rugby Warwickshire borough (1932–1974) Rugeley Staffordshire town council Rushden Northamptonshire town council Ryde Isle of Wight town council Rye East Sussex town council1 Saffron Walden Essex town council1 St Austell Cornwall town council St Blaise Cornwall town council St Columb Major Cornwall town council St Helens Merseyside borough (1868–1974) St Ives Cambridgeshire town council1 St Ives Cornwall town council1 St Just-in-Penwith Cornwall town council1 St Mawes Cornwall market charter St Neots Cambridgeshire town council1 Salcombe Devon town council1 Sale Greater Manchester borough (1935–1974) Saltash Cornwall town council1 Sandbach Cheshire town council1 Sandhurst Berkshire town council Sandiacre Derbyshire market charter Sandown Isle of Wight town council Sandwich Kent town council1 Sandy Bedfordshire town council1 Sawbridgeworth Hertfordshire town council1 Saxmundham Suffolk town council1 Scarborough North Yorkshire borough (1835–1974) Scunthorpe Lincolnshire charter trustees Seaford East Sussex town council Seaham Durham town council Seaton Devon town council1 Sedbergh Cumbria market charter Selby North Yorkshire town council1 Selsey West Sussex town council Settle North Yorkshire town council Sevenoaks Kent town council1 Shaftesbury Dorset town council1 Shanklin Isle of Wight town council Shefford Bedfordshire town council Shepshed Leicestershire town council Shepton Mallet Somerset town council1 Sherborne Dorset town council1 Sheringham Norfolk town council1 Shifnal Shropshire town council Shildon Durham town council1 Shipston-on-Stour Warwickshire town council Shirebrook Derbyshire town council Shoreham-by-Sea West Sussex market charter Shrewsbury Shropshire borough (1935–1974) Sidmouth Devon town council1 Silloth Cumbria town council Silsden West Yorkshire town council1 Skegness Lincolnshire town council1 Skelmersdale Lancashire town council Skelton-in-Cleveland North Yorkshire market charter Skipton North Yorkshire town council1 Sleaford Lincolnshire town council1 Slough Berkshire borough (1838–1974) Smethwick West Midlands borough (1899–1966) Snaith and Cowick East Riding of Yorkshire town council Snodland Kent town council Soham Cambridgeshire town council Solihull West Midlands borough (1954–1974) Somerton Somerset town council South Cave East Riding of Yorkshire market charter South Elmsall West Yorkshire town council South Kirkby and Moorthorpe West Yorkshire town council South Molton Devon town council South Petherton Somerset market charter South Shields Tyne and Wear borough (1850–1974) South Woodham Ferrers Essex town council Southam Warwickshire town council Southall Greater London borough (1936–1965) Southborough Kent town council1 Southend-on-Sea Essex borough (1892–1974) Southgate Greater London borough (1933–1965) Southminster Essex market charter Southport Merseyside borough (1866–1974) Southsea Hampshire town council Southwell Nottinghamshire town council Southwick Hampshire market charter Southwold Suffolk town council1 Spalding Lincolnshire town council Spennymoor Durham town council1 Spilsby Lincolnshire town council Stafford Staffordshire borough (1835–1974) Staines-upon-Thames Surrey market charter Stainforth South Yorkshire town council Stalbridge Dorset town council Stalham Norfolk market charter Stalybridge Greater Manchester borough (1857–1974) Stamford Lincolnshire town council1 Stanley Durham town council Stanhope Durham market charter Stapleford Nottinghamshire town council Staveley Derbyshire town council1 Stevenage Hertfordshire market charter Steyning West Sussex market charter St Mary Cray Greater London market charter Stockport Greater Manchester borough (1835–1974) Stocksbridge South Yorkshire town council1 Stockton-on-Tees Durham/North Yorkshire borough (1835–1967) Stone Staffordshire town council1 Stonehouse Gloucestershire town council Stony Stratford Buckinghamshire town council Stotfold Bedfordshire town council Stourbridge West Midlands borough (1914–1974) Stourport-on-Severn Worcestershire town council1 Stowmarket Suffolk town council1 Stow-on-the-Wold Gloucestershire town council Stratford-upon-Avon Warwickshire town council1 Stretford Greater Manchester borough (1933–1974) Strood Kent market charter Stroud Gloucestershire town council Sturminster Newton Dorset town council Sudbury Suffolk town council1 Surbiton Greater London borough (1936–1965) Sutton Coldfield West Midlands market charter Swaffham Norfolk town council1 Swanage Dorset town council1 Swanley Kent town council Swanscombe and Greenhithe Kent town council1 Swindon Wiltshire borough (1900–1974) Syston Leicestershire town council Tadcaster North Yorkshire town council Tadley Hampshire town council Tamworth Staffordshire borough (1835–1974) Taunton Somerset borough (1885–1974) Tavistock Devon town council Teignmouth Devon town council1 Telscombe East Sussex town council Tenbury Wells Worcestershire town council Tenterden Kent town council1 Tetbury Gloucestershire town council Tewkesbury Gloucestershire town council1 Thame Oxfordshire town council1 Thatcham Berkshire town council Thaxted Essex market charter Thetford Norfolk town council1 Thirsk North Yorkshire town council Thornaby-on-Tees North Yorkshire town council Thornbury Gloucestershire town council Thorne South Yorkshire town council Thorpe St Andrew Norfolk town council Thrapston Northamptonshire town council Tickhill South Yorkshire town council1 Tidworth Wiltshire town council Tipton West Midlands borough (1938–1966) Tisbury Wiltshire town council Tiverton Devon town council1 Todmorden West Yorkshire town council1 Tonbridge Kent market charter Topsham Devon market charter Torpoint Devon town council1 Torquay Devon borough (1892–1974) Totnes Devon town council1 Tottenham Greater London borough (1934–1965) Totton and Eling Hampshire town council Tow Law Durham town council1 Towcester Northamptonshire town council Tring Hertfordshire town council1 Trowbridge Wiltshire town council1 Twickenham Greater London borough (1926–1965) Tynemouth Tyne and Wear borough (1849–1974) Uckfield East Sussex town council Ulverston Cumbria town council1 Uppingham Rutland town council Upton-upon-Severn Worcestershire town council Uttoxeter Staffordshire town council1 Uxbridge Greater London borough (1955–1965) Ventnor Isle of Wight town council1 Verwood Dorset town council Wadebridge Cornwall town council Wadhurst East Sussex market charter Wainfleet All Saints Lincolnshire town council Wallasey Merseyside borough (1910–1974) Wallsend Tyne and Wear borough (1901–1974) Wallingford Oxfordshire town council1 Walsall West Midlands borough (1835–1974) Waltham Abbey Essex town council1 Waltham Cross Hertfordshire market charter Walthamstow Greater London borough (1926–1965) Walton-on-Thames Surrey market charter Wantage Oxfordshire town council1 Ware Hertfordshire town council1 Wareham Dorset town council1 Warminster Wiltshire town council1 Warrington Cheshire borough (1847–1974) Warwick Warwickshire town council1 Watchet Somerset town council1 Watford Hertfordshire borough (1922–1974) Wath-upon-Dearne South Yorkshire market charter Watlington Oxfordshire market charter Watton Norfolk town council Wellingborough Northamptonshire market charter Wellington Shropshire town council Wellington Somerset town council1 Wells-next-the-Sea Norfolk town council1 Wem Shropshire town council Wembley Greater London borough (1937–1965) Wendover Buckinghamshire market charter West Bedlington Northumberland town council West Bromwich West Midlands borough (1882–1974) West Ham Greater London borough (1886–1965) West Malling Kent market charter West Mersea Essex town council1 West Tilbury Essex market charter Westbury Wiltshire town council1 Westerham Kent market charter Westhoughton Greater Manchester town council Weston-super-Mare Somerset town council Wetherby West Yorkshire town council Weybridge Surrey market charter Weymouth Dorset town council Whaley Bridge Derbyshire town council1 Whitby North Yorkshire town council1 Whitchurch Hampshire town council Whitchurch Shropshire town council Whitehaven Cumbria borough (1894–1974) Whitehill Hampshire town council Whitnash Warwickshire town council Whittlesey Cambridgeshire town council Whitworth Lancashire town council1 Wickham Hampshire market charter Wickwar Gloucestershire market charter Widnes Cheshire borough (1892–1974) Wigan Greater Manchester borough (1835–1974) Wigton Cumbria town council Willenhall West Midlands market charter Willesden Greater London borough (1933–1965) Wilton Wiltshire town council1 Wimbledon Greater London borough (1905–1965) Wimborne Minster Dorset town council1 Wincanton Somerset town council Winchcombe Gloucestershire town council Winchelsea East Sussex market charter Windermere Cumbria town council1 Windsor Berkshire borough (1835–1974) Winsford Cheshire town council1 Winslow Buckinghamshire town council Winterton Lincolnshire town council Wirksworth Derbyshire town council1 Wisbech Cambridgeshire town council1 Witham Essex town council Withernsea East Riding of Yorkshire town council Witney Oxfordshire town council1 Wiveliscombe Somerset town council Wivenhoe Essex town council1 Woburn Bedfordshire market charter Woburn Sands Buckinghamshire town council Woking Surrey market charter Wokingham Berkshire town council1 Wolsingham Durham market charter Wolverton and Greenleys Buckinghamshire town council Wood Green Greater London borough (1933–1965) Woodbridge Suffolk town council1 Woodley Berkshire town council Woodstock Oxfordshire town council1 Wooler Northumberland market charter Workington Cumbria town council Worksop Nottinghamshire charter trustees Worthing West Sussex borough (1890–1974) Wotton-under-Edge Gloucestershire town council Wragby Lincolnshire town council Wymondham Norfolk town council1 Yarm North Yorkshire town council Yarmouth Isle of Wight town council Yate Gloucestershire town council Yateley Hampshire town council Yeovil Somerset town council Designated new towns Main article: New towns in the United Kingdom Town Ceremonial county Status Basildon Essex new town (designated 1949) Bracknell Berkshire new town (designated 1949) Milton Keynes Buckinghamshire new town (designated 1967) Redditch Worcestershire new town (designated 1964) Telford Shropshire new town (designated 1968) Washington Tyne and Wear new town (designated 1964) Welwyn Garden City Hertfordshire new town (designated 1948)